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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918606/kinetic-coupling-of-phosphate-release-force-generation-and-rate-limiting-steps-in-the-cross-bridge-cycle
#1
Robert Stehle, Chiara Tesi
A basic goal in muscle research is to understand how the cyclic ATPase activity of cross-bridges is converted into mechanical force. A direct approach to study the chemo-mechanical coupling between Pi release and the force-generating step is provided by the kinetics of force response induced by a rapid change in [Pi]. Classical studies on fibres using caged-Pi discovered that rapid increases in [Pi] induce fast force decays dependent on final [Pi] whose kinetics were interpreted to probe a fast force-generating step prior to Pi release...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918598/triacsin-c-reduces-lipid-droplet-formation-and-induces-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-primary-rat-hepatocytes
#2
Carlos R P Dechandt, Felippe H Zuccolotto-Dos-Reis, Bruno G Teodoro, Anna Maria A P Fernandes, Marcos N Eberlin, Isis C Kettelhut, Carlos Curti, Luciane C Alberici
Intracellular long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL) activate fatty acids to produce acyl-CoA, which undergoes β-oxidation and participates in the synthesis of esterified lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). Imbalances in these metabolic routes are closely associated with the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Triacsin C is one of the few compounds that inhibit TAG accumulation into lipid droplets (LD) by suppressing ACSL activity. Here we report that treatment of primary rat hepatocytes with triacsin C at concentrations lower than the IC50 (4...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918596/cd5-b-lymphocytes-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-relation-to-disease-activity
#3
Hanan Hassan Omar, Samah Ismail Nasef, Hamdy Hassan Omar, Mona Sayed Ghaly
B cells are essential players in the pathogenic mechanisms of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although CD5+ B cells have been considered to play a paradoxical role in preventing, rather than inducing autoimmunity, there is no consensus agreement about the proportions of CD5+ B cells population in SLE patients. So, the aim of the present study was to assess blood concentration of CD5+ B cells in patients with SLE and to evaluate their relationship with disease activity and organ damage. We recruited 100 SLE patients and 100 healthy control subjects...
September 16, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918594/the-association-of-knee-structural-pathology-with-pain-at-the-knee-is-modified-by-pain-at-other-sites-in-those-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#4
Feng Pan, Jing Tian, Dawn Aitken, Flavia Cicuttini, Tania Winzenberg, Graeme Jones
The objective of this study was to investigate the associations of knee structural abnormalities with different patterns of pain. A total of 891 participants (average age 63 years; range 50 to 80 years) participated in this study. Presence of pain at the neck, back, hands, shoulders, hips, knees, and feet was assessed by questionnaire. Participants were categorized as having no pain at any site (no pain), pain only at the knee (KP), pain at other sites but not the knee (OP), and pain at the knee and other sites (KOP)...
September 16, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918573/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-ginkgo-biloba-extract-against-trimethyltin-induced-hippocampal-neuronal-injury
#5
Sukhwinder Kaur, Neha Sharma, Bimla Nehru
BACKGROUND: Despite the immense neuromodulatory potentials of Ginkgo biloba extract as a memory enhancer, its underlying mechanism seems inadequate particularly with regard to its anti-inflammatory properties. AIM: The objective of the present study is to investigate the protective potentials of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) against hippocampal neuronal injury induced by trimethyltin (TMT), a potent neurotoxicant. METHODS: Male SD rats were administered trimethyltin (8...
September 16, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918543/dietary-docosahexaenoic-acid-decreased-lipid-accumulation-via-inducing-adipocytes-apoptosis-of-grass-carp-ctenopharygodon-idella
#6
Ai Jin, Cai-Xia Lei, Jing-Jing Tian, Jian Sun, Hong Ji
The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism of by which docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) inhibit the accumulation of adipose tissue lipid in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). We therefore designed two semi-purified diets, namely DHA-free (control) and DHA-supplemented, and fed them to grass carp (22.19 ± 1.76 g) for 3 and 6 weeks. DHA supplementation led to a significantly lower intraperitoneal fat index (IPFI) than that in the control group by reducing the number of adipocytes but significantly higher adipocyte size (P < 0...
September 17, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918542/current-chemotherapeutic-regimens-for-brain-metastases-treatment
#7
Joo Yeon Nam, Barbara J O'Brien
Brain metastasis is a common complication in advanced systemic cancer, with an increasing incidence. The diagnosis of brain metastasis historically portended a dismal prognosis. The successful development of effective treatments for patients with brain metastasis is complicated by the differences among cancer subtypes, the limited understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of BM, the impact of the blood-brain barrier, and other factors. There is now renewed interest in treating this often devastating complication of cancer, and in understanding the underlying mechanisms of disease in this "sanctuary" site...
