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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102965/isotope-probing-of-the-udp-apiose-udp-xylose-synthase-reaction-evidence-of-a-mechanism-via-a-coupled-oxidation-and-aldol-cleavage
#1
Thomas Eixelsberger, Doroteja Horvat, Alexander Gutmann, Hansjörg Weber, Bernd Nidetzky
The C-branched sugar d-apiose (Api) is essential for plant cell-wall development. An enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation/pyranoside ring-contraction reaction leads from UDP-α-d-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) to the Api precursor UDP-α-d-apiose (UDP-Api). We examined the mechanism of UDP-Api/UDP-α-d-xylose synthase (UAXS) with site-selectively (2) H-labeled and deoxygenated substrates. The analogue UDP-2-deoxy-GlcA, which prevents C-2/C-3 aldol cleavage as the plausible initiating step of pyranoside-to-furanoside conversion, did not give the corresponding Api product...
January 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102960/nine-degrees-of-freedom-flexmap-for-a-cone-beam-computed-tomography-imaging-device-with-independently-movable-source-and-detector
#2
Peter Keuschnigg, Daniel Kellner, Karl Fritscher, Andrea Zechner, Ulrich Mayer, Philipp Huber, Felix Sedlmayer, Heinz Deutschmann, Philipp Steininger
PURPOSE: Couch-mounted cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging devices with independently rotatable x-ray source and flat-panel detector arms for acquisitions of arbitrary regions of interest (ROI) have recently been introduced in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). This work analyzes mechanical limitations and gravity-induced effects influencing the geometric accuracy of images acquired with arbitrary angular constellations of source and detector in nonisocentric trajectories, which is considered essential for IGRT...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102936/unbiased-and-quantitative-proteomics-reveals-highly-increased-angiogenesis-induction-by-the-secretome-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-isolated-from-fetal-rather-than-adult-skin
#3
Massimiliano Gaetani, Cinzia Maria Chinnici, Anna Paola Carreca, Claudia Di Pasquale, Giandomenico Amico, Pier Giulio Conaldi
Scarless wound healing and functional regeneration are typical processes of the fetus, gradually lost during post-natal life, and maximally attributed to fetal skin tissue and induced by fetal skin fibroblasts. The latter have been successfully applied to post-natal wounds, with clear advantages compared with autologous dermis grafts or adult fibroblast applications. Our goal was to functionally identify and uncover key factors and mechanisms through the analysis of secretomes, the principal players in all cell therapies based on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102930/modulation-of-the-thermodynamic-signatures-of-an-rna-thermometer-by-osmolytes-and-salts
#4
Mimi Gao, Loana Arns, Roland Winter
Folding of ribonucleic acids (RNAs) is driven by several factors, such as base pairing and stacking, chain entropy, and ion-mediated electrostatics, which have been studied in great detail. However, the power of background molecules in the cellular milieu is often neglected. Herein, we study the effect of common osmolytes on the folding equilibrium of a hairpin-structured RNA and, using pressure perturbation, provide novel thermodynamic and volumetric insights into the modulation mechanism. The presence of TMAO causes an increased thermal stability and a more positive volume change for the helix-to-coil transition, whereas urea destabilizes the hairpin and leads to an increased expansibility of the unfolded state...
January 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102920/evaluation-of-peripheral-intravenous-catheter-induced-local-complications-in-pediatrics
#5
Baraka M R Abusafia, Handan Boztepe
AIM: This study was conducted to evaluate the local complications in children who had a peripheral intravenous catheter. BACKGROUND: Currently, the insertion of peripheral intravenous catheters occurs in most children that are hospitalized. However, the development of some complications associated with the insertion of these catheters are unavoidable. A significant aspect of nursing care is to ensure the safety of the placement and management of peripheral intravenous catheters in children...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102912/different-spatio-temporal-eeg-features-drive-the-successful-decoding-of-binaural-and-monaural-cues-for-sound-localization
#6
Adam Bednar, Francis M Boland, Edmund C Lalor
The human ability to localize sound is essential for monitoring the environment and helps us to analyze complex auditory scenes. Although the acoustic cues mediating sound localization have been established, it remains unknown how these cues are represented in human cortex. In particular, it is still a point of contention whether binaural and monaural cues are processed by the same or distinct cortical networks. In this study, participants listened to a sequence of auditory stimuli from different spatial locations while we recorded their neural activity using electroencephalography (EEG)...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102878/pulmonary-hypertension-associated-with-left-sided-heart-disease
#7
Micha Tobias Maeder, Otto D Schoch, Rebekka Kleiner, Lucas Joerg, Daniel Weilenmann, Swiss Society For Pulmonary Hypertension
Pulmonary hypertension associated with left-sided heart disease (PH-LHD) is the most common type of pulmonary hypertension. In patients with left-sided heart disease, the presence of pulmonary hypertension is typically a marker of more advanced disease, more severe symptoms, and worse prognosis. In contrast to pulmonary arterial hypertension, PH-LHD is characterised by an elevated pulmonary artery wedge pressure (postcapillary pulmonary hypertension) without or with an additional precapillary component (isolated postcapillary versus combined postcapillary and precapillary pulmonary hypertension)...
