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Viola Andresen, Peter Layer
The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) counts among the most prevalent chronic diseases. Clinically, the IBS is characterized by abdominal symptoms combined with irregular defecation, which are not explained by routine diagnostic tests. IBS is often triggered by enteric bacterial infections, and its pathogenesis involves disturbed enteric, gut-brain, and cerebral mechanisms. Diagnostic work-up must aim to establish a positive IBS diagnosis, and to exclude serious underlying differential diagnoses (such as neoplasia, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease and others)...
March 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Claudia Schadow, Hanna Schmidt, Alexander Schorcht, Frank Meyer
MEDICAL HISTORY AND CLINICAL FINDINGS:  A 43-year old male patient was admitted because of diffuse abdominal discomfort for two days, which had started in the upper abdomen; medical history, no previous surgical interventions at the abdomen. INVESTIGATIONS:  Gastroscopy and abdominal ultrasound revealed only a mild gastritis. Laboratory parameters: showed only a slight leucocytosis (10 610/µL). On the 1st day of the hospital stay, the patient developed a worsening of the abdominal symptoms with distended abdomen, sounding bowel movements and recurrent vomiting, which were interpreted as acute abdomen by the surgeon on call leading to the indication of a surgical intervention...
March 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Jia Wen, Ying Fang, Guangming Zeng
The efficient removal of heavy metals (HMs) from the environment has become an important issue from both biological and environmental perspectives. Recently, porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), combining central metals and organic ligands, have been proposed as promising materials in the capture of various toxic substances, including HMs, due to their unique characteristics. Here we review recent progress in the field of water remediation from the perspective of primary HMs (including divalent metals and variable-valent metals) in water pollution and the corresponding MOFs (including virgin and modified MOFs, magnetic MOFs composites and so on) that can remove these metals from water...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Yilong Hua, Wei Wang, Xiaoyue Huang, Tianhang Gu, Dexin Ding, Lan Ling, Wei-Xian Zhang
Bicarbonate, ubiquitous in natural and waste waters is an important factor regulating the rate and efficiency of pollutant separation and transformation. For example, it can form complexes with U(VI) in the aqueous phase and at the solid-water interface. In this work, we investigated the effect of bicarbonate on the aging of nanoscale zero-valent (nZVI) in the context of U(VI) reduction and removal from wastewater. For fresh nZVI, over 99% aqueous uranium was separated in less than 10 min, of which 83% was reduced from U(VI) to U(IV)...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Sajitha Biju, Sigfredo Fuentes, Dorin Gupta
Lentil (Lens culinaris, Medik.) is an important legume crop, which often experience drought stress especially at the flowering and grain filling phenological stages. The availability of efficient and robust screening tools based on relevant non-destructive quantifiable traits would facilitate research on crop improvement for drought tolerance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the drought tolerance of 37 lentil genotypes using infrared thermal imaging (IRTI), drought tolerance parameters and multivariate data analysis...
March 8, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Abhinandan Mani Tripathi, Abhishek Niranjan, Sribash Roy
Development of flower color in plants is a complex process. Among others, it is an important trait for ornamental flowering plants. Canna is a flowering ornamental plant of family Cannaceae. To understand the molecular mechanism of flower color development in Canna, RNA sequencing from flower tissues of two contrasting flower color cultivars, Red President (RP) and Tropical Sunrise (TS) was performed. More than 27.0 million and 19.0 million clean reads were obtained from RP and TS, respectively. The combined clean reads were assembled into 147,295 unigenes...
March 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Ande Rostvall, Wen Zhang, Wiebke Dürig, Gunno Renman, Karin Wiberg, Lutz Ahrens, Pablo Gago-Ferrero
This study evaluated the performance of five different sorbents (granular activated carbon (GAC), GAC + Polonite® (GAC + P), Xylit, lignite and sand) for a set of 83 micropollutants (MPs) (pharmaceuticals, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), personal care products, artificial sweeteners, parabens, pesticide, stimulants), together representing a wide range of physicochemical properties. Treatment with GAC and GAC + P provided the highest removal efficiencies, with average values above 97%. Removal rates were generally lower for Xylit (on average 74%) and lignite (on average 68%), although they proved to be highly efficient for a few individual MPs...
