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Candida biofilm

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335605/opportunistic-sampling-of-roadkill-as-an-entry-point-to-accessing-natural-products-assembled-by-bacteria-associated-with-non-anthropoidal-mammalian-microbiomes
#1
Jeremy L Motley, Blake W Stamps, Carter A Mitchell, Alec T Thompson, Jayson Cross, Jianlan You, Douglas R Powell, Bradley S Stevenson, Robert H Cichewicz
Few secondary metabolites have been reported from mammalian microbiome bacteria despite the large numbers of diverse taxa that inhabit warm-blooded higher vertebrates. As a means to investigate natural products from these microorganisms, an opportunistic sampling protocol was developed, which focused on exploring bacteria isolated from roadkill mammals. This initiative was made possible through the establishment of a newly created discovery pipeline, which couples laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LAESIMS) with bioassay testing, to target biologically active metabolites from microbiome-associated bacteria...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326152/candida-albicans-alters-the-bacterial-microbiome-of-early-in-vitro-oral-biofilms
#2
M M Janus, W Crielaard, C M C Volgenant, M H van der Veen, B W Brandt, B P Krom
The yeast Candida albicans is an oral commensal microorganism, occurring in the oral cavity of 50-70% of healthy individuals. Its effect on oral ecology has mostly been studied using dual-species models, which disregards the complex nature of oral biofilms. The aim of this study was to culture C. albicans in a complex model to study its effect on oral biofilms. Biofilms, inoculated using pooled stimulated saliva with or without addition of C. albicans, were grown under anaerobic, aerobic, or aerobic +5% CO2 conditions...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322109/tio2-nanorod-arrays-as-a-photocatalytic-coating-enhanced-antifungal-and-antibacterial-efficiency-of-ti-substrates
#3
Lu Jia, Jichuan Qiu, Lingqian Du, Zhi Li, Hong Liu, Shaohua Ge
AIM: To investigate the photocatalytic inactivation of fungi and bacteria mediated by TiO2 nanorod arrays (TNRs). MATERIALS & METHODS: The features of TNRs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and contact angle measurement. The antimicrobial efficiency was detected on biofilm and planktonic forms of Candida albicans, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis by crystal violet and XTT (2,3-bis [2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-caboxanilide) assay, confocal laser scanning microscope and colony-forming assay...
March 21, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321957/activity-of-exogenous-tyrosol-in-combination-with-caspofungin-and-micafungin-against-candida-parapsilosis-sessile-cells
#4
Renátó Kovács, Zoltán Tóth, Fruzsina Nagy, Lajos Daróczi, Aliz Bozó, László Majoros
AIMS: Fungal quorum sensing molecules may have an inhibitory effect as adjuvant against Candida biofilms. Therefore, in vitro activity of caspofungin and micafungin was evaluated against Candida parapsilosis biofilms in the presence of tyrosol. METHODS AND RESULTS: Interactions were assessed using fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) determination, metabolic activity-based time-kill experiments, and scanning electron microscopy. Tyrosol caused 1- to 16-fold and 2- to 32-fold decrease in median caspofungin and micafungin MICs, respectively...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320713/antimicrobial-percutaneous-nephrostomy-catheters-for-the-prevention-of-renal-infections-in-vitro-studies
#5
Nylev Vargas-Cruz, Ruth A Reitzel, Joel Rosenblatt, Mohamed Jamal, Ariel D Szvalb, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Ray Hachem, Issam Raad
Purpose - Percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) catheters are the primary method for draining ureters obstructed by malignancy and preventing a decline of the renal function. However, PCN-related infections such as pyelonephritis and urosepsis remain a significant concern. Currently no antimicrobial PCNs are available for preventing infectious complications. Vascular catheters impregnated with Minocycline/Rifampin (M/R) and M/R with Chlorhexidine coating (M/R+CHD) have previously demonstrated antimicrobial activity...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319414/preparation-and-characterization-of-zno-nanoparticles-coated-by-chitosan-linoleic-acid-fungal-growth-and-biofilm-assay
#6
S Barad, M Roudbary, A Nasrollahi Omran, M Porgham Daryasari
INTRODUCTION: This study has been carried out on reviewing the use of new synthetic component of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) coated by Chitosan-linoleic acid (CS-LA) and to assess Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nanoparticles on clinical samples and biofilm formation in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At first the synthesized ZnO NPs coated by CS-LA were identified with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis (FTIR)...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317391/in-vitro-inhibitory-effects-of-farnesol-and-interactions-between-farnesol-and-antifungals-against-biofilms-of-candida-albicans-resistant-strains
#7
Jinping Xia, Fang Qian, Wenqian Xu, Zhenzhen Zhang, Xin Wei
Antifungal resistance is a serious problem in clinical infections. Farnesol, which is a potential antifungal agent against biofilms formed by Candida albicans resistant strains (a fluconazole-resistant isolate derived from SC5314 and two clinical Candida resistant isolates), was investigated in this study. The inhibitory effects of farnesol on biofilms were examined by XTT assay. The morphological changes and biofilm thicknesses were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, respectively...
