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Candida biofilm

Komathy Munusamy, Jamuna Vadivelu, Sun Tee Tay
BACKGROUND: Biofilm is known to contribute to the antifungal resistance of Candida yeasts. Aureobasidin A (AbA), a cyclic depsipeptide targeting fungal sphingolipid biosynthesis, has been shown to be effective against several Candida species. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate Candida biofilm growth morphology, its biomass, metabolic activity, and to determine the effects of AbA on the biofilm growth. METHODS: The biofilm forming ability of several clinical isolates of different Candida species from our culture collection was determined using established methods (crystal violet and XTT assays)...
March 12, 2018: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Rajendra H Patil, Firoz A Kalam Khan, Kaivalya Jadhav, Manoj Damale, Siddique Akber Ansari, Hamad M Alkahtani, Azmat Ali Khan, Shantanu D Shinde, Rajesh Patil, Jaiprakash N Sangshetti
We report the synthesis of some new piperazine-sulphonamide linked Schiff bases as fungal biofilm inhibitors with antibacterial and antifungal potential. The biofilm inhibition result of Candida albicans proposed that the compounds 6b (IC50  = 32.1 μM) and 6j (IC50  = 31.4 μM) showed higher inhibitory activity than the standard fluconazole (IC50  = 40 μM). Compound 6d (MIC = 26.1 μg/mL) with a chloro group at the para position was found to be the most active antibacterial agent of the series against Bacillus subtilis when compared with the standard ciprofloxacin (MIC = 50 μg/mL)...
March 15, 2018: Archiv der Pharmazie
Roberto Scaffaro, Francesco Lopresti, Manuela D'Arrigo, Andreana Marino, Antonia Nostro
Carvacrol (CAR) is one of the most promising essential oil components with antimicrobial activity. New technologies aimed to incorporate this active molecule into carrier matrix to improve the stability and prolong the biological activity. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating CAR into electrospun membranes of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) for potential applications as active antimicrobial system. To this end, PLA membranes containing homogeneously dispersed CAR were successfully prepared and a series of systematic tests including morpho-mechanical properties, in vitro release rate, and antimicrobial/antibiofilm activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were carried out...
March 13, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Paweł Borowiecki, Patrycja Wińska, Maria Bretner, Małgorzata Gizińska, Mirosława Koronkiewicz, Monika Staniszewska
Three out of 16 newly synthesized 1,3-dimethylxanthine derivatives (proxyphylline analogues) exhibited consistencies between antifungal and anticancer properties. Proxyphylline possessing 1-(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)propan-2-yl (6) and polybrominated benzimidazole (41) or benzotriazole moiety (42) remained selectively cidal against Candida albicans (lg R ≥ 3 at conc. of 31, 36 and 20 μM, respectively) however not against normal mammalian Vero cell line in vitro (IC50  ≥ 280 μM) and Galleria mellonella in vivo...
February 27, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Elerson Gaetti-Jardim, Ellen Cristina Gaetti Jardim, Christiane Marie Schweitzer, Júlio Cesar Leite da Silva, Murilo Moura Oliveira, Danilo Chizzolini Masocatto, Cauê Monteiro Dos Santos
OBJECTIVE: This case-control study aimed to evaluate the effects of conventional radiotherapy (RT) on the prevalence and populations of oral microorganisms in head and neck cancer patients who did not receive adequate preventive dental care. It was hypothesized that side effects of radiotherapy could be associated with radiation dose, microbiological aspects, and socioeconomic conditions of the patients. DESIGN: Twenty-eight dentate patients with head and neck cancer submitted to RT were included in the study...
January 8, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Amo Dal Piva, Lpc Contreras, F C Ribeiro, L C Anami, Sea Camargo, Aoc Jorge, M A Bottino
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the morphology, biofilm formation, and viability of human gingival fibroblasts in contact with two monolithic ceramics after two different finishing techniques: polishing or glazing. For this, 92 blocks (4.5 × 4.5 × 1.5 mm) of each ceramic were made using high translucency zirconia partially stabilized by yttrium (YZHT) and lithium silicate reinforced by zirconium (ZLS). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Blocks were sintered and then divided into glazing (g) or polishing (p) surface finish...
