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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327560/revised-domain-structure-of-ulvan-lyase-and-characterization-of-the-first-ulvan-binding-domain
#1
Rebecca L J Melcher, Marten Neumann, Juan Pablo Fuenzalida Werner, Franziska Gröhn, Bruno M Moerschbacher
Biomass waste products from green algae have recently been given new life, as these polysaccharides have potential applications in industry, agriculture, and medicine. One such polysaccharide group called ulvans displays many different, potentially useful properties that arise from their structural versatility. Hence, performing structural analyses on ulvan is crucial for future applications. However, chemical reaction-based analysis methods cannot fully characterize ulvan and tend to alter its structure. Thus, better methods require well-characterized ulvan-degrading enzymes...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327518/myeloid-c-type-lectin-receptors-in-viral-recognition-and-antiviral-immunity
#2
REVIEW
João T Monteiro, Bernd Lepenies
Recognition of viral glycans by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in innate immunity contributes to antiviral immune responses. C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are PRRs capable of sensing glycans present in viral pathogens to activate antiviral immune responses such as phagocytosis, antigen processing and presentation, and subsequent T cell activation. The ability of CLRs to elicit and shape adaptive immunity plays a critical role in the inhibition of viral spread within the host. However, certain viruses exploit CLRs for viral entry into host cells to avoid immune recognition...
March 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326085/dectin-1-compromises-innate-responses-and-host-resistance-against-neospora-caninum-infection
#3
Murilo Vieira da Silva, Flávia Batista Ferreira França, Caroline Martins Mota, Arlindo Gomes de Macedo Júnior, Eliézer Lucas Pires Ramos, Fernanda Maria Santiago, José Roberto Mineo, Tiago Wilson Patriarca Mineo
Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite that has drawn increasing interest due to its association with worldwide repetitive bovine abortions, which cause billionaire losses to the meat and dairy industries annually. Innate immunity plays an important role in infection control, and N. caninum activates the production of inflammatory mediators through toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Advances in the knowledge of initial host-parasite interactions are desirable for the design of control measures against the infection, obliterating its pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326063/lactobacillus-reuteri-surface-mucus-adhesins-upregulate-inflammatory-responses-through-interactions-with-innate-c-type-lectin-receptors
#4
Krisztián P Bene, Devon W Kavanaugh, Charlotte Leclaire, Allan P Gunning, Donald A MacKenzie, Alexandra Wittmann, Ian D Young, Norihito Kawasaki, Eva Rajnavolgyi, Nathalie Juge
The vertebrate gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri exhibits strain-specific adhesion and health-promoting properties. Here, we investigated the role of the mucus adhesins, CmbA and MUB, upon interaction of L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 strains with human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). We showed that mucus adhesins increased the capacity of L. reuteri strains to interact with moDCs and promoted phagocytosis. Our data also indicated that mucus adhesins mediate anti- and pro-inflammatory effects by the induction of interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 cytokines...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324600/light-sheet-fluorescence-microscopy-chemical-clearing-and-labeling-protocols-for-ultramicroscopy
#5
Nina Jährling, Klaus Becker, Saiedeh Saghafi, Hans-Ulrich Dodt
Light-sheet microscopy is an effective technique in neuroscience, developmental biology, and cancer research for visualizing and analyzing cellular networks and whole organs in three dimensions. Because this technique requires specimens to be translucent they commonly have to be cleared before microscopy inspection. Here, we provide 3DISCO based protocols for preparing cleared samples of immuno-stained neural networks, lectin-labeled vascular networks, and Methoxy-X04 labeled beta-amyloid plaques in mice. 3DISCO utilizes the lipophilic solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dibenzylether (DBE) for dehydration and successive clearing...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323416/one-pot-two-nanoprobe-assay-uncovers-targeted-glycoprotein-biosignature
#6
Mira Anne C Dela Rosa, Wei-Chun Chen, Yi-Ju Chen, Rofeamor P Obena, Chih-Hsiang Chang, Rey Y Capangpangan, Tung-Hung Su, Chi-Ling Chen, Pei-Jer Chen, Yu-Ju Chen
We report a one-pot two-nanoprobe approach coupled to mass spectrometry for simultaneous quantification and post-translational modification (PTM) profiling of targeted protein in biofluid. Using N-glycoprotein as model, the assay employs two nanoprobes, antibody-conjugated SiO2 nanoparticles and lectin-conjugated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, to achieve target glycoprotein isolation from biofluid and subsequent glycopeptide enrichment in a single tube. As demonstrated on α-fetoprotein (AFP), a serum biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the assay has high purification specificity (20 glycopeptides) with 2-fold and 10-fold superior total glycopeptide intensity compared to non-one-pot method (9 glycopeptides) or without enrichment (6 glycopeptides), respectively...
