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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931063/plant-flavones-enhance-antimicrobial-activity-of-respiratory-epithelial-cell-secretions-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#1
Benjamin M Hariri, Derek B McMahon, Bei Chen, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Robert J Lee
Flavones are a class of natural plant secondary metabolites that have anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects. Some flavones also activate the T2R14 bitter taste receptor, which is expressed in motile cilia of the sinonasal epithelium and activates innate immune nitric oxide (NO) production. Flavones may thus be potential therapeutics for respiratory infections. Our objective was to examine the anti-microbial effects of flavones on the common sinonasal pathogens Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, evaluating both planktonic and biofilm growth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927409/biological-and-physicochemical-properties-of-biosurfactants-produced-by-lactobacillus-jensenii-p6a-and-lactobacillus-gasseri-p65
#2
I M C Morais, A L Cordeiro, G S Teixeira, V S Domingues, R M D Nardi, A S Monteiro, R J Alves, E P Siqueira, V L Santos
BACKGROUND: Lactobacillus species produce biosurfactants that can contribute to the bacteria's ability to prevent microbial infections associated with urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts and the skin. Here, we described the biological and physicochemical properties of biosurfactants produced by Lactobacillus jensenii P6A and Lactobacillus gasseri P65. RESULTS: The biosurfactants produced by L. jensenii P6A and L. gasseri P65 reduced the water surface tension from 72 to 43...
September 19, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926981/antibiofilm-activity-and-mechanism-of-action-of-the-disinfectant-chloramine-t-on-candida-spp-and-its-toxicity-against-human-cells
#3
Gabriela Lacet Silva Ferreira, Pedro Luiz Rosalen, Larissa Rangel Peixoto, Ana Luiza Alves de Lima Pérez, Fabíola Galbiatti de Carvalho Carlo, Lúcio Roberto Cançado Castellano, Jefferson Muniz de Lima, Irlan Almeida Freires, Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima, Ricardo Dias de Castro
We evaluated the antifungal and anti-biofilm activity, mechanism of action and cytotoxicity of chloramine T trihydrate (CAT) against Candida spp. The Minimum Inhibitory and Fungicidal Concentrations (MIC/MFC) of CAT were determined. Changes in CAT-treated C. albicans growth kinetics and micromorphology were evaluated, as well as the mechanism of action, and its effects on biofilm. Cytotoxicity was assessed by the hemolysis method. The data were analyzed by inferential statistics (p ≤ 0.05). CAT showed antifungal activity against all strains, with MIC values ranging between 1...
September 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922057/the-dietary-food-components-capric-acid-and-caprylic-acid-inhibit-virulence-factors-in-candida-albicans-through-multitargeting
#4
Ashwini Jadhav, Supriya Mortale, Shivkrupa Halbandge, Priyanka Jangid, Rajendra Patil, Wasudev Gade, Kiran Kharat, Sankunny Mohan Karuppayil
Capric acid and caprylic acid are the dietary food components. They are found to inhibit the virulence factors like morphogenesis, adhesion, and biofilm formation in the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Our study demonstrated that yeast-to-hyphal signal transduction pathways were affected by capric acid and caprylic acid. The expression profile of genes associated with serum-induced morphogenesis showed reduced expressions of Cdc35, Hwp1, Hst7, and Cph1 by the treatment with both the fatty acids. Cell elongation gene, Ece1, was surprisingly downregulated by 5208-fold by the treatment of caprylic acid...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919715/in-vitro-inhibitory-activities-of-magnolol-against-candida-spp
#5
Peiru Zhou, Jingya Fu, Hong Hua, Xiaosong Liu
Candida spp. cause various infections involving the skin, mucosa, deep tissues, and even life-threatening candidemia. They are regarded as an important pathogen of nosocomial bloodstream infection, with a high mortality rate. As a result of prolonged exposure to azoles, the therapeutic failure associated with azoles resistance has become a serious challenge in clinical situations. Therefore, novel, alternative antifungals are required urgently. In the present study, the CLSI M-27A broth microdilution method and the 2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay were used to evaluate the antifungal effects of magnolol against various standard Candida strains in planktonic mode and biofilm formation, respectively...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912344/parasex-generates-phenotypic-diversity-de-novo-and-impacts-drug-resistance-and-virulence-in-candida-albicans
#6
Matthew P Hirakawa, Darius E Chyou, Denis Huang, Aaron R Slan, Richard J Bennett
Candida albicans is a diploid fungus that is a frequent cause of mucosal and systemic infections in humans. This species exhibits an unusual parasexual cycle in which mating produces tetraploid cells that undergo a non-meiotic program of concerted chromosome loss to return to a diploid or aneuploid state. In this work, we used a multipronged approach to examine the capacity of parasex to generate diversity in C. albicans First, we compared the phenotypic properties of 32 genotyped progeny and observed wide-ranging differences in fitness, filamentation, biofilm formation and virulence...