September 16, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918528/signaling-of-the-complement-cleavage-product-anaphylatoxin-c5a-through-c5ar-cd88-contributes-to-pharmacological-hematopoietic-stem-cell-mobilization
#8
Kamila Bujko, Sylwia Rzeszotek, Kai Hoehlig, Jun Yan, Axel Vater, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
Several mechanisms have been postulated for orchestrating the mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), and we previously proposed that activation of the complement cascade plays a crucial role in the initiation and execution of the egress of HSPCs from bone marrow (BM) into peripheral blood (PB). In support of this notion, we demonstrated that mice deficient in the mannan-binding lectin (MBL) pathway, which activates the proximal part of the complement cascade, as well as mice deficient in the fifth component of the complement cascade (C5), which is part of the distal part of the complement cascade, are poor mobilizers...
September 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918527/alterations-in-epididymal-proteomics-and-antioxidant-activity-of-mice-exposed-to-fluoride
#9
Zilong Sun, Sujuan Li, Yuxiang Yu, Hongyu Chen, Mohammad Mehdi Ommati, Ram Kumar Manthari, Ruiyan Niu, Jundong Wang
It is well known that high fluoride results in low fertility. Epididymis is the important place for spermatozoa maturation, which is essential for successful fertilization. In the previous studies, fluoride was reported to damage the epididymal structure of mouse and rabbit. However, the mechanism underlying sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced epididymal toxicity has not yet been well elucidated. The aim of this study is to explore the global protein alterations in epididymis of mice exposed to NaF using the iTRAQ technique...
September 16, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918522/simulations-and-experimental-investigations-of-the-competitive-adsorption-of-ch4-and-co2-on-low-rank-coal-vitrinite
#10
Song Yu, Jiang Bo, Li Jiahong
The mechanism for the competitive adsorption of CH4 and CO2 on coal vitrinite (DV-8, maximum vitrinite reflectance R o,max = 0.58%) was revealed through simulation and experimental methods. A saturated state was reached after absorbing 17 CH4 or 22 CO2 molecules per DV-8 molecule. The functional groups (FGs) on the surface of the vitrinite can be ranked in order of decreasing CH4 and CO2 adsorption ability as follows: [-CH3] > [-C=O] > [-C-O-C-] > [-COOH] and [-C-O-C-] > [-C=O] > [-CH3] > [-COOH]...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918520/derivation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-lines-and-mechanism-of-pluripotency-historical-perspective-and-recent-advances
#11
REVIEW
Arvind Chhabra
Derivation of human embryonic stem cell (hES) lines in 1998 was not only a major technological breakthrough in the field of regenerative medicine; it also triggered a passionate debate about the ethical issues associated with the utilization of human embryos for derivation of hESC lines. Successful derivation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) lines from human somatic cells with defined reprogramming factors by Shinya Yamanaka`s group in 2007 was another breakthrough that generated enormous excitement and hope for the development of donor-specific personalized cell replacement therapies (CRT) without the ethical dilemma associated with it...
September 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918491/dynamics-of-allosteric-modulation-of%C3%A2-lymphocyte-function-associated-antigen-1-closure-open-switch-unveiling-the-structural-mechanisms-associated-with-outside-in-signaling-activation
#12
Maryam Abdullahi, Fisayo A Olotu, Mahmoud E Soliman
OBJECTIVES: To provide insight into the dynamics of the shape-shifting mechanistic events associated with the opening (activation) of Lymphocyte Function Associated Antigen-1 upon allosteric modulation by an activator, ICAM Binding Enhancer-667 (IBE-667), using molecular dynamics simulation. RESULTS: Various parameters were used to appropriately describe and understand the sequence of events that characterized its activation across the simulation period such as residual distances, TriCα angles; as well as the dihedral angle...
September 16, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918490/notch-signaling-pathway-networks-in-cancer-metastasis-a-new-target-for-cancer-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Li Li, Ping Tang, Shun Li, Xiang Qin, Hong Yang, Chunhui Wu, Yiyao Liu
Notch signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved in mammals, which plays an important role in cell development and differentiation. In recent years, increasing evidence has shown that aberrant activation of Notch is associated with tumor process. Aberrant activation of Notch signaling pathway has been found in many different solid tumors can induce cell proliferation, metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Notch receptor and its ligand are both single transmembrane protein, and Notch is activated when it binds to the Notch ligand of neighbor cells...