March 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322922/antiviral-lectins-selective-inhibitors-of-viral-entry
#7
REVIEW
Carter A Mitchell, Koreen Ramessar, Barry R O'Keefe
Many natural lectins have been reported to have antiviral activity. As some of these have been put forward as potential development candidates for preventing or treating viral infections, we have set out in this review to survey the literature on antiviral lectins. The review groups lectins by structural class and class of source organism we also detail their carbohydrate specificity and their reported antiviral activities. The review concludes with a brief discussion of several of the pertinent hurdles that heterologous proteins must clear to be useful clinical candidates and cites examples where such studies have been reported for antiviral lectins...
March 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322582/man%C3%AE-1-2man-binding-anti-hiv-lectins-enhance-the-exposure-of-v2i-and-v3-crown-neutralization-epitopes-on-the-v1v2-and-v3-hypervariable-loops-of-hiv-1-envelope
#8
Muzafar Jan, Chitra Upadhyay, Aman Sharma, Caterina E Hioe, Sunil K Arora
This study aimed to explore the contribution of high mannose glycans in the masking of conserved GPG and LDI/V containing V3 crown and V2i epitopes on the hypervariable loops of most exposed distal surface of HIV-1 Env. Using lectins specific to Manα1-2Man residue containing Man6-9GlcNAc2 glycans extensively decorating HIV-1 Env, we found that Manα1-2Man binding lectins enhance the exposure of these partially and transiently exposed epitopes and consequentially increase the neutralization strength of these antibodies...
March 21, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321213/cd161-tconv-and-cd161-treg-share-a-transcriptional-and-functional-phenotype-despite-limited-overlap-in-tcr%C3%AE-repertoire
#9
Chantal L Duurland, Chrysothemis C Brown, Ryan F L O'Shaughnessy, Lucy R Wedderburn
Human regulatory T cells (Treg) are important in immune regulation, but can also show plasticity in specific settings. CD161 is a lectin-like receptor and its expression identifies an effector-like Treg population. Here, we determined how CD161(+) Treg relate to CD161(+) conventional T cells (Tconv). Transcriptional profiling identified a shared transcriptional signature between CD161(+) Tconv and CD161(+) Treg, which is associated with T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, and tissue homing, including high expression of gut-homing receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318230/label-free-discovery-array-platform-for-the-characterization-of-glycan-binding-proteins-and-glycoproteins
#10
Christopher John Gray, Antonio Sánchez-Ruiz, Ivana Šardzíková, Yassir A Ahmed, Rebecca Louise Miller, Juana E Reyes Martinez, Edward Pallister, Kun Huang, Peter Both, Mirja Hartmann, Hannah N Roberts, Robert Šardzik, Santanu Mandal, Jeremy E Turnbull, Claire E Eyers, Sabine L Flitsch
The identification of carbohydrate-protein interactions is central to our understanding of the roles of cell-surface carbohydrates (the glycocalyx), fundamental for cell-recognition events. Therefore there is a need for fast high-throughput biochemical tools to capture the complexity of these biological interactions. Here we describe a rapid method for qualitative label-free detection of carbohydrate-protein interactions on arrays of simple synthetic glycans, more com-plex natural glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and lectins/carbohydrate binding proteins using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry...