September 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911043/multidrug-resistant-candida-epidemiology-molecular-mechanisms-and-treatment
#7
Maiken Cavling Arendrup, Thomas F Patterson
Invasive Candida infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized and immunocompromised or critically ill patients. A limited number of antifungal agents from only a few drug classes are available to treat patients with these serious infections. Resistance can be either intrinsic or acquired. Resistance mechanisms are not exchanged between Candida; thus, acquired resistance either emerges in response to an antifungal selection pressure in the individual patient or, more rarely, occur due to horizontal transmission of resistant strains between patients...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906457/antibacterial-properties-of-flavonoids-from-kino-of-the-eucalypt-tree-corymbia-torelliana
#8
Motahareh Nobakht, Stephen J Trueman, Helen M Wallace, Peter R Brooks, Klrissa J Streeter, Mohammad Katouli
Traditional medicine and ecological cues can both help to reveal bioactive natural compounds. Indigenous Australians have long used kino from trunks of the eucalypt tree, Corymbia citriodora, in traditional medicine. A closely related eucalypt, C. torelliana, produces a fruit resin with antimicrobial properties that is highly attractive to stingless bees. We tested the antimicrobial activity of extracts from kino of C. citriodora, C. torelliana × C. citriodora, and C. torelliana against three Gram-negative and two Gram-positive bacteria and the unicellular fungus, Candida albicans...
September 14, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903607/candida-endocarditis-systematic-literature-review-from-1997-to-2014-and-analysis-of-29-cases-from-the-italian-study-of-endocarditis
#9
Simone Giuliano, Maurizio Guastalegname, Alessandro Russo, Marco Falcone, Veronica Ravasio, Marco Rizzi, Matteo Bassetti, Pierluigi Viale, Maria Bruna Pasticci, Emanuele Durante-Mangoni, Mario Venditti
Candida Endocarditis (CE) is a deadly disease. It is of paramount importance to assess risk factors for acquisition of both Candida native (NVE) and prosthetic (PVE) valve endocarditis and relate clinical features and treatment strategies with the outcome of the disease. Areas covered: We searched the literature using the Pubmed database. Cases of CE from the Italian Study on Endocarditis (SEI) were also included. Overall, 140 cases of CE were analyzed. Patients with a history of abdominal surgery and antibiotic exposure had higher probability of developing NVE than PVE...
