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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902776/inhibition-of-candida-albicans-biofilm-formation-by-the-synthetic-lactoferricin-derived-peptide-hlf1-11
#1
Paola Morici, Roberta Fais, Cosmeri Rizzato, Arianna Tavanti, Antonella Lupetti
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the synthetic peptide hLF1-11 against biofilm produced by clinical isolates of Candida albicans with different fluconazole susceptibility. The antibiofilm activity of the peptide hLF1-11 was assessed in terms of reduction of biofilm cellular density, metabolic activity and sessile cell viability. The extent of morphogenesis in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms was also investigated microscopically. Transcription levels of genes related to cell adhesion, hyphal development and extracellular matrix production were analysed by qRT-PCR in hLF1-11 treated and untreated biofilms...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900840/peptoid-efficacy-against-polymicrobial-biofilms-determined-by-using-propidium-monoazide-modified-quantitative-pcr
#2
Yu Luo, Hannah L Bolt, Gabriela A Eggimann, Danny F McAuley, Ronan McMullan, Tanya Curran, Mei Zhou, Professor Colin A B Jahoda, Steven L Cobb, Fionnuala T Lundy
Biofilms containing Candida albicans are responsible for a wide variety of clinical infections. The protective effects of the biofilm matrix, the low metabolic activity of microorganisms within a biofilm and their high mutation rate, significantly enhance the resistance of biofilms to conventional antimicrobial treatments. Peptoids are peptide-mimics that share many features of host defence antimicrobial peptides but have increased resistance to proteases and therefore have better stability in vivo. The activity of a library of peptoids was tested against monospecies and polymicrobial bacterial/fungal biofilms...
November 7, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897199/hydroxychavicol-a-phytochemical-targeting-cutaneous-fungal-infections
#3
Intzar Ali, Naresh Kumar Satti, Prabhu Dutt, Rajendra Prasad, Inshad Ali Khan
The present study was designed to investigate the potency of hydroxychavicol on selected cutaneous human pathogenic fungi by the use of in vitro and in vivo assays and mechanistic characterization along with toxicological effects. Hydroxychavicol consistently displayed a fungicidal effect against all fungal species tested. Inoculum concentrations over the range of 10(4) to 10(7) CFU/ml did not significantly alter its antifungal potential and time-kill curve results revealed concentration-dependent killing...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896598/bacterial-and-fungal-biofilm-formation-on-anodized-titanium-alloys-with-fluorine
#4
Concepcion Perez-Jorge, Maria-Angeles Arenas, Ana Conde, Juan-Manuel Hernández-Lopez, Juan-Jose de Damborenea, Steve Fisher, Alessandra M Agostinho Hunt, Jaime Esteban, Garth James
Orthopaedic device-related infections are closely linked to biofilm formation on the surfaces of these devices. Several modified titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) surfaces doped with fluorine were studied in order to evaluate the influence of these modifications on biofilm formation by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as a yeast. The biofilm studies were performed according to the standard test method approved by ASTM (Designation: E2196-12) using the Rotating Disk Reactor. Four types of Ti-6Al-4V samples were tested; chemically polished (CP), two types of nanostructures containing fluorine, nanoporous (NP) and nanotubular (NT), and non-nanostructured fluorine containing samples (fluoride barrier layers, FBL)...