March 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318079/design-and-synthesis-of-galactosylated-bifurcated-ligands-with-nanomolar-affinity-for-lectin-leca-from-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#11
Anthony Angeli, Muchen Li, Lucie Dupin, Gerard Vergoten, Mathieu Noel, Mimouna Madaoui, Shuai Wang, Albert Meyer, Thomas Gehin, Sebastien Vidal, Jean-Jacques Vasseur, Yann Chevolot, Francois Morvan
Lectin LecA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is established as a virulent factor. Glycoclusters targeting LecA able to compete with human glycoconjugates present on epithelial cells are promising candidates to treat P. aeruginosa infection. A family of 32 glycodendrimers of generation 0 and 1 displaying bifurcated bis-galactosides has been designed to interact with LecA. The influence of both the central multivalent core and the aglycon of these glycodendrimers on their affinity toward LecA has been evaluated using a microarray technology both qualitatively for a rapid screening of the binding properties but also quantitatively (Kd) leading to high affinity LecA ligands with Kd values in the low nanomolar range (Kd = 22 nM for the best one)...
March 20, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318015/plasma-levels-of-masp-1-masp-3-and-map44-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-influence-of-glycaemic-control-body-composition-and-polymorphisms-in-the-masp1-gene
#12
Sara Skov Krogh, Charlotte Brinck Holt, Rudi Steffensen, Kristian Løkke Funck, Pernille Høyem, Esben Laugesen, Per Løgstrup Poulsen, Steffen Thiel, Troels Krarup Hansen
Mounting evidence indicates that adverse activation of the complement system plays a role in the development of diabetic vascular complications. Plasma levels of the complement proteins mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and its associated serine proteases (MASP-1 and MASP-2) are elevated in diabetes. We hypothesised that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MASP1 gene may contribute to altered plasma levels of the belonging gene products; MASP-1, MASP-3 and mannan-binding lectin-associated protein of 44 kDa (MAp44) in patients with type 2 diabetes...
March 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316982/hidden-igg-antibodies-to-the-tumor-associated-thomsen-friedenreich-antigen-in-gastric-cancer-patients-lectin-reactivity-avidity-and-clinical-relevance
#13
Oleg Kurtenkov, Kersti Klaamas
Natural antibodies to the tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF) are related to tumor immunosurveillance and cancer patients' survival. Hidden IgG antibodies (HAbs) to TF, their lectin reactivity, avidity, and clinical relevance were studied. HAbs were present in cancer patients and controls. A decreased level of IgG HAbs was detected in cancer. The HAbs level positively correlated with the sialospecific SNA lectin binding in purified total IgG (tIgG) in donors and cancer patients, indicating that HAbs are higher sialylated...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315789/involvement-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-afforded-by-activation-of-lox-1-tgf-%C3%AE-1-klf6-signaling-pathway-in-diabetic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#14
Xiao-Zhou Zou, Zhi-Cheng Gong, Ting Liu, Fang He, Tian-Tian Zhu, Dai Li, Wei-Fang Zhang, Jun-Lin Jiang, Chang-Ping Hu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Diabetic pulmonary fibrosis is a severe disease that increases mortality risk of diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to pulmonary fibrosis in diabetes are poorly understood. This study investigated the roles of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the associated molecular mechanisms in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rat pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: The rat model of diabetic pulmonary fibrosis was established by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of STZ (35 mg/kg)...
