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Marina Diomedi, Ziv Gan-Or, Fabio Placidi, Patrick A Dion, Anna Szuto, Mario Bengala, Guy A Rouleau, Gian Luigi Gigli
Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS) was initially described in the early 90s as a sporadic clinical condition, characterized by seizures, motor and intellectual impairment with variable clinical presentation, and without a known genetic cause. Although causative mutations in SLC2A1 were later identified and much more is known about the disease, it still remains largely underdiagnosed. In the current study, a previously described Italian family was re-analyzed using whole exome sequencing and clinically re-evaluated...
October 7, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
David J Carr, Anna L David, Raymond P Aitken, John S Milne, Pawel P Borowicz, Jacqueline M Wallace, Dale A Redmer
INTRODUCTION: Placental vascularity may be important in the development of fetal growth restriction (FGR). The overnourished adolescent ewe is a robust model of the condition, with ∼50% of offspring demonstrating FGR (birthweight >2 standard deviations below optimally-fed control mean). We studied whether placental vascularity, angiogenesis and glucose transport reflect FGR severity. METHODS: Singleton pregnancies were established in adolescent ewes either overnourished to putatively restrict fetoplacental growth (n = 27) or control-fed (n = 12)...
October 2016: Placenta
Elise L Donovan, Emma J Buckels, Serina Hancock, Danielle Smeitink, Mark H Oliver, Frank H Bloomfield, Anne L Jaquiery
Twins are often born small and early and have increased risk of obesity and diabetes later in life. Twin conception in sheep, regardless of whether the pregnancy continues as twins or is reduced to singleton in early gestation, alters offspring growth trajectory and body composition in young adulthood. We hypothesized that twin conception would result in insulin resistance in adulthood, with insulin-resistant adipose tissue and skeletal muscle phenotypes. At 3 years of age, body weight was not different among singletons, twins, and reductions; females weighed less than males...
September 27, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Kin Weng Kong, Azlina Abdul Aziz, Nurhanani Razali, Norhaniza Aminuddin, Sarni Mat Junit
BACKGROUND: Barringtonia racemosa is a medicinal plant belonging to the Lecythidaceae family. The water extract of B. racemosa leaf (BLE) has been shown to be rich in polyphenols. Despite the diverse medicinal properties of B. racemosa, information on its major biological effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still lacking. METHODS: In this study, the effect of the antioxidant-rich BLE on gene expression in HepG2 cells was investigated using microarray analysis in order to shed more light on the molecular mechanism associated with the medicinal properties of the plant...
2016: PeerJ
Anna Berg, Kristine E Fasmer, Karen K Mauland, Sigmund Ytre-Hauge, Erling A Hoivik, Jenny A Husby, Ingvild L Tangen, Jone Trovik, Mari K Halle, Kathrine Woie, Line Bjørge, Atle Bjørnerud, Helga B Salvesen, Henrica M J Werner, Camilla Krakstad, Ingfrid S Haldorsen
Hypoxia is frequent in solid tumors and linked to aggressive phenotypes and therapy resistance. We explored expression patterns of the proposed hypoxia marker HIF-1α in endometrial cancer (EC) and investigate whether preoperative functional imaging parameters are associated with tumor hypoxia. Expression of HIF-1α was explored both in the epithelial and the stromal tumor component. We found that low epithelial HIF-1α and high stromal HIF-1α expression were significantly associated with reduced disease specific survival in EC...
September 13, 2016: Oncotarget
A Méneret, E Roze
Paroxysmal movement disorders comprise both paroxysmal dyskinesia, characterized by attacks of dystonic and/or choreic movements, and episodic ataxia, defined by attacks of cerebellar ataxia. They may be primary (familial or sporadic) or secondary to an underlying cause. They can be classified according to their phenomenology (kinesigenic, non-kinesigenic or exercise-induced) or their genetic cause. The main genes involved in primary paroxysmal movement disorders include PRRT2, PNKD, SLC2A1, ATP1A3, GCH1, PARK2, ADCY5, CACNA1A and KCNA1...
August 2016: Revue Neurologique
Ali Esfandiary, Zahra Taherian-Esfahani, Atieh Abedin-Do, Reza Mirfakhraie, Mahdieh Shirzad, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard, Elahe Motevaseli
OBJECTIVE: Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF)-1 plays an essential role in the body's response to low oxygen concentrations and regulates expression of several genes implicated in homeostasis, vascularization, anaerobic metabolism as well as immunological responses. Increased levels of HIF-1α are associated with increased proliferation and more aggressive breast tumor development. Lactobacilli have been shown to exert anti-cancer effects on several malignancies including breast cancer. However, the exact mechanism of such effect is not clear yet...