September 14, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901663/antifungal-and-mechanical-properties-of-tissue-conditioner-containing-plant-derived-component-an-in-vitro-study
#10
Yoshihito Naito, Hiromichi Yumoto, Kiran Kumar Hs, Takashi Matsuo, Katsuhiko Hirota, Yoichiro Miyake, Kan Nagao, Yoritoki Tomotake, Ryo Jimbo, Tetsuo Ichikawa
PURPOSE: To evaluate the antifungal activity and mechanical properties of a novel antifungal tissue conditioner containing Juncus powder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Juncus powder was mixed with GC tissue conditioner at concentrations of 2.5%, 5.0%, and 10.0% by mass. The cylindrical specimens of Juncus-mixed tissue conditioner (dimensions: 10 mm in diameter and 2 and 6 mm in height for antimicrobial and mechanical tests, respectively) were prepared. The specimens placed on the bottom of the 24-well tissue culture plate were cultured with Candida albicans CAD1 for 2 and 4 days...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900419/enhanced-killing-and-antibiofilm-activity-of-encapsulated-cinnamaldehyde-against-candida-albicans
#11
Shahper N Khan, Shakir Khan, Jawed Iqbal, Rosina Khan, Asad U Khan
Candida sp. impelled opportunistic infection in immune-compromised patients ensuing from asymptomatic colonization to pathogenic forms. Moreover, slow spread of Candida species inducing refractory mucosal and invasive infections brings acute resistance to antifungal drugs. Hence, here we probed the effect of encapsulated preparation of cinnamaldehyde (CNMA) in multilamellar liposomes (ML) against Candida albicans. The efficacy of ML-CNMA against Candida biofilm was assessed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, as well as light microscopy and its percent inhibition, was determined by XTT [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] and crystal violet assay...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893778/a-protocol-for-identifying-natural-agents-that-selectively-affect-adhesion-thickness-architecture-cellular-phenotypes-ecm-and-human-white-cell-impenetrability-of-candida-albicans-biofilms
#12
Yang-Nim Park, Thyagarajan Srikantha, Karla J Daniels, Melissa R Jacob, Ameeta K Agarwal, Xing-Cong Li, David R Soll
In screening natural plant extracts for antifungal activity, assessing the effects on growth of cells in suspension or in the wells of microtiter plates is expedient. However, microorganisms, including Candida albicans, grow in nature as biofilms, organized cellular communities with complex architecture, capable of conditioning their microenvironment, communicating, and excluding low and high molecular weight molecules, and white blood cells. Here, a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) protocol is described for testing the effects of large numbers of agents on biofilm development...
September 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893777/modulation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-response-to-antimicrobials-by-the-candida-albicans-quorum-sensing-molecule-farnesol
#13
Eric F Kong, Christina Tsui, Sona Kucharíková, Patrick Van Dijck, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk
In microbial biofilms, microorganisms utilize secreted signaling chemical molecules to coordinate their collective behavior. Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule secreted by the fungal species Candida albicans, shown to play a central physiological role during fungal biofilm growth. Our pervious in vitro and in vivo studies characterized an intricate interaction between C. albicans and the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, as these species co-exist in biofilm. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of farnesol on S...
September 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888760/an-in-vitro-investigation-of-indigenous-south-african-medicinal-plants-used-to-treat-oral-infections
#14
S Akhalwaya, S van Vuuren, M Patel
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Over a 120 South African medicinal plants are used for the treatment of oral diseases. Despite the vast collection of antimicrobial studies being done on South African plants, there is still limited research on pathogens associated with oral infections. In consultation with the available ethnobotanical literature, this study investigates the antimicrobial efficacy of some South African medicinal plants against oral pathogens. AIM OF THE STUDY: To provide a detailed account of the antimicrobial properties of selected South African medicinal plants used traditionally to treat oral infections...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870262/virulence-factors-antifungal-susceptibility-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-azole-resistance-among-candida-parapsilosis-complex-isolates-recovered-from-clinical-specimens
#15
Sourour Neji, Ines Hadrich, Houaida Trabelsi, Salma Abbes, Fatma Cheikhrouhou, Hayet Sellami, Fattouma Makni, Ali Ayadi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the biofilm formation, the extracellular enzymatic activities of 182 clinical isolates of the Candida parapsilosis complex. METHODS: Molecular identification of the C. parapsilosis species complex was performed using PCR RFLP of SADH gene and PCR sequencing of ITS region. The susceptibility of ours isolates to antifungal agents and molecular mechanisms underlying azole resistance were evaluated. RESULTS: 63...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868587/preparation-characterization-and-toxicity-evaluation-of-amphotericin-b-loaded-mpeg-pcl-micelles-and-its-application-for-buccal-tablets
#16
Peipei Zhang, Xiaofeng Yang, Yanhao He, Zhuo Chen, Bing Liu, Cota Segura Emesto, Guangde Yang, Weirong Wang, Jiye Zhang, Rong Lin
Oral candidiasis or thrush is a fungal infection due to Candida albicans, causing discomfort in areas inside mouth or tongue. The clinical application of antifungal reagent amphotericin B (AMB), which is believed to offer a better treatment for oral candidiasis, is greatly compromised by its toxicities (mainly nephrotoxicity) and poor solubility. In order to overcome these issues, we characterized AMB-loaded MPEG-PCL micelles in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the antifungal activities of AMB/MPEG-PCL micelles-loaded buccal tablet were also evaluated in vitro...
