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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774231/semaphorin3a-signaling-is-dispensable-for-motor-axon-reinnervation-of-the-adult-neuromuscular-junction
#1
Jennifer L Shadrach, Brian A Pierchala
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a specialized synapse that is formed by motor axon innervation of skeletal muscle fibers. The maintenance of motor-muscle connectivity is critical for the preservation of muscle tone and generation of movement. Injury can induce a robust regenerative response in motor axons, but severe trauma or chronic denervation resulting from neurodegenerative disease typically leads to inefficient repair and poor functional recovery. The axon guidance molecule Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) has been implicated as a negative regulator of motor innervation...
May 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774102/targeting-tie-2-angiopoietin-axis-in-experimental-mesothelioma-confers-differential-responses-and-raises-predictive-implications
#2
Sophia Magkouta, Apostolos Pappas, Ioannis S Pateras, Androniki Kollintza, Charalampos Moschos, Maria-Eleni Vazakidou, Vasiliki Karavana, Vassilis G Gorgoulis, Ioannis Kalomenidis
Malignant pleural mesothelioma is resistant to currently used treatment. Angiopoieitn-1 directly promotes mesothelioma cell growth in a Tie-2-dependent fashion. Angiopoietin/Tie-2 axis may thus be valid targets for therapeutic interventions against mesothelioma. We hypothesized that a soluble angiopoietin inhibitor (Murine Tek-deltaFc) would halt mesothelioma progression in vivo by enhancing mesothelioma cell proliferation and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. Our hypothesis was challenged on two syngeneic mesothelioma in vivo models (AB1 cells-Balb/c mice and AE17 cells-C57BL/6 mice...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774009/signaling-pathways-and-cellular-mechanisms-regulating-mossy-fiber-sprouting-in-the-development-of-epilepsy
#3
REVIEW
Christin M Godale, Steve C Danzer
The sprouting of hippocampal dentate granule cell axons, termed mossy fibers, into the dentate inner molecular layer is one of the most consistent findings in tissue from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Decades of research in animal models have revealed that mossy fiber sprouting creates de novo recurrent excitatory connections in the hippocampus, fueling speculation that the pathology may drive temporal lobe epileptogenesis. Conducting definitive experiments to test this hypothesis, however, has been challenging due to the difficulty of dissociating this sprouting from the many other changes occurring during epileptogenesis...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773495/metabolic-changes-in-bladder-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Benjamin L Woolbright, Matthew Ayres, John A Taylor
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Bladder cancer is a common solid tumor. Outcomes are poor in advanced disease, with few novel clinical therapeutics introduced over the previous several decades. Otto Warburg's original hypothesis that cancer cells use aerobic glycolysis to produce ATP instead of traditional oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria was a landmark discovery in its time. Recent studies indicate metabolic changes in cancer are far more complex than originally anticipated though...
May 14, 2018: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773197/efficient-zinc-uptake-is-critical-for-the-ability-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-to-express-virulence-traits-and-colonize-the-human-lung
#5
Maria Chiara Mastropasqua, Iain Lamont, Lois W Martin, David W Reid, Melania D'Orazio, Andrea Battistoni
We have recently shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen that chronically infects the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and other forms of lung disease, is extremely efficient in recruiting zinc from the environment and that this capability is required for its ability to cause acute lung infections in mice. To verify that P. aeruginosa faces zinc shortage when colonizing the lungs of human patients, we analyzed the expression of three genes that are highly induced under conditions of zinc deficiency (zrmA, dksA2 and rpmE2), in bacteria in the sputum of patients with inflammatory lung disease...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772801/ogt-o-glcnac-transferase-selectively-modifies-multiple-residues-unique-to-lamin-a
#6
Dan N Simon, Amanda Wriston, Qiong Fan, Jeffrey Shabanowitz, Alyssa Florwick, Tejas Dharmaraj, Sherket B Peterson, Yosef Gruenbaum, Cathrine R Carlson, Line M Grønning-Wang, Donald F Hunt, Katherine L Wilson
The LMNA gene encodes lamins A and C with key roles in nuclear structure, signaling, gene regulation, and genome integrity. Mutations in LMNA cause over 12 diseases ('laminopathies'). Lamins A and C are identical for their first 566 residues. However, they form separate filaments in vivo, with apparently distinct roles. We report that lamin A is β- O -linked N -acetylglucosamine- (O -GlcNAc)-modified in human hepatoma (Huh7) cells and in mouse liver. In vitro assays with purified O -GlcNAc transferase (OGT) enzyme showed robust O -GlcNAcylation of recombinant mature lamin A tails (residues 385⁻646), with no detectable modification of lamin B1, lamin C, or 'progerin' (Δ50) tails...