January 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895625/evaluation-of-virulence-factors-in-vitro-resistance-to-osmotic-stress-and-antifungal-susceptibility-of-candida-tropicalis-isolated-from-the-coastal-environment-of-northeast-brazil
#5
Diana L Zuza-Alves, Sayama S T Q de Medeiros, Luanda B F C de Souza, Walicyranison P Silva-Rocha, Elaine C Francisco, Maria C B de Araújo, Reginaldo G Lima-Neto, Rejane P Neves, Analy S de Azevedo Melo, Guilherme M Chaves
Several studies have been developed regarding human health risks associated with the recreational use of beaches contaminated with domestic sewage. These wastes contain various micro-organisms, including Candida tropicalis. In this context, the objective of this study was to characterize C. tropicalis isolates from the sandy beach of Ponta Negra, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, regarding the expression of in vitro virulence factors, adaptation to osmotic stress and susceptibility to antifungal drugs. We analyzed 62 environmental isolates and observed a great variation among them for the various virulence factors evaluated...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888610/camp-independent-signal-pathways-stimulate-hyphal-morphogenesis-in-candida-albicans
#6
Salvatore M Parrino, Haoyu Si, Shamoon Naseem, Kevin Groudan, Justin Gardin, James B Konopka
The fungal pathogen Candida albicans can transition from budding to hyphal growth, which promotes biofilm formation and invasive growth into tissues. Stimulation of adenylyl cyclase to form cAMP induces hyphal morphogenesis. The failure of cells lacking adenylyl cyclase (cyr1Δ) to form hyphae has suggested that cAMP signaling is essential for hyphal growth. However, cyr1Δ mutants also grow slowly and have defects in morphogenesis, making it unclear whether hyphal inducers must stimulate cAMP, or if normal basal levels of cAMP are required to maintain cellular health needed for hyphal growth...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879329/phenotypic-profiling-reveals-that-candida-albicans-opaque-cells-represent-a-metabolically-specialized-cell-state-compared-to-default-white-cells
#7
Iuliana V Ene, Matthew B Lohse, Adrian V Vladu, Joachim Morschhäuser, Alexander D Johnson, Richard J Bennett
: The white-opaque switch is a bistable, epigenetic transition affecting multiple traits in Candida albicans including mating, immunogenicity, and niche specificity. To compare how the two cell states respond to external cues, we examined the fitness, phenotypic switching, and filamentation properties of white cells and opaque cells under 1,440 different conditions at 25°C and 37°C. We demonstrate that white and opaque cells display striking differences in their integration of metabolic and thermal cues, so that the two states exhibit optimal fitness under distinct conditions...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878654/coating-polypropylene-surfaces-with-protease-weakens-the-adhesion-and-increases-the-dispersion-of-candida-albicans-cells
#8
Eugenio Spadoni Andreani, Federica Villa, Francesca Cappitelli, Anna Krasowska, Piotr Biniarz, Marcin Łukaszewicz, Francesco Secundo
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the ability of the proteases, subtilisin and α-chymotrypsin (aCT), to inhibit the adhesion of Candida albicans biofilm to a polypropylene surface. RESULTS: The proteases were immobilized on plasma-treated polypropylene by covalently linking them with either glutaraldehyde (GA) or N'-diisopropylcarbodiimide (DIC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). The immobilization did not negatively affect the enzyme activity and in the case of subtilisin, the activity was up to 640% higher than that of the free enzyme when using N-acetyl phenylalanine ethyl ester as the substrate...
November 23, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870871/functional-genomic-analysis-of-candida-albicans-adherence-reveals-a-key-role-for-the-arp2-3-complex-in-cell-wall-remodelling-and-biofilm-formation
#9
Jason A Lee, Nicole Robbins, Jinglin L Xie, Troy Ketela, Leah E Cowen
Fungal biofilms are complex, structured communities that can form on surfaces such as catheters and other indwelling medical devices. Biofilms are of particular concern with Candida albicans, one of the leading opportunistic fungal pathogens of humans. C. albicans biofilms include yeast and filamentous cells that are surrounded by an extracellular matrix, and they are intrinsically resistant to antifungal drugs such that resolving biofilm infections often requires surgery to remove the contaminated device. C...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856271/antimicrobial-antitrypanosomal-and-antibiofilm-activity-of-equisetum-hyemale
#10
Camilla Filippi Dos Santos Alves, Pauline Cordenonsi Bonez, Marcia de Ebling de Souza, Ritiel Corrêa da Cruz, Aline Augusti Boligon, Mariana Piana, Thiele Facim Brum, Grazielle Guidolin Rossi, Roberta da Silva Jesus, Thirssa Helena Grando, Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro, Marli Matiko Anraku de Campos, Janice Luering Giongo, Roberto Christ Vianna Santos
This study evaluates, for the first time, the antibiofilm, antimicrobial and antiparasitic potential of crude extract and fractions of stems of Equisetum hyemale against several infectious agents (bacteria, fungi, Mycobacterium and Trypanosomes) by broth microdilution technique and investigates the phenolic composition of the plant by high performance liquid chromatography. The crude extract and fractions showed antimicrobial activity, as they were capable of inhibiting the growth of bacteria in minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 52...