January 19, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102868/control-and-automation-of-multilayered-integrated-microfluidic-device-fabrication
#8
Sarit Kipper, Ludmila Frolov, Ortal Guy, Michal Pellach, Yair Glick, Asaf Malichi, Binyamin A Knisbacher, Efrat Barbiro-Michaely, Dorit Avrahami, Yehuda Yavets-Chen, Erez Y Levanon, Doron Gerber
Integrated microfluidics is a sophisticated three-dimensional (multi layer) solution for high complexity serial or parallel processes. Fabrication of integrated microfluidic devices requires soft lithography and the stacking of thin-patterned PDMS layers. Precise layer alignment and bonding is crucial. There are no previously reported standards for alignment of the layers, which is mostly performed using uncontrolled processes with very low alignment success. As a result, integrated microfluidics is mostly used in academia rather than in the many potential industrial applications...
January 19, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102848/statins-in-anthracycline-induced-cardiotoxicity-rac-and-rho-and-the-heartbreakers
#9
REVIEW
Christian Henninger, Gerhard Fritz
Cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy are at risk to develop life-threatening chronic cardiotoxicity with the pathophysiological mechanism of action not fully understood. Besides the most common hypothesis that anthracycline-induced congestive heart failure (CHF) is mainly caused by generation of reactive oxygen species, recent data point to a critical role of topoisomerase II beta (TOP2B), which is a primary target of anthracycline poisoning, in the pathophysiology of CHF. As the use of the only clinically approved cardioprotectant dexrazoxane has been limited by the FDA in 2011, there is an urgent need for alternative cardioprotective measures...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102847/curcumin-represses-mouse-3t3-l1-cell-adipogenic-differentiation-via-inhibiting-mir-17-5p-and-stimulating-the-wnt-signalling-pathway-effector-tcf7l2
#10
Lili Tian, Zhuolun Song, Weijuan Shao, William W Du, Lisa R Zhao, Kejing Zeng, Burton B Yang, Tianru Jin
Understanding mechanisms underlying adipogenic differentiation may lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic targets for obesity. Wnt signalling pathway activation leads to repressed adipogenic differentiation while certain microRNAs may regulate pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. We show here that in mouse white adipose tissue, miR-17-5p level is elevated after high fat diet consumption. miR-17-5p upregulates adipogenic differentiation, as its over-expression increased while its inhibition repressed 3T3-L1 differentiation...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102845/h19-let-7-lin28-reciprocal-negative-regulatory-circuit-promotes-breast-cancer-stem-cell-maintenance
#11
Fei Peng, Ting-Ting Li, Kai-Li Wang, Guo-Qing Xiao, Ju-Hong Wang, Hai-Dong Zhao, Zhi-Jie Kang, Wen-Jun Fan, Li-Li Zhu, Mei Li, Bai Cui, Fei-Meng Zheng, Hong-Jiang Wang, Eric W-F Lam, Bo Wang, Jie Xu, Quentin Liu
Long noncoding RNA-H19 (H19), an imprinted oncofetal gene, has a central role in carcinogenesis. Hitherto, the mechanism by which H19 regulates cancer stem cells, remains elusive. Here we show that breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) express high levels of H19, and ectopic overexpression of H19 significantly promotes breast cancer cell clonogenicity, migration and mammosphere-forming ability. Conversely, silencing of H19 represses these BCSC properties. In concordance, knockdown of H19 markedly inhibits tumor growth and suppresses tumorigenesis in nude mice...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102841/microrna-101-inhibits-invasion-and-angiogenesis-through-targeting-itga3-and-its-systemic-delivery-inhibits-lung-metastasis-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#12
Xin-Ran Tang, Xin Wen, Qing-Mei He, Ying-Qin Li, Xian-Yue Ren, Xiao-Jing Yang, Jian Zhang, Ya-Qin Wang, Jun Ma, Na Liu
Clinically, distant metastasis after primary treatment remains a key problem in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and the treatment outcome of metastatic NPC remains disappointing, so there is a pressing need to identify novel therapeutic strategies. In accordance with our previous microarray data, we found that miR-101 was downregulated in NPC clinical specimens and cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-101 significantly suppressed NPC cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis in vitro and inhibited angiogenesis and metastasis in vivo using the chicken chorioallantoic membrane model...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102839/foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-infection-suppresses-autophagy-and-nf-%C3%B0%C2%BAb-antiviral-responses-via-degradation-of-atg5-atg12-by-3c-pro
#13
Xuxu Fan, Shichong Han, Dan Yan, Yuan Gao, Yanquan Wei, Xiangtao Liu, Ying Liao, Huichen Guo, Shiqi Sun
Autophagy-related protein ATG5-ATG12 is an essential complex for the autophagophore elongation in autophagy, which has been reported to be involved in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication. Previous reports show that ATG5-ATG12 positively or negatively regulates type I interferon (IFN-α/β) pathway during virus infection. In this study, we found that FMDV infection rapidly induced LC3 lipidation and GFP-LC3 subcellular redistribution at the early infection stage in PK-15 cells. Along with infection time course to 2-5 h...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102838/autophagy-dysregulation-in-danon-disease