July 2016: Cell Journal
Rumana Khanom, Chi Thi Kim Nguyen, Kou Kayamori, Xin Zhao, Keiichi Morita, Yoshio Miki, Ken-Ichi Katsube, Akira Yamaguchi, Kei Sakamoto
Keratin subtypes are selectively expressed depending on the cell type. They not only provide structural support, but regulate the metabolic processes and signaling pathways that control the growth of the epithelium. KRT17 (keratin 17) is induced in the regenerative epithelium and acts on diverse signaling pathways. Here, we demonstrate that KRT17 is invariably and permanently induced in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), as revealed by immunohistochemistry and cDNA microarray analysis. Two representative OSCC cell lines; KRT17-weakly expressing Ca9-22 and KRT17-highly expressing HSC3 were used to establish KRT17-overexpressing Ca9-22 and KRT17-knockdown HSC3 cells...
2016: PloS One
Songqian Huang, Xiaojuan Cao, Xianchang Tian
Dojo loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) is an air-breathing fish species by using its posterior intestine to breathe on water surface. So far, the molecular mechanism about accessory air-breathing in fish is seldom addressed. Five cDNA libraries were constructed here for loach posterior intestines form T01 (the initial stage group), T02 (mid-stage of normal group), T03 (end stage of normal group), T04 (mid-stage of air-breathing inhibited group), and T05 (the end stage of air-breathing inhibited group) and subjected to perform RNA-seq to compare their transcriptomic profilings...
August 2016: Marine Biotechnology
Zeeshan Muhammad Iqbal, Haji Akbar, Afshin Hosseini, Elena Bichi Ruspoli Forteguerri, Johan S Osorio, Juan J Loor
The hoof digital cushion is a complex structure composed of adipose tissue beneath the distal phalanx, i.e. axial, middle and abaxial fat pad. The major role of these fat depots is dampening compression of the corium underneath the cushion. The study aimed to determine expression of target genes and fatty acid profiles in the hoof of non-pregnant dry Holstein cows fed low (CON) or high-energy (OVE) diets. The middle fat pad of the hoof digital cushion was collected soon after slaughter. Despite the lack of effect on expression of the transcription regulators SREBF1 and PPARG, the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACACA, FASN, SCD, and DGAT2 was upregulated with OVE...
2016: PloS One
Brendan Looyenga, Calvin VanOpstall, Zion Lee, Jed Bell, Evans Lodge, Katherine Wrobel, Eric Arnoys, Larry Louters
The facilitated glucose transporter GLUT1 (SLC2A1) is an important mediator of glucose homeostasis in humans. Though it is found in most cell types to some extent, the level of GLUT1 expression across different cell types can vary dramatically. Prior studies in erythrocytes-which express particularly high levels of GLUT1-have suggested that GLUT1 is able to form tetrameric complexes with enhanced transport activity. Whether dynamic aggregation of GLUT1 also occurs in cell types with more modest expression of GLUT1, however, is unclear...
2016: Scientific Reports
Marie Mongin, Nicolas Mezouar, Pauline Dodet, Marie Vidailhet, Emmanuel Roze
BACKGROUND: Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome is due to de novo mutations in the SLC2A1 gene encoding the glucose transporter type 1. PHENOMENOLOGY SHOWN: Paroxysmal motor manifestations induced by exercise or fasting may be the main manifestations of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome. EDUCATIONAL VALUE: Proper identification of the paroxysmal events and early diagnosis is important since the disease is potentially treatable...
2016: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Shang-Wen Chen, Ying-Chun Lin, Rui-Yun Chen, Te-Chun Hsieh, Kuo-Yang Yen, Ji-An Liang, Shih-Neng Yang, Yao-Ching Wang, Ya-Huey Chen, Nan-Haw Chow, Chia-Hung Kao
BACKGROUND: This study examined genomic factors associated with a reduction in (18)fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake during positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) for definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with pharyngeal cancer. METHODS: The pretreatment and interim PET-CT images of 25 patients with advanced pharyngeal cancers receiving definitive CRT were prospectively evaluated. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the interim PET-CT and the reduction ratio of the SUVmax (SRR) between the two images were measured...
June 16, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Yu-Chi Liu, Jia Wei Audrey Lee, Susannah T Bellows, John A Damiano, Saul A Mullen, Samuel F Berkovic, Melanie Bahlo, Ingrid E Scheffer, Michael S Hildebrand
AIM: Loss-of-function mutations in SLC2A1, encoding glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), lead to dysfunction of glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier. Ten percent of cases with hypoglycorrhachia (fasting cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] glucose <2.2mmol/L) do not have mutations. We hypothesized that GLUT1 deficiency could be due to non-coding SLC2A1 variants. METHOD: We performed whole exome sequencing of one proband with a GLUT1 phenotype and hypoglycorrhachia negative for SLC2A1 sequencing and copy number variants...