November 14, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854038/biosynthesis-of-glycomonoterpenes-to-attenuate-quorum-sensing-associated-virulence-in-bacteria
#11
Amrita Patil, Kasturi Joshi-Navre, Ruchira Mukherji, Asmita Prabhune
The acquisition of multidrug resistance in bacteria has become a bigger threat of late, mainly due to the bacterial signaling phenomenon, quorum sensing (QS). QS, among a population of bacteria, initiates the formation of biofilms and offers myriad advantages to bacteria. Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in biofilm-producing bacteria has motivated efforts toward finding new alternatives to these traditional antimicrobials. In the present study, we report the increased solubility and additional quorum quenching as well as biofilm disruption activity of glyco-derivatives of monoterpenes (citral and citronellal)...
November 16, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853317/high-mannose-specific-lectin-msl-mediates-key-interactions-of-the-vaginal-lactobacillus-plantarum-isolate-cmpg5300
#12
Shweta Malik, Mariya I Petrova, Nicole C E Imholz, Tine L A Verhoeven, Sam Noppen, Els J M Van Damme, Sandra Liekens, Jan Balzarini, Dominique Schols, Jos Vanderleyden, Sarah Lebeer
To characterize the interaction potential of the human vaginal isolate Lactobacillus plantarum CMPG5300, its genome was mined for genes encoding lectin-like proteins. cmpg5300.05_29 was identified as the gene encoding a putative mannose-binding lectin. Phenotypic analysis of a gene knock-out mutant of cmpg5300.05_29 showed that expression of this gene is important for auto-aggregation, adhesion to the vaginal epithelial cells, biofilm formation and binding to mannosylated glycans. Purification of the predicted lectin domain of Cmpg5300...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851809/a-genome-wide-transcriptional-analysis-of-yeast-hyphal-transition-in-candida-tropicalis-by-rna-seq
#13
Yuan Wu, Yin-Hu Li, Shuan-Bao Yu, Wen-Ge Li, Xiao-Shu Liu, Lei Zhao, Jin-Xing Lu
Candida tropicalis is considered as the leading pathogen in nosocomial fungemia and hepatosplenic fungal infections in patients with cancer, particularly in leukemia. The yeast-filament transition is required for virulent infection by Candida. Several studies have explored the genome-wide transcription profile of Candida, however, no report on the transcriptional profile of C. tropicalis under yeast-filament transition has been published. In this study, the transcriptomes of three C. tropicalis isolates with different adhesion and biofilm formation abilities, identified in our previous studies, were analyzed in both the yeast and filament states using RNA-Seq...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833605/lactobacillus-fermentum-atcc-23271-displays-in-vitro-inhibitory-activities-against-candida-spp
#14
Monique S do Carmo, Francisca M F Noronha, Mariana O Arruda, Ênnio P da Silva Costa, Maria R Q Bomfim, Andrea S Monteiro, Thiago A F Ferro, Elizabeth S Fernandes, Jorge A Girón, Valério Monteiro-Neto
Lactobacilli are involved in the microbial homeostasis in the female genital tract. Due to the high prevalence of many bacterial diseases of the female genital tract and the resistance of microorganisms to various antimicrobial agents, alternative means to control these infections are necessary. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the probiotic properties of well-characterized Lactobacillus species, including L. acidophilus (ATCC 4356), L. brevis (ATCC 367), L. delbrueckii ssp. delbrueckii (ATCC 9645), L. fermentum (ATCC 23271), L...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830437/temporal-profile-of-biofilm-formation-gene-expression-and-virulence-analysis-in-candida-albicans-strains
#15
Patrícia Pimentel de Barros, Rodnei Dennis Rossoni, Felipe De Camargo Ribeiro, Juliana Campos Junqueira, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge
The characterization of Candida albicans strains with different degrees of virulence became very useful to understand the mechanisms of fungal virulence. Then, the objective of this study was to assess and compare the temporal profiles of biofilms formation, gene expression of ALS1, ALS3, HWP1, BCR1, EFG1, TEC1, SAP5, PLB2 and LIP9 and virulence in Galleria mellonella of C. albicans ATCC18804 and a clinical sample isolated from an HIV-positive patient (CA60). Although the CFU/mL counting was higher in biofilms formed in vitro by ATCC strain, the temporal profile of the analysis of the transcripts of the C...