March 15, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315765/modulation-of-immunocyte-functions-by-a-mucin-specific-lectin-from-aspergillus-gorakhpurensis
#15
Ram Sarup Singh, Hemant Preet Kaur, John F Kennedy
Lectins are non-immune proteins or glycoproteins with the ability to induce cell agglutination and mediate cellular and molecular recognition processes in a variety of biological interactions. Recently, several mushroom lectins have been reported to show immunomodulatory activities.The immunomodulatory potential of purified A. gorakhpurensis lectin was determined by evaluating its effect on systemic anaphylaxis reaction, arthus reaction, respiratory burst activity, nitric oxide production and levels of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-6...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306237/the-glycan-microarray-story-from-construction-to-applications
#16
Ji Young Hyun, Jaeyoung Pai, Injae Shin
Not only are glycan-mediated binding processes in cells and organisms essential for a wide range of physiological processes, but they are also implicated in various pathological processes. As a result, elucidation of glycan-associated biomolecular interactions and their consequences is of great importance in basic biological research and biomedical applications. In 2002, we and others were the first to utilize glycan microarrays in efforts aimed at the rapid analysis of glycan-associated recognition events...
March 17, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303635/incident-microalbuminuria-and-complement-factor-mannan-binding-lectin-associated-protein-19-in-people-with-newly-diagnosed-type-1-diabetes
#17
J A Ostergaard, S Thiel, I T Hoffmann-Petersen, P Hovind, H-H Parving, L Tarnow, P Rossing, T K Hansen
BACKGROUND: Evidence links the lectin pathway of complement activation to diabetic kidney disease. Upon carbohydrate-recognition by pattern-recognition molecules, e.g., mannan-binding lectin (MBL), the MBL-associated serine protease (MASP-2) is activated and initiates the complement cascade. The MASP2 gene encodes MASP-2 and the alternative splice product MBL-associated protein 19 (MAp19). Both MAp19 and MASP-2 circulate in complex with MBL. We tested the hypothesis that MAp19 and MASP-2 concentrations predict the risk of incident microalbuminuria...
March 16, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302328/experimental-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-mediated-rhino-sinusitis-in-mink
#18
S Kirkeby, A S Hammer, N Høiby, C M Salomonsen
OBJECTIVES: The nasal and sinus cavities in children may serve as reservoirs for microorganisms that cause recurrent and chronic lung infections. This study evaluates whether the mink can be used as an animal model for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis since there is no suitable traditional animal model for this disease. METHODS: Nasal tissue samples from infected and control mink were fixed in formalin, demineralized, and embedded in paraffin...
December 27, 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301559/synergy-between-the-classical-and-alternative-pathways-of-complement-is-essential-for-conferring-effective-protection-against-the-pandemic-influenza-a-h1n1-2009-virus-infection
#19
Ajitanuj Rattan, Shailesh D Pawar, Renuka Nawadkar, Neeraja Kulkarni, Girdhari Lal, Jayati Mullick, Arvind Sahu
The pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus caused significant morbidity and mortality worldwide thus necessitating the need to understand the host factors that influence its control. Previously, the complement system has been shown to provide protection during the seasonal influenza virus infection, however, the role of individual complement pathways is not yet clear. Here, we have dissected the role of intact complement as well as of its individual activation pathways during the pandemic influenza virus infection using mouse strains deficient in various complement components...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301481/colec10-is-mutated-in-3mc-patients-and-regulates-early-craniofacial-development
#20
Mustafa M Munye, Anna Diaz-Font, Louise Ocaka, Maiken L Henriksen, Melissa Lees, Angela Brady, Dagan Jenkins, Jenny Morton, Soren W Hansen, Chiara Bacchelli, Philip L Beales, Victor Hernandez-Hernandez
3MC syndrome is an autosomal recessive heterogeneous disorder with features linked to developmental abnormalities. The main features include facial dysmorphism, craniosynostosis and cleft lip/palate; skeletal structures derived from cranial neural crest cells (cNCC). We previously reported that lectin complement pathway genes COLEC11 and MASP1/3 are mutated in 3MC syndrome patients. Here we define a new gene, COLEC10, also mutated in 3MC families and present novel mutations in COLEC11 and MASP1/3 genes in a further five families...
March 16, 2017: PLoS Genetics
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