March 20, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316949/evaluation-of-the-role-of-probiotics-in-endodontic-treatment-a-preliminary-study
#8
Aarti Bohora, Sharad Kokate
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The principal goal of endodontics is the prevention of periapical infection. Acute and chronic apical periodontitis occur due to the persistence of pathogenic microorganisms such as Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans harboring the root canal systems of the teeth. The concept of the use of probiotics in addressing endodontic disease is new and has not been studied adequately. On the basis of the success of probiotics in periodontal treatment, this preliminary work was performed (a) to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of probiotics against common endodontic pathogens, i...
January 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314049/biological-evaluation-of-3-hydroxybenzyl-alcohol-an-extrolite-produced-by-aspergillus-nidulans-strain-kzr-132
#9
C Ganesh Kumar, Poornima Mongolla, Sujitha Pombala, Shiva Bandi, K Suresh Babu, Kallaganti Venkata Siva Ramakrishna
AIMS: The aim of the study was to purify and characterize a bioactive compound from Aspergillus nidulans strain KZR-132 and its biological evaluation. METHODS AND RESULTS: A bioactive extolite was purified from Aspergillus nidulans strain KZR-132, and its chemical structure was elucidated as 3-hydroxylbenzyl alcohol (3-HBA) based on (1) H and (13) C NMR, FT-IR and mass spectroscopic analysis. The antimicrobial efficacy of 3-HBA was established against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and different Candida strains...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303823/bacterial-and-fungal-biofilm-formation-on-contact-lenses-and-their-susceptibility-to-lens-care-solutions
#10
Siddharth Kackar, Ethel Suman, M Shashidhar Kotian
BACKGROUND: Microbial biofilm formation on contact lenses and lens storage cases may be a risk factor for contact lens-associated corneal infections. Various types of contact lens care solutions are used to reduce microbial growths on lenses. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed at comparing the growths of biofilms on the different contact lenses and lens cases. The study also aimed at determining the effect of lens care solutions and bacteriophage on these biofilms...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298975/evaluation-of-antimicrobial-and-antifungal-efficacy-of-chitosan-as-endodontic-irrigant-against-enterococcus-faecalis-and-candida-albicans-biofilm-formed-on-tooth-substrate
#11
Pankaj Yadav, Sarika Chaudhary, Rajendra K Saxena, Sangeeta Talwar, Sudha Yadav
BACKGROUND: Bacterial biofilms formed on the root canal wall are often difficult to remove. This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect and antibacterial efficacy of chitosan when used as root canal irrigant against E. Faecalis and Candida albicans biofilm formed on tooth substrate. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study evaluated antibacterial effect of 0.25% Chitosan, 0.5% Chitosan, 2% chlorhexidine and 3% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida Albicans...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296382/human-%C3%AE-defensin-6-a-small-peptide-that-self-assembles-and-protects-the-host-by-entangling-microbes
#12
Phoom Chairatana, Elizabeth M Nolan
Human α-defensin 6 (HD6) is a 32-residue cysteine-rich peptide that contributes to innate immunity by protecting the host at mucosal sites. This peptide is produced in small intestinal Paneth cells, stored as an 81-residue precursor peptide named proHD6 in granules, and released into the lumen. One unusual feature of HD6 is that it lacks the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity observed for other human α-defensins, including the Paneth cell peptide human α-defensin 5 (HD5). HD6 exhibits unprecedented self-assembly properties, which confer an unusual host-defense function...
March 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289028/assessment-and-optimizations-of-candida-albicans-in-vitro-biofilm-assays
#13
Matthew B Lohse, Megha Gulati, Ashley Valle Arevalo, Adam Fishburn, Alexander D Johnson, Clarissa J Nobile
Candida albicans biofilms have a significant medical impact due to their rapid growth on implanted medical devices, their resistance to antifungal drugs, and their ability to seed disseminated infections. Biofilm assays performed in vitro allow for rapid, high-throughput screening of gene deletion libraries or antifungal compounds and typically serve as precursors to in vivo studies. Here, we compile and discuss the protocols for several recently published C. albicans biofilm in vitro assays. We also describe improved versions of these protocols as well as novel in vitro assays...
March 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283008/-galleria-mellonella-larva-model-in-evaluating-the-effects-of-biofilm-in-candida-albicans
#14
Meral Karaman, Ali Alvandian, I Hakkı Bahar
Biofilm-related infections are chronic infections that cause serious increase in morbidity and mortality as well as significant economic loss. Galleria mellonella larva is shown as a reliable animal model for in vivo toxicology and pathogenicity tests due to its large size, ease of practice, ability to survive at 15-37°C and its similarity to mammals' natural immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects biofilm activity of Candida albicans in a G.mellonella larva model. Two C.albicans strains isolated as a disease agent were used for the model, where one was positive (BP), and the other one was negative (BN) for biofilm production...