March 13, 2018: Operative Dentistry
Thamires Priscila Cavazana, Juliano Pelim Pessan, Thayse Yumi Hosida, Douglas Roberto Monteiro, Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to standardize an in vitro experimental model able to reproduce the pH changes that occur in dental biofilm under in vivo conditions, using a mixed biofilm of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. DESIGN: Biofilms were developed for 96 h, and exposed to three different concentrations of sucrose (10, 20 or 30%) during 1, 3 or 5 min. The pH was measured before exposure to sucrose, immediately after its removal from the biofilms, and at 1, 3, 5 and 10 min after removal...
March 6, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
S Salari, N Sadat Seddighi, P Ghasemi Nejad Almani
OBJECTIVE: Biofilm formation ability is one of the major virulence factors contributing to the pathogenesis of Candida species. Biofilms produced by Candida spp. cause complicated treatments and contribute to increasing unpleasant mortality rates. Nanoparticles of Fe3 O4 (Fe3 O4 -NPs) are considered due to their magnetic and biochemical properties, as well as their low costs. The purpose of present study was to determine biofilm formation ability in different Candida strains and evaluation of anti-biofilm effect of Fe3 O4 -NPs compared with FLC...
March 5, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Tânia Raquel Rodrigues Grainha, Paula Alexandra da Silva Jorge, Martín Pérez-Pérez, Gael Pérez Rodríguez, Maria Olívia Baptista Oliveira Pereira, Anália Maria Garcia Lourenço
The complex virulence attributes of Candida albicans are an attractive target to exploit in the development of new antifungals and anti-virulence strategies to combat C. albicans infections. Particularly, quorum-sensing (QS) has been reported as critical for virulence regulation in C. albicans. This work presents two knowledge networks with up-to-date information about QS regulation and experimentally tested anti-QS and anti-virulence agents for C. albicans. A semi-automatic bioinformatics workflow that combines literature mining and expert curation was used to retrieve otherwise scattered information from the scientific literature...
March 6, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Enea Gino Di Domenico, Ilaria Cavallo, Maria Guembe, Grazia Prignano, Maria Teresa Gallo, Valentina Bordignon, Giovanna D'Agosto, Isabella Sperduti, Luigi Toma, Fabrizio Ensoli
Candida species are opportunistic pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases, ranging from skin and mucosal lesions to severe systemic, life-threatening infections. Candida albicans accounts for more than 70% of all Candida infections, however, the clinical relevance of other species such as Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei are being increasingly recognized. Biofilm-producing yeasts cells acquire an increased resistance to antifungal agents, often leading to therapeutic failure and chronic infection...
March 6, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Josiane de Almeida, Andrea L Pimenta, Ulisses A Pereira, Luiz C A Barbosa, Michel A Hoogenkamp, Suzette V van der Waal, Wim Crielaard, Wilson T Felippe
This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of lactams on Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida glabrata multispecies biofilm formation. γ-Alkylidene-γ-lactams 1, 2, and 3 [solubilized in 3.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)] were tested. Glass coverslips were conditioned with either the lactams or 3.5% DMSO (control) for 1 h, inoculated with microbial cultures, and incubated for 48 h. To assess the effect of the lactams on biofilm formation, the following parameters were determined: the biofilm biomass (by both crystal violet staining and protein determination); the amount of insoluble polysaccharides of the extracellular matrix; and the number of viable and total cells [by both colony-forming unit counting and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)]...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Oral Sciences
Gael Pérez-Rodríguez, Sónia Dias, Martín Pérez-Pérez, Florentino Fdez-Riverola, Nuno F Azevedo, Anália Lourenço
Experimental incapacity to track microbe-microbe interactions in structures like biofilms, and the complexity inherent to the mathematical modelling of those interactions, raises the need for feasible, alternative modelling approaches. This work proposes an agent-based representation of the diffusion of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) in a multicellular environment formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Depending on the spatial location, C. albicans cells were variably exposed to AHLs, an observation that might help explain why phenotypic switching of individual cells in biofilms occurred at different time points...