March 6, 2018: Water Research
Alzbeta Bujnakova Mlynarcikova, Sona Scsukova
In the present study, we aimed to examine effects of different concentrations of the endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A (BPA; 1 nM, 1 μM, 100 μM) and the flavonoid fisetin (1, 10, 25, 50 μM), individually and in combinations, on steroidogenic function of porcine ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) represented by progesterone production. We confirmed that BPA inhibited progesterone production by GCs at the highest concentration. Fisetin reduced gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone synthesis dose-dependently, and in this manner, fisetin impaired progesterone production when added to BPA-treated GCs...
March 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Wei Tse Li, Hao Zheng, Vincent Nguyen, Jessica Wang-Rodriguez, Weg M Ongkeko
Though bladder urothelial carcinoma is the most common form of bladder cancer, advances in its diagnosis and treatment have been modest in the past few decades. To evaluate miRNAs as putative disease markers for bladder urothelial carcinoma, this study develops a process to identify dysregulated miRNAs in cancer patients and potentially stratify patients based on the association of their microRNAome phenotype to genomic alterations. Using RNA sequencing data for 409 patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas, we examined miRNA differential expression between cancer and normal tissues and associated differentially expressed miRNAs with patient survival and clinical variables...
March 12, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Paulo R Frade, Luiza Notini, Sara V Santos, Regina F P M Moreira, Mônica M D Leão, Camila C Amorim
In this study, the steel manufacturing waste Basic Oxygen Furnace Sludge (BOFS) was tested as permeable reactive material for the remediation of soil contaminated with chromium. The material presents a high content of elemental iron and iron oxides typical of the steel manufacturing process. Here we propose a scheme of the chemical reactions responsible for remediation process including BOFS dissolution, Cr(VI) reduction and Cr(III) precipitation. Batch reactors showed that Cr(VI) removal increases as the pH decreases...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Qianyi Zhang, Evan G R Davies, James R Bolton, Yang Liu
Monochloramine (NH2 Cl) is widely used for secondary disinfection by water utilities. However, Edmonton field stormwater sampling results have shown that NH2 Cl, because of its long-lasting property, can cause stormwater contamination through outdoor potable water uses during the summer season. To protect water sources, it is important to understand NH2 Cl dissipation mechanisms in stormwater. Natural organic matter (NOM) is the dominant species that contributes to NH2 Cl decay in stormwater. In this research, it is proposed that NOM reacted with both NH2 Cl and free chlorine through rapid and long-term reactions during NH2 Cl dissipation...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Congyan Wang, Kun Jiang, Jiawei Zhou, Bingde Wu
Soil nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities (SNB) can increase the level of available soil N via biological N-fixation to facilitate successful invasion of several invasive plant species (IPS). Meanwhile, landscape heterogeneity can greatly enhance regional invasibility and increase the chances of successful invasion of IPS. Thus, it is important to understand the soil micro-ecological mechanisms driving the successful invasion of IPS in heterogeneous landscapes. This study performed cross-site comparisons, via metagenomics, to comprehensively analyze the effects of Solidago canadensis invasion on SNB in heterogeneous landscapes in urban ecosystems...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jennifer Lopez Barrilao, Bernd Kuhn, Egbert Wessel
In the present study a stainless, high strength, ferritic (non-martensitic) steel was analysed regarding microstructure and particle evolution. The preceding hot-rolling process of the steel results in the formation of sub-grain structures, which disappear over time at high temperature. Besides that the formation of particle-free zones was observed. The pronounced formation of these zones preferentially appears close to high angle grain boundaries and is considered to be responsible for long-term material failure under creep conditions...