November 9, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825678/microbiological-and-clinical-assessment-of-the-abutment-and-non-abutment-teeth-of-partial-removable-denture-wearers
#16
Luciana Costa, Cássio do Nascimento, Valéria Oliveira Pagnano de Souza, Vinícius Pedrazzi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was assessing the changes in both clinical and microbiological parameters of healthy individuals after rehabilitation with removable partial denture (RPD). DESIGN: 11 women received unilateral or bilateral free-end saddle RPD in the mandibular arch. Clinical and microbiological parameters of abutment, non-abutment, and antagonist teeth were assessed at baseline (RPD installation) and after 7, 30, 90, and 180days of function. The Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique was used to identify and quantify up to 43 different microbial species from subgingival biofilm samples...
November 3, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820691/bacterial-colonization-in-the-marginal-region-of-ceramic-restorations-effects-of-different-cement-removal-methods-and-polishing
#17
Smb Pereira, L C Anami, C A Pereira, Roa Souza, K Z Kantorski, M A Bottino, Aoc Jorge, L F Valandro
This study evaluated the effects of excess cement removal techniques, with or without subsequent polishing, on biofilm formation and micromorphology in the marginal region of the tooth/restoration. From bovine teeth, 96 dentin blocks (4 × 8 × 2 mm) were produced, molded, and reproduced in type IV gypsum, on which 96 pressed ceramic blocks (Vita PM9, Vita Zahnfabrik; 4 × 8 × 2 mm) were produced via the lost wax technique. The dentin blocks and their respective ceramic blocks were cemented with a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U200, 3M ESPE), and cement excess was removed from the margin using four different techniques, followed or not by polishing with silicone rubber tips: MBr, removal with microbrush and photoactivation; MBr-Pol, MBr + polishing; Br, removal with brush and photoactivation; Br-Pol, Br + polishing; Photo-Expl, 5 seconds of initial photoactivation, removal with explorer, and final curing; Photo-Expl-Pol, Photo-Expl + polishing; Photo-SB, 5 seconds of initial photoactivation, removal with scalpel, and final curing; and Photo-SB-Pol, Photo-SB + polishing...
November 2016: Operative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815078/ziziphora-tenuior-l-essential-oil-from-dana-biosphere-reserve-southern-jordan-chemical-characterization-and-assessment-of-biological-activities
#18
M S Abu-Darwish, C Cabral, M J Gonçalves, C Cavaleiro, M T Cruz, M Paoli, F Tomi, T Efferth, L Salgueiro
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGIC RELEVANCE: Ziziphora tenuior L. (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant in Jordan, which is included in various antimicrobial, antiseptic, expectorant and wound healing preparations. It is used for the treatment of cough, stomach ache, dysentery, fever, uterus infection, gut inflammation and painful menstruation. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the chemical composition of the essential oil of Z. tenuior originated from southern Jordan and its antifungal effects against several yeasts...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812615/porosity-of-temporary-denture-soft-liners-containing-antifungal-agents
#19
Jozely Francisca Mello Lima, Janaína Gomes Maciel, Juliana Hotta, Ana Carolina Pero Vizoto, Heitor Marques Honório, Vanessa Migliorini Urban, Karin Hermana Neppelenbroek
Objective: To evaluate the porosity of a tissue conditioner (Softone) and a temporary resilient liner (Trusoft) modified by minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents for Candida albicans biofilm. Material and Methods: The porosity was measured by water absorption, based on exclusion of the plasticizer effect. Initially, it was determined by sorption isotherms that the adequate storage solution for specimens (65×10×3.3 mm) of both materials was 50% anhydrous calcium chloride (S50)...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809313/large-scale-production-and-isolation-of-candida-biofilm-extracellular-matrix
#20
Robert Zarnowski, Hiram Sanchez, David R Andes
The extracellular matrix of biofilm is unique to the biofilm lifestyle, and it has key roles in community survival. A complete understanding of the biochemical nature of the matrix is integral to the understanding of the roles of matrix components. This knowledge is a first step toward the development of novel therapeutics and diagnostics to address persistent biofilm infections. Many of the assay methods needed for refined matrix composition analysis require milligram amounts of material that is separated from the cellular components of these complex communities...
December 2016: Nature Protocols
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