#14
Anna Chiara Nascimbeni, Marina Fanin, Corrado Angelini, Marco Sandri
The autophagy-lysosome system is critical for muscle homeostasis and defects in lysosomal function result in a number of inherited muscle diseases, generally referred to as autophagic vacuolar myopathies (AVMs). Among them, Danon Disease (DD) and glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) are due to primary lysosomal protein defects. DD is characterized by mutations in the lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) gene. The DD mouse model suggests that inefficient lysosome biogenesis/maturation and impairment of autophagosome-lysosome fusion contribute to the pathogenesis of muscle wasting...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102835/spinal-cord-regeneration-in-xenopus-laevis
#15
Gabriela Edwards-Faret, Rosana Muñoz, Emilio E Méndez-Olivos, Dasfne Lee-Liu, Victor S Tapia, Juan Larraín
Here we present a protocol for the husbandry of Xenopus laevis tadpoles and froglets, and procedures to study spinal cord regeneration. This includes methods to induce spinal cord injury (SCI); DNA and morpholino electroporation for genetic studies; in vivo imaging for cell analysis; a swimming test to measure functional recovery; and a convenient model for screening for new compounds that promote neural regeneration. These protocols establish X. laevis as a unique model organism for understanding spinal cord regeneration by comparing regenerative and nonregenerative stages...
February 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102834/basis-of-catalytic-assembly-of-the-mitotic-checkpoint-complex
#16
Alex C Faesen, Maria Thanasoula, Stefano Maffini, Claudia Breit, Franziska Müller, Suzan van Gerwen, Tanja Bange, Andrea Musacchio
Accurate genome inheritance by daughter cells requires that sister chromatids in the mother attach to microtubules emanating from opposite poles of the mitotic spindle (bi-orientation). A surveillance mechanism named the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors the microtubule attachment process, temporarily halting sister chromatid separation and mitotic exit until completion of bi-orientation1. SAC failure results in abnormal chromosome numbers (aneuploidy), a hallmark of many tumours. The HORMA domain protein MAD2 is a subunit of the SAC effector mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC)...
January 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102832/silk-protein-as-a-new-optically-transparent-adhesion-layer-for-an-ultra-smooth-sub-10-nm-gold-layer
#17
Kyungtaek Min, Muhammad Umar, Shinyoung Ryu, Soonil Lee, Sunghwan Kim
Ultra-thin and ultra-smooth gold (Au) films are appealing for photonic applications including surface plasmon resonances and transparent contacts. However, poor adhesion at the Au���dielectric interface prohibits the formation of a mechanically stable, ultra-thin, and ultra-smooth Au film. A conventional solution is to use a metallic adhesion layer, such as titanium and chromium however, such layers cause the optical properties of pure Au to deteriorate. Here we report the use of silk protein to enhance the adhesion at the Au���dielectric interfaces, thus obtaining ultra-smooth sub-10 nm Au films...
January 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102819/rethinking-origin-licensing
#18
Stephen P Bell
Human cells that lack a subunit in their origin recognition complex are viable, which suggests the existence of alternative mechanisms to initiate DNA replication.
January 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102818/is-cell-size-a-spandrel
#19
Ariel Amir
All organisms control the size of their cells. We focus here on the question of size regulation in bacteria, and suggest that the quantitative laws governing cell size and its dependence on growth rate may arise as byproducts of a regulatory mechanism which evolved to support multiple DNA replication forks. In particular, we show that the increase of bacterial cell size during Lenski's long-term evolution experiments is a natural outcome of this proposal. This suggests that, in the context of evolution, cell size may be a 'spandrel'...
January 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102784/model-systems-for-the-study-of-enterococcal-colonization-and-infection
#20
H M Sharon Goh, M H Adeline Yong, Kelvin Kian Long Chong, Kimberly A Kline
Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract, as well as frequent opportunistic pathogens. Enterococci cause a range of infections including, most frequently, infections of the urinary tract, catheterized urinary tract, bloodstream, wounds and surgical sites, and heart valves in endocarditis. Enterococcal infections are often biofilm-associated, polymicrobial in nature, and resistant to antibiotics of last resort. Understanding Enterococcal mechanisms of colonization and pathogenesis are important for identifying new ways to manage and intervene with these infections...
January 19, 2017: Virulence
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