February 23, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Mathias Reisbeck, Lukas Richter, Michael Johannes Helou, Stephan Arlinghaus, Birgit Anton, Ignas van Dommelen, Mario Nitzsche, Michael Baßler, Barbara Kappes, Oliver Friedrich, Oliver Hayden
Time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic sensing of rolling immunomagnetically-labeled cells offers great potential for single cell function analysis at the bedside in even optically opaque media, such as whole blood. However, due to the spatial resolution of the sensor and the low flow rate regime required to observe the behavior of rolling cells, the concentration range of such a workflow is limited. Potential clinical applications, such as testing of leukocyte function, require a cytometer which can cover a cell concentration range of several orders of magnitude...
March 12, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Jinkyu Lee, Yongnam Song, Choongsoo S Shin
BACKGROUND: During landing, the ankle angle at initial contact (IC) exhibits relatively wide individual variation compared to the knee and hip angles. However, little is known about the effect of different IC ankle angles on energy dissipation. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between individual ankle angles at IC and energy dissipation in the lower extremity joints. METHODS: Twenty-seven adults performed single-leg landings from a 0...
March 7, 2018: Gait & Posture
Jocelyn F Hafer, Katherine A Boyer
BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with a loss of mobility and altered gait mechanics. Loss of function and mobility may be due to or exacerbated by low levels of physical activity in the aged. The mechanisms linking age-related changes in physiology, altered mobility and gait may be elucidated by examining movement coordination and coordination variability. RESEARCH QUESTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of age and habitual physical activity level on segment coordination and coordination variability during gait...
February 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
Heida Maria Sigurdardottir, Liv Elisabet Fridriksdottir, Sigridur Gudjonsdottir, Árni Kristjánsson
Evidence of interdependencies of face and word processing mechanisms suggest possible links between reading problems and abnormal face processing. In two experiments we assessed such high-level visual deficits in people with a history of reading problems. Experiment 1 showed that people who were worse at face matching had greater reading problems. In experiment 2, matched dyslexic and typical readers were tested, and difficulties with face matching were consistently found to predict dyslexia over and above both novel-object matching as well as matching noise patterns that shared low-level visual properties with faces...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
Yi-Lei Fan, Xiao-Hong Jin, Zhong-Ping Huang, Hai-Feng Yu, Zhi-Gang Zeng, Tao Gao, Lian-Shun Feng
Tuberculosis still remains one of the most common, communicable, and leading deadliest diseases known to mankind throughout the world. Drug-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis which threatens to worsen the global tuberculosis epidemic has caused great concern in recent years. To overcome the resistance, the development of new drugs with novel mechanisms of actions is of great importance. Imidazole-containing derivatives endow with various biological properties, and some of them demonstrated excellent anti-tubercular activity...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Anushka C Galasiti Kankanamalage, Yunjeong Kim, Vishnu C Damalanka, Athri D Rathnayake, Anthony R Fehr, Nurjahan Mehzabeen, Kevin P Battaile, Scott Lovell, Gerald H Lushington, Stanley Perlman, Kyeong-Ok Chang, William C Groutas
There are currently no approved vaccines or small molecule therapeutics available for the prophylaxis or treatment of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections. MERS-CoV 3CL protease is essential for viral replication; consequently, it is an attractive target that provides a potentially effective means of developing small molecule therapeutics for combatting MERS-CoV. We describe herein the structure-guided design and evaluation of a novel class of inhibitors of MERS-CoV 3CL protease that embody a piperidine moiety as a design element that is well-suited to exploiting favorable subsite binding interactions to attain optimal pharmacological activity and PK properties...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Wei Qian, Xiaodong Hu, Weifeng He, Rixing Zhan, Menglong Liu, Daijun Zhou, Yong Huang, Xiaohong Hu, Zhanhua Wang, Guoxia Fei, Jun Wu, Malcolm Xing, Hesheng Xia, Gaoxing Luo
Toward fabricating a novel multifunctional wound dressing material, we incorporated a series of contents of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix to prepare the rGO-PDMS composite membrane and be used for wound dressing. The pore structure, dispersion of rGO, physical properties, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity were studied. Finally, the effect of the rGO-PDMS composite membrane on wound healing was investigated on a murine full-thickness skin wound model...
March 12, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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