May 17, 2018: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772440/inhibition-of-nogo-b-promotes-cardiac-hypertrophy-via-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#7
Junli Li, Wenchao Wu, Yanguo Xin, Mingyue Zhao, Xiaojing Liu
AIMS: Nogo-B is a key endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein that regulates ER stress signaling. However, its role in cardiac hypertrophy remains poorly understood. ER stress is interrelated with autophagy in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, we aimed to test the hypothesis that both ER stress and autophagy signaling mediate the function of Nogo-B in cardiac hypertrophy. MAIN METHODS: Rat models of transverse aortic constriction (TAC), neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) stimulated with norepinephrine (Ne) and primary cardiac fibroblasts treated with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) were used in this study...
May 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770906/volatile-and-contact-chemical-cues-associated-with-host-and-mate-recognition-behavior-of-sphenophorus-venatus-and-sphenophorus-parvulus-coleoptera-dryophthoridae
#8
Alexandra G Duffy, Gabriel P Hughes, Matthew D Ginzel, Douglas S Richmond
Beetles in the genus Sphenophorus Schönherr, or billbugs, potentially utilize both volatile and non-volatile behavior-modifying chemical signals. These insects are widely distributed across North America, often occurring in multi-species assemblages in grasses. However, details about their host- and mate-finding behavior are poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that volatile organic compounds from host-plants and conspecifics direct the dispersal behavior of hunting billbug S. venatus Say. Further, we characterized the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of two widespread pest species, S...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769661/circulating-mir-374a-5p-is-a-potential-modulator-of-the-inflammatory-process-in-obesity
#9
Ayo P Doumatey, William J He, Amadou Gaye, Lin Lei, Jie Zhou, Gary H Gibbons, Adebowale Adeyemo, Charles N Rotimi
Obese individuals without expected metabolic co-morbidities are referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO). The molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotype remain elusive. MicroRNAs may be involved in the MHO phenotype. To test this hypothesis, we screened 179 serum miRNAs in 20 African-American women (10 MHOs and 10 metabolically abnormal obese individuals -MAO). We identified 8 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) with validation in an independent sample of 64 MHO and 34 MAO. Of the eight DEMs in the screening phase (p ≤ 0...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769319/repeated-exposure-of-epithelial-cells-to-apoptotic-cells-induces-the-specific-selection-of-an-adaptive-phenotype-implications-for-tumorigenesis
#10
Lanfei Feng, Snezana Vujicic, Michael E Dietrich, Natalia Litbarg, Suman Setty, Angelika Antoni, Joyce Rauch, Jerrold S Levine
The consequences of apoptosis extend beyond mere death of the cell. We have shown that receptor-mediated recognition of apoptotic target cells by viable kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) inhibits PTEC proliferation, growth, and survival. Here we tested the hypothesis that continual exposure to apoptotic targets can induce a phenotypic change in responding PTECs, as in other instances of natural selection. In particular, we demonstrate that repeated exposure to apoptotic targets leads to emergence of a PTEC line (denoted BU...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769268/pbdes-altered-gut-microbiome-and-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#11
Cindy Yanfei Li, Joseph L Dempsey, Dongfang Wang, SooWan Lee, Kris M Weigel, Qiang Fei, Deepak Kumar Bhatt, Bhagwat Prasad, Daniel Raftery, Haiwei Gu, Julia Yue Cui
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent environmental contaminants with well-characterized toxicities in host organs. Gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of xenobiotic biotransformation; however, little is known about its interactions with PBDEs. Primary bile acids (BAs) are metabolized by the gut microbiome into more lipophilic secondary BAs that may be absorbed and interact with certain host receptors. The goal of this study was to test our hypothesis that PBDEs cause dysbiosis and aberrant regulation of BA homeostasis...