June 6, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Romy Hribal, Anja Guenther, Kathrin Rübensam, Katarina Jewgenow
The expression of specific developmentally important genes in preimplantation embryos is an accepted marker for unraveling the influence of single factors in studies that are mostly related to artificial reproduction techniques. Such studies, however, often reveal high levels of heterogeneity between single embryos, independently of the influence of factors of interest. A possible explanation for this variation could be the large variety of physiological and environmental factors to which early embryos are exposed and their ability to react to them...
September 15, 2016: Theriogenology
J Yu, Q Liang, J Wang, K Wang, J Gao, J Zhang, Y Zeng, P W Y Chiu, E K W Ng, J J Y Sung
REC8 meiotic recombination protein (REC8) was found to be preferentially methylated in gastric cancer (GC) using promoter methylation array. We aimed to elucidate the epigenetic alteration and biological function of REC8 in GC. REC8 was downregulated in 100% (3/3) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive and 80% (8/10) of EBV-negative GC cell lines by promoter methylation, but the expression could be restored through demethylation treatment. Protein expression of REC8 was significantly lower in human primary gastric tumors than in adjacent non-tumor tissues...
May 23, 2016: Oncogene
Peter Man-Un Ung, Wenxin Song, Lili Cheng, Xinbin Zhao, Hailin Hu, Ligong Chen, Avner Schlessinger
The human Glucose Transporter 1 (hGLUT1 or SLC2A1) is a facilitative membrane transporter found in the liver, intestines, kidney, and brain, where it transports sugars such as d-glucose and d-galactose. Genetic variations in hGLUT1 are associated with a broad range of diseases and metabolic disorders. For example, hGLUT1 is upregulated in various cancer types (e.g., breast carcinoma) to support the increased anaerobic glycolysis and the Warburg effect. Thus, hGLUT1 is an emerging therapeutic target, which also transports commonly used cancer biomarkers (e...
July 15, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
Xiao-Rong Liu, Dan Huang, Jie Wang, Yi-Fan Wang, Hui Sun, Bin Tang, Wen Li, Jin-Xing Lai, Na He, Mei Wu, Tao Su, Heng Meng, Yi-Wu Shi, Bing-Mei Li, Bei-Sha Tang, Wei-Ping Liao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential causative genes of paroxysmal hypnogenic dyskinesia (PHD), which was initially considered a subtype of paroxysmal dyskinesia and has been recently considered a form of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE). METHODS: Eleven patients with PHD were recruited. Mutations in proline-rich region transmembrane protein-2 (PRRT2), myofibrillogenesis regulator 1 (MR-1), solute carrier family 2, member 1 (SLC2A1), calcium-activated potassium channel alpha subunit (KCNMA1), cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 4 (CHRNA4), cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta 2 (CHRNB2), cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 2 (CHRNA2), and potassium channel subfamily T member 1 (KCNT1) were screened by direct sequencing...
April 2016: Neurol Genet
Hong-Xia Wang, Hong-Fu Li, Gong-Lu Liu, Xiao-Dan Wen, Zhi-Ying Wu
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is the most common subtype of paroxysmal dyskinesias and is caused by mutations in PRRT2 gene. The majority of familial PKD was identified to harbor PRRT2 mutations. However, over two-third of sporadic PKD patients did not carry anyPRRT2 mutation, suggesting an existence of additional genetic mutations or possible misdiagnosis due to clinical overlap. METHODS: A cohort of 28 Chinese patients clinically diagnosed with sporadic PKD and excluded PRRT2 mutations were recruited...
May 5, 2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Pallavi Sontakke, Katarzyna M Koczula, Jennifer Jaques, Albertus T J Wierenga, Annet Z Brouwers-Vos, Maurien Pruis, Ulrich L Günther, Edo Vellenga, Jan Jacob Schuringa
The Warburg effect is probably the most prominent metabolic feature of cancer cells, although little is known about the underlying mechanisms and consequences. Here, we set out to study these features in detail in a number of leukemia backgrounds. The transcriptomes of human CB CD34+ cells transduced with various oncogenes, including BCR-ABL, MLL-AF9, FLT3-ITD, NUP98-HOXA9, STAT5A and KRASG12V were analyzed in detail. Our data indicate that in particular BCR-ABL, KRASG12V and STAT5 could impose hypoxic signaling under normoxic conditions...
2016: PloS One
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