September 16, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918481/fibrinolysis-in-trauma-a-review
#14
REVIEW
M J Madurska, K A Sachse, J O Jansen, T E Rasmussen, J J Morrison
Fibrinolytic dysregulation is an important mechanism in traumatic coagulopathy. It is an incompletely understood process that consists of a spectrum ranging from excessive breakdown (hyperfibrinolysis) and the shutdown of fibrinolysis. Both hyperfibrinolysis and shutdown are associated with excess mortality and post-traumatic organ failure. The pathophysiology appears to relate to endothelial injury and hypoperfusion, with several molecular markers identified in playing a role. Although there are no universally accepted diagnostic tests, viscoelastic studies appear to offer the greatest potential for timely identification of patients presenting with fibrinolytic dysregulation...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918477/in-vitro-inhibition-of-hiv-1-replication-in-autologous-cd4-t-cells-indicates-viral-containment-by-multifactorial-mechanisms
#15
Ting Tu, Jianbo Zhan, Danlei Mou, Wei Li, Bin Su, Tong Zhang, Tao Li, Ning Li, Hao Wu, Cong Jin, Huabiao Chen
HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are present during chronic infection, but the relative contributions of these effector mechanisms to viral containment remain unclear. Here, using an in vitro model involving autologous CD4(+) T cells, primary HIV-1 isolates, HIV-1-specific CTLs, and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, we show that b12, a potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody to HIV-1, was able to block viral infection when preincubated with virus prior to infection, but was much less effective than CTLs at limiting virus replication when added to infected cell cultures...
September 15, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918476/effects-of-stocking-density-on-lipid-deposition-and-expression-of-lipid-related-genes-in-amur-sturgeon-acipenser-schrenckii
#16
Yuanyuan Ren, Haishen Wen, Yun Li, Jifang Li, Feng He, Meng Ni
To investigate the correlation between lipid deposition variation and stocking density in Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii) and the possible physiological mechanism, fish were conducted in different stocking densities (LSD 5.5 kg/m(3), MSD 8.0 kg/m(3), and HSD 11.0 kg/m(3)) for 70 days and then the growth index, lipid content, lipase activities, and the mRNA expressions of lipid-related genes were examined. Results showed that fish subjected to higher stocking density presented lower final body weights (FBW), specific growth ratio (SGR), and gonad adipose tissue index (GAI) (P < 0...
September 16, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918474/induction-of-immunogenic-cell-death-in-lymphoma-cells-by-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cell-conditioned-medium
#17
Daniel Hao Lin, Arijit Biswas, Mahesh Choolani, Chui-Yee Fong, Ariff Bongso
Strategies that induce immunogenic cell death (ICD) or downregulate CD47 or PD-L1 expression have resulted in successful therapeutic options for tumor eradication. Several groups have reported the tumoricidal effects of human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells (hWJSCs) or its conditioned medium (hWJSC-CM) on certain cancers but the mechanisms have not been elucidated. Since hWJSCs possess immunomodulatory properties, we investigated whether one of the tumoricidal mechanisms was via ICD. We first concentrated hWJSC-CM into a 3 kDa concentrate and then exposed various concentrations of this concentrate to human lymphoma cells to find out which concentration had the greatest tumoricidal effect...
September 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918463/apoptotic-mechanisms-after-repeated-noise-trauma-in-the-mouse-medial-geniculate-body-and-primary-auditory-cortex
#18
Felix Fröhlich, Arne Ernst, Ira Strübing, Dietmar Basta, Moritz Gröschel
A correlation between noise-induced apoptosis and cell loss has previously been shown after a single noise exposure in the cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body (MGB) and primary auditory cortex (AI). However, repeated noise exposure is the most common situation in humans and a major risk factor for the induction of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The present investigation measured cell death pathways using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) in the dorsal, medial and ventral MGB (dMGB, mMGB and vMGB) and six layers of the AI (AI-1 to AI-6) in mice (NMRI strain) after a second noise exposure (double-exposure group)...
September 16, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918460/effects-of-cadmium-exposure-on-metal-accumulation-and-energy-metabolism-of-silver-carp-hypophthalmichthys-molitrix
#19
Deliang Li, Jie Pi, Jianping Wang, Pengfei Zhu, Deming Liu, Ting Zhang
Effects of cadmium (Cd) exposure on metal accumulation and energy metabolism of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) were studied during 14 days. The results showed that Cd accumulated in tissues of silver carp significantly with time and Cd concentration, as the order: liver > kidney > gill > muscle. The levels of muscle glycogen, triglyceride, and plasma triglyceride decreased significantly (p < 0.05). The levels of muscle protein, plasma glucose and lactate significantly increased during the first 8 days, and then all significantly decreased (p < 0...
September 16, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918456/testing-a-mobile-mindful-eating-intervention-targeting-craving-related-eating-feasibility-and-proof-of-concept
#20
Ashley E Mason, Kinnari Jhaveri, Michael Cohn, Judson A Brewer
Theoretically driven smartphone-delivered behavioral interventions that target mechanisms underlying eating behavior are lacking. In this study, we administered a 28-day self-paced smartphone-delivered intervention rooted in an operant conditioning theoretical framework that targets craving-related eating using mindful eating practices. At pre-intervention and 1-month post-intervention, we assessed food cravings among adult overweight or obese women (N = 104; M age = 46.2 ± 14.1 years; M BMI = 31...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
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