May 16, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768444/ensemble-methods-for-stochastic-networks-with-special-reference-to-the-biological-clock-of-neurospora-crassa
#12
C Caranica, A Al-Omari, Z Deng, J Griffith, R Nilsen, L Mao, J Arnold, H-B Schüttler
A major challenge in systems biology is to infer the parameters of regulatory networks that operate in a noisy environment, such as in a single cell. In a stochastic regime it is hard to distinguish noise from the real signal and to infer the noise contribution to the dynamical behavior. When the genetic network displays oscillatory dynamics, it is even harder to infer the parameters that produce the oscillations. To address this issue we introduce a new estimation method built on a combination of stochastic simulations, mass action kinetics and ensemble network simulations in which we match the average periodogram and phase of the model to that of the data...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768301/germline-genome-wide-association-studies-in-women-receiving-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-with-or-without-bevacizumab
#13
James N Ingle, Krishna R Kalari, Donald Lawrence Wickerham, Gunter von Minckwitz, Peter A Fasching, Yoichi Furukawa, Taisei Mushiroda, Matthew P Goetz, Poulami Barman, Erin E Carlson, Priya Rastogi, Joseph P Costantino, Junmei Cairns, Soonmyung Paik, Harry D Bear, Michiaki Kubo, Liewei Wang, Norman Wolmark, Richard M Weinshilboum
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for breast cancer is widely utilized, and we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to determine whether germ-line genetic variability was associated with benefit in terms of pathological complete response (pCR), disease-free survival, and overall survival in patients entered on the NSABP B-40 NAC trial, wherein patients were randomized to receive, or not, bevacizumab in addition to chemotherapy. Patient DNA samples were genotyped with the Illumina OmniExpress BeadChip...
June 2018: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766295/the-impact-of-temporal-contingencies-between-cue-and-target-onset-on-spatial-attentional-capture-by-subliminal-onset-cues
#14
Tobias Schoeberl, Ulrich Ansorge
Prior research suggested that attentional capture by subliminal abrupt onset cues is stimulus driven. In these studies, reacting was faster when a searched-for target appeared at the location of a preceding abrupt onset cue compared to when the same target appeared at a location away from the cue (cueing effect), although the earlier onset of the cue was subliminal, because it appeared as one out of three horizontally aligned placeholders with a lead time that was too short to be noticed by the participants...
