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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944926/upregulation-of-long-noncoding-rna-ap003419-16-predicts-high-risk-of-aging%C3%A2-associated-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#1
Xiaoyan Hao, Yufeng Du, Li Qian, Dan Li, Xuejun Liu
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are able to regulate adjacent genes and thus participate in the incidence in the present study has identified lncRNA AP003419.16, adjacent to the protein‑coding gene ribosomal protein S6 kinase B‑2 (RPS6KB2). RPS6KB2 is believed to be involved in the process of aging and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), due to its activation by growth factors and regulation by the protein kinase mTOR signaling pathway. The results of the present study indicated that the expression of AP003419...
September 25, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944305/network-organization-is-globally-atypical-in-autism-a-graph-theory-study-of-intrinsic-functional-connectivity
#2
Christopher L Keown, Michael C Datko, Colleen P Chen, José Omar Maximo, Afrooz Jahedi, Ralph-Axel Müller
BACKGROUND: Despite abundant evidence of brain network anomalies in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), findings have varied from broad functional underconnectivity to broad overconnectivity. Rather than pursuing overly simplifying general hypotheses ('under' vs. 'over'), we tested the hypothesis of atypical network distribution in ASD (i.e., participation of unusual loci in distributed functional networks). METHODS: We used a selective high-quality data subset from the ABIDE datashare (including 111 ASD and 174 typically developing [TD] participants) and several graph theory metrics...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943852/metabolic-stress-induced-activation-of-ampk-and-inhibition-of-constitutive-phosphoproteins-controlling-smooth-muscle-contraction-evidence-for-smooth-muscle-fatigue
#3
Corey A Smith, Amy S Miner, Robert W Barbee, Paul H Ratz
Metabolic stress diminishes smooth muscle contractile strength by a poorly defined mechanism. To test the hypothesis that metabolic stress activates a compensatory cell signaling program to reversibly downregulate contraction, arterial rings and bladder muscle strips in vitro were deprived of O2 and glucose for 30 and 60 min ("starvation") to induce metabolic stress, and the phosphorylation status of proteins involved in regulation of contraction and metabolic stress were assessed in tissues under basal and stimulated conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943845/self-reference-emerges-earlier-than-emotion-during-an-implicit-self-referential-emotion-processing-task-event-related-potential-evidence
#4
Haiyan Zhou, Jialiang Guo, Xiaomeng Ma, Minghui Zhang, Liqing Liu, Lei Feng, Jie Yang, Zhijiang Wang, Gang Wang, Ning Zhong
Self-referential emotion refers to the process of evaluating emotional stimuli with respect to the self. Processes indicative of a self-positivity bias are reflected in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals at ~400 ms when the task does not require a discrimination of self from other. However, when distinguishing between self-referential and other-referential emotions is required, previous studies have shown inconsistent temporal dynamics of EEG signals in slightly different tasks. Based on the observation of early self-other discrimination, we hypothesized that self would be rapidly activated in the early stage to modulate emotional processing in the late stage during an implicit self-referential emotion...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942496/neovascularization-during-leafy-gall-formation-on-arabidopsis-thaliana-upon-rhodococcus-fascians-infection
#5
Alicja Dolzblasz, Alicja Banasiak, Danny Vereecke
Extensive de novo vascularization of leafy galls emerging upon Rhodococcus fascians infection is achieved by fascicular/interfascicular cambium activity and transdifferentiation of parenchyma cells correlated with increased auxin signaling. A leafy gall consisting of fully developed yet growth-inhibited shoots, induced by the actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians, differs in structure compared to the callus-like galls induced by other bacteria. To get insight into the vascular development accompanying the emergence of the leafy gall, the anatomy of infected axillary regions of the inflorescence stem of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0 plants and the auxin response in pDR5:GUS-tagged plants were followed in time...