March 8, 2018: Biofouling
Jonatas Rafael de Oliveira, Kely Karina Belato, Felipe Eduardo de Oliveira, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Samira Esteves Afonso Camargo, Luciane Dias de Oliveira
This study evaluated the in vitro antibiofilm effect of 5 different commercial mouthwashes (Cepacol Traditional, Colgate Plax Fresh Mint, Listerine Cool Mint, Oral-B Complete, and Sensodyne) on Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cytotoxic effect of the mouthwashes on gingival fibroblasts was also analyzed. A colorimetric assay with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) was used to investigate the viability of biofilms after 48 hours and gingival fibroblasts after 24 hours...
March 2018: General Dentistry
T Nuryastuti, S Setiawati, N Ngatidjan, M Mustofa, J Jumina, D Fitriastuti, M I Darussalam
The therapy for invasive candidiasis related to biofilms infection remains a difficult medical problem. To overcome this problem, efforts have been made to search for novel antibiofilm agents from various sources. This study investigated the in vitro antibiofilm activity of (1)-N-2-methoxybenzyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium bromide (FEN) against Candida albicans. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) and minimum biofilm reduction concentration (MBRC) were determined using the MTT (3-(4-5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-dyphenyl tetrazolium bromide) reduction assay...
March 3, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Sami A Alyahya, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Ramzi A Mothana, Mohammed N Al-Anbr, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Ramachandran Ishwarya, Mariappan Yazhiniprabha, Giovanni Benelli
Recent research in entomology and parasitology focused on the efficacy of green fabricated nanomaterials as novel insecticides. In this study, we synthesized poly-dispersed and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the leaf extract of Holostemma ada-kodien. The nanostructures were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The efficacy of H...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Chirom Aarti, Ameer Khusro, Rakesh Varghese, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Paul Agastian, Naïf Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Soundharrajan Ilavenil, Ki Choon Choi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the probiotic characteristics, anti-Candida activity, and antibiofilm attributes of Hentak derived Lactobacillus pentosus strain LAP1. DESIGN: The probiotic properties of strain LAP1 was depicted by adapting standard protocols. The anti-Candida and antibiofilm properties of isolate were determined using agar well diffusion assay and ELISA reader test, respectively. The time-kill assay was performed using viable colony count assay. Further, the co-aggregation property of strain LAP1 was determined based on standard methodology...
February 23, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Clara Chepkirui, Kamila T Yuyama, Lucy A Wanga, Cony Decock, Josphat C Matasyoh, Wolf-Rainer Abraham, Marc Stadler
The need for effective compounds to combat antimicrobial resistance and biofilms which play important roles in human infections continues to pose a major health challenge. Seven previously undescribed acyclic diterpenes linked to isocitric acid by an ether linkage, microporenic acids A-G (1-7), were isolated from the cultures of a hitherto undescribed species of the genus Microporus (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) originating from Kenya's Kakamega forest. Microporenic acids D and E (4 and 5) showed antimicrobial activity against a panel of Gram positive bacteria and a yeast, Candida tenuis...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Mafalda Cavalheiro, Miguel Cacho Teixeira
Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis , and Candida parapsilosis , highlighting the differences between the four species...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Carla Corrêa Mendes-Gouvêa, Jackeline Gallo do Amaral, Renan Aparecido Fernandes, Gabriela Lopes Fernandes, Luiz Fernando Gorup, Emerson Rodrigues Camargo, Carlos Alberto Botazzo Delbem, Debora Barros Barbosa
This study aimed to synthesize and characterize materials containing silver nanoparticles (AgNP) with polyphosphates (sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) or sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP), and evaluate their effect against Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined, which was followed by the quantification of the biofilm by counting colony-forming units (CFUs), the amount of metabolic activity, and the total biomass. The MICs revealed greater effectiveness of composites containing 10% Ag (TMP + Ag10% (T10) and HMP + Ag10% (H10)) against both microorganisms...
February 27, 2018: Biofouling
Thomas Thurnheer, Georgios N Belibasakis
OBJECTIVE: Fluoride is widely used as an anti-caries agent, e.g. in toothpastes and mouth rinses. However, the nature of the anti-caries action is not entirely clear. Mechanisms suspected to explain the cariostatic effect include inhibitory effects on acid formation by bacteria, inhibition of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production, inhibition of enamel demineralization and enhancement of remineralizaton or combination thereof. The aim of this study was to examine with the supragingival Zurich in vitro biofilm model the effect of fluoride in NaF formulation, on the microbiota and on demineralization...
February 20, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
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