May 15, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765986/advanced-glycation-end-products-enhance-murine-monocyte-proliferation-in-bone-marrow-and-prime-them-into-an-inflammatory-phenotype-through-mapk-signaling
#15
Xian Jin, Liang Liu, Yaping Zhang, Yin Xiang, Guizhi Yin, Yi Lu, Ludong Shi, Jian Dong, Chengxing Shen
Objective: Increased monocytes, particularly the inflammatory subset, are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes through thus far incompletely defined mechanisms. The present study tested the hypothesis that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promote bone marrow monocytes to proliferate and drive them into an inflammatory phenotype. Methods and Results: In vivo, AGEs (25 mg/kg i.p. for 7 days) increased proportions of CD115+ monocytes and the inflammatory subset, the CD115+ Ly6Chigh cells, in murine bone marrow (flow cytometry analysis (FCM)), and enhanced gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 β and TNF- α ) but only slightly upregulated mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) (real-time PCR) in monocytes...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765685/discrepancies-in-the-spiking-threshold-and-frequency-sensitivity-of-nocturnal-moths-explainable-by-biases-in-the-canonical-auditory-stimulation-method
#16
Herve Thevenon, Gerit Pfuhl
The auditory stimulation method used in experiments on moth A cell(s) is generally believed to be adequate to characterize the encoding of bat echolocation signals. The stimulation method hosts, though, several biases. Their compounded effects can explain a range of discrepancies between the reported electrophysiological recordings and significantly alter the current interpretation. To test the hypothesis that the bias may significantly alter our current understanding of the moth's auditory transducer characteristics, papers using the same auditory stimulation method and reporting on either spiking threshold or spiking activity of the moth's A cells were analysed...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765359/comparing-microbiome-sampling-methods-in-a-wild-mammal-fecal-and-intestinal-samples-record-different-signals-of-host-ecology-evolution
#17
Melissa R Ingala, Nancy B Simmons, Claudia Wultsch, Konstantinos Krampis, Kelly A Speer, Susan L Perkins
The gut microbiome is a community of host-associated symbiotic microbes that fulfills multiple key roles in host metabolism, immune function, and tissue development. Given the ability of the microbiome to impact host fitness, there is increasing interest in studying the microbiome of wild animals to better understand these communities in the context of host ecology and evolution. Human microbiome research protocols are well established, but wildlife microbiome research is still a developing field. Currently, there is no standardized set of best practices guiding the collection of microbiome samples from wildlife...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765327/cardiovascular-adaptive-homeostasis-in-exercise
#18
Kelvin J A Davies
Adaptive Homeostasis has been defined as, "The transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range in response to exposure to sub-toxic, non-damaging, signaling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events." (Davies, 2016). I propose that one of the most significant examples of adaptive homeostasis may be the adaptation of the cardiovascular system to exercise training. In particular, endurance type training involves the generation of increased levels of free radicals such as ubisemiquinone, superoxide, nitric oxide, and other (non-radical) reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), in a repetitive manner, typically several times per week...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764985/responses-to-systemic-nitrogen-signaling-in-arabidopsis-roots-involve-trans-zeatin-in-shoots
#19
Arthur Poitout, Amandine Crabos, Ivan Petřík, Ondřej Novák, Gabriel Krouk, Benoît Lacombe, Sandrine Ruffel
Plants face temporal and spatial variation in nitrogen (N) availability. This includes heterogeneity in soil nitrate (NO3-) content. To overcome these constraints, plants modify their gene expression and physiological processes to optimize N acquisition. This plasticity relies on a complex long-distance root-shoot-root signaling network that remains poorly understood. We previously showed that cytokinin (CK) biosynthesis is required to trigger systemic N signaling. Here, we performed split-root experiments and used a combination of CK-related mutant analyses, hormone profiling, transcriptomic analysis, NO3- uptake assays, and root growth measurements to gain insight into systemic N signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana...
May 15, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763693/influence-of-lipopolysaccharide-on-proinflammatory-gene-expression-in-human-corneal-conjunctival-and-meibomian-gland-epithelial-cells
#20
Di Chen, Afsun Sahin, Wendy R Kam, Yang Liu, Raheleh Rahimi Darabad, David A Sullivan
PURPOSE: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, is known to stimulate leuokotriene B4 (LTB4) secretion by human corneal (HCECs), conjunctival (HConjECs) and meibomian gland (HMGECs) epithelial cells. We hypothesize that this LTB4 effect represents an overall induction of proinflammatory gene expression in these cells. Our objective was to test this hypothesis. METHODS: Immortalized HCECs, HConjECs and HMGECs were cultured in the presence or absence of LPS (15 μg/ml) and ligand binding protein (LBP; 150 ng/ml)...
May 12, 2018: Ocular Surface
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