January 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280998/virulence-factors-of-fluconazole-susceptible-and-fluconazole-resistant-candida-albicans-after-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy
#15
Fernanda Alves, Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira Mima, Renata Caroline Polato Passador, Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato, Janaína Habib Jorge, Ana Cláudia Pavarina
This study evaluated the effects of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) mediated by Photodithazine® (PDZ) and LED light on the virulence factors of fluconazole-susceptible (CaS) and fluconazole-resistant (CaR) Candida albicans. Standardized suspensions of strains were prepared (10(7)), and after 48 h of biofilm formation, these strains were incubated with PDZ (100 mg/L) for 20 min and exposed to LED light (660 nm, 37.5 J/cm(2)). Additional samples were treated with PDZ or light only, and the control consisted of biofilms that received no treatment...
March 9, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280743/nicotine-enhances-interspecies-relationship-between-streptococcus-mutans-and-candida-albicans
#16
Shiyu Liu, Wei Qiu, Keke Zhang, Xuedong Zhou, Biao Ren, Jinzhi He, Xin Xu, Lei Cheng, Mingyun Li
Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are common microorganisms in the human oral cavity. The synergistic relationship between these two species has been deeply explored in many studies. In the present study, the effect of alkaloid nicotine on the interspecies between S. mutans and C. albicans is explored. We developed a dual-species biofilm model and studied biofilm biomass, biofilm structure, synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), and expression of glucosyltransferases (Gtfs). Biofilm formation and bacterial and fungal cell numbers in dual-species biofilms increased in the presence of nicotine...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280492/mitochondrial-complex-v-%C3%AE-subunit-is-critical-for-candida-albicans-pathogenicity-through-modulating-multiple-virulence-properties
#17
Shui-Xiu Li, Yan-Jun Song, Yi-Shan Zhang, Hao-Tian Wu, Hui Guo, Kun-Ju Zhu, Dong-Mei Li, Hong Zhang
The α subunit (ATP1) is a vital component of mitochondrial complex V which counts for the majority of cellular ATP production in a living organism. Nevertheless, how the α subunit influences other cellular processes such as pathogenicity in Candida albicans remains poorly understood. To address this question, ATP1 mutant (atp1Δ/Δ) and the gene-reconstituted strain (atp1Δ/ATP1) have been constructed in this study and their pathogenicity-related traits are compared to those of wild type (WT). In a murine model of disseminated candidiasis, atp1Δ/Δ infected mice have a significantly higher survival rate and experience a lower fungal burden in tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280487/candida-albicans-mycofilms-support-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-and-enhances-miconazole-resistance-in-dual-species-interactions
#18
Ryan Kean, Ranjith Rajendran, Jennifer Haggarty, Eleanor M Townsend, Bryn Short, Karl E Burgess, Sue Lang, Owain Millington, William G Mackay, Craig Williams, Gordon Ramage
Polymicrobial inter-kingdom biofilm infections represent a clinical management conundrum. The presence of co-isolation of bacteria and fungi complicates the ability to routinely administer single antimicrobial regimens, and synergy between the microorganisms influences infection severity. We therefore investigated the nosocomial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans with respect to antimicrobial intervention. We characterized the interaction using biofilm assays and evaluated the effect of miconazole treatment using in vitro and in vivo assays...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264443/the-structure-activity-relationship-of-pterostilbene-against-candida-albicans-biofilms
#19
Dan-Dan Hu, Ri-Li Zhang, Yong Zou, Hua Zhong, En-Sheng Zhang, Xiang Luo, Yan Wang, Yuan-Ying Jiang
Candida albicans biofilms contribute to invasive infections and dramatic drug resistance, and anti-biofilm agents are urgently needed in the clinic. Pterostilbene (PTE) is a natural plant product with potentials to be developed as an anti-biofilm agent. In this study, we evaluated the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of PTE analogues against C. albicans biofilms. XTT (Sodium 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide inner salt) reduction assay was used to evaluate the activity of the analogues against C...
February 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263903/candida-and-its-dual-lifestyle-as-a-commensal-and-a-pathogen
#20
Mathieu Cauchie, Stefanie Desmet, Katrien Lagrou
Candida spp. are part of the normal vaginal microflora in 20-30% of healthy women. However, if the balance between these yeasts and the host is disturbed, Candida spp. can cause vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), with Candida albicans being the major causative agent. Different studies have been performed in order to better understand Candida's dual lifestyle in the vagina. The potential of C. albicans to switch from the yeast cell morphology to its hyphal form is considered a key element in VVC pathogenesis. Candida spp...
March 2, 2017: Research in Microbiology
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