September 3, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866163/synergistic-effects-of-woodfordia-fruticosa-gold-nanoparticles-in-preventing-microbial-adhesion-and-accelerating-wound-healing-in-wistar-albino-rats-in-vivo
#17
Navdeep Raghuwanshi, Poonam Kumari, Amit Kumar Srivastava, Priya Vashisth, Tara Chand Yadav, Ramasare Prasad, Vikas Pruthi
Therapeutic effectiveness of biogenically synthesized Woodfordia fruticosa nano-gold particles (WfAuNPs) has been claimed in this study which prevents microbial adhesion and enhanced wound healing potential on Wistar albino rats. The synthesized WfAuNPs were characterized using several biophysical techniques such as UV-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-vis), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Zeta Potential, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis...
November 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859314/the-role-of-multispecies-social-interactions-in-shaping-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pathogenicity-in-the-cystic-fibrosis-lung
#18
Siobhán O'Brien, Joanne L Fothergill
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, it is now recognised that a diverse microbial community exists in the airways comprising aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as fungi and viruses. This rich soup of microorganisms provides ample opportunity for interspecies interactions, particularly when considering secreted compounds. Here, we discuss how P. aeruginosa-secreted products can have community-wide effects, with the potential to ultimately shape microbial community dynamics within the lung...
August 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851227/caspofungin-on-arget-atrp-grafted-phema-polymers-enhancement-and-selectivity-of-prevention-of-attachment-of-candida-albicans
#19
Thomas D Michl, Carla Giles, Piotr Mocny, Kathryn Futrega, Michael R Doran, Harm-Anton Klok, Hans J Griesser, Bryan R Coad
There is a need for coatings for biomedical devices and implants that can prevent the attachment of fungal pathogens while allowing human cells and tissue to appose without cytotoxicity. Here, the authors study whether a poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (PHEMA) coating can suppress attachment and biofilm formation by Candida albicans and whether caspofungin terminally attached to surface-tethered polymeric linkers can provide additional benefits. The multistep coating scheme first involved the plasma polymerization of ethanol, followed by the attachment of α-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BiBB) onto surface hydroxyl groups of the plasma polymer layer...
August 29, 2017: Biointerphases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844452/characterization-of-virulence-factors-of-vaginal-and-anal-isolates-of-candida-albicans-sequentially-obtained-from-patients-with-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-in-north-east-brazil
#20
M Araújo Paulo de Medeiros, A P Vieira de Melo, A M Maia de Sousa, W P Silva-Rocha, E Pipolo Milan, G Maranhão Chaves
In order to better understand the pathogenesis of VVC, focusing on the role of C. albicans virulence factors in triggering this infirmity; we evaluated four virulence factors of 62 clinical isolates of C. albicans sequentially obtained from the vagina and anus of patients with sporadic and recurrent VVC. Virulence factors were phenotypically evaluated in vitro, including: adhesion capacity to epithelial cells obtained from healthy individuals, morphogenesis in the presence of fetal bovine serum, biofilm formation in polystyrene microtiter plates and proteinase activity using bovine serum albumin...
August 24, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
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