September 23, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941124/comparing-species-interaction-networks-along-environmental-gradients
#6
Loïc Pellissier, Camille Albouy, Jordi Bascompte, Nina Farwig, Catherine Graham, Michel Loreau, Maria Alejandra Maglianesi, Carlos J Melián, Camille Pitteloud, Tomas Roslin, Rudolf Rohr, Serguei Saavedra, Wilfried Thuiller, Guy Woodward, Niklaus E Zimmermann, Dominique Gravel
Knowledge of species composition and their interactions, in the form of interaction networks, is required to understand processes shaping their distribution over time and space. As such, comparing ecological networks along environmental gradients represents a promising new research avenue to understand the organization of life. Variation in the position and intensity of links within networks along environmental gradients may be driven by turnover in species composition, by variation in species abundances and by abiotic influences on species interactions...
September 22, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940761/the-cognitive-evolutionary-model-of-surprise-a-review-of-the-evidence
#7
Rainer Reisenzein, Gernot Horstmann, Achim Schützwohl
Research on surprise relevant to the cognitive-evolutionary model of surprise proposed by Meyer, Reisenzein, and Schützwohl (1997) is reviewed. The majority of the assumptions of the model are found empirically supported. Surprise is evoked by unexpected (schema-discrepant) events and its intensity is determined by the degree if schema-discrepancy, whereas the novelty and the valence of the eliciting events probably do not have an independent effect. Unexpected events cause an automatic interruption of ongoing mental processes that is followed by an attentional shift and attentional binding to the events, which is often followed by causal and other event analysis processes and by schema revision...
September 23, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939587/expression-and-genetic-variation-in-neuroendocrine-signaling-pathways-in-lethal-and-nonlethal-prostate-cancer-among-men-diagnosed-with-localized-disease
#8
Donghao Lu, Jessica Carlsson, Kathryn L Penney, Sabina Davidsson, Swen-Olof Andersson, Lorelei A Mucci, Unnur Valdimarsdóttir, Ove Andrén, Fang Fang, Katja Fall
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that neuroendocrine signaling pathways may play a role in the progression of prostate cancer, particularly for early-stage disease. We aimed to explore whether expression of selected genes in the adrenergic, serotoninergic, glucocorticoid, and dopaminergic pathways differs in prostate tumor tissue from men with lethal disease compared to men with nonlethal disease. METHODS: Based on the Swedish Watchful Waiting Cohort, we included 511 men diagnosed with incidental prostate cancer through TURP during 1977-1998 with follow-up up to 30 years...
September 22, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939341/prior-commitment-its-effect-on-suboptimal-choice-in-a-gambling-like-task
#9
Thomas R Zentall, Danielle M Andrews, Jacob P Case
Animals choose suboptimally when provided with cues that signal whether reinforcement is coming or not. For example, pigeons do not prefer an alternative that always provides them with a signal for reinforcement over an alternative that provides them with a signal for reinforcement only half of the time and a signal for the absence of reinforcement the rest of the time. In the present research, we tested the hypothesis that if the results of the choice are delayed, pigeons will choose less suboptimally. We tested this hypothesis by forcing pigeons to wait following their choice, requiring them to complete a fixed-interval 20-s schedule prior to receiving the signals for reinforcement...
September 19, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939029/captopril-improves-tumor-nanomedicine-delivery-by-increasing-tumor-blood-perfusion-and-enlarging-endothelial-gaps-in-tumor-blood-vessels
#10
Bo Zhang, Ting Jiang, Yanyan Tuo, Kai Jin, Zimiao Luo, Wei Shi, Heng Mei, Yu Hu, Zhiqing Pang, Xinguo Jiang
Poor tumor perfusion and unfavorable vessel permeability compromise nanomedicine drug delivery to tumors. Captopril dilates blood vessels, reducing blood pressure clinically and bradykinin, as the downstream signaling moiety of captopril, is capable of dilating blood vessels and effectively increasing vessel permeability. The hypothesis behind this study was that captopril can dilate tumor blood vessels, improving tumor perfusion and simultaneously enlarge the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels, therefore enhancing nanomedicine drug delivery for tumor therapy...
September 19, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938523/hypothermia-induced-by-anesthesia-regulates-various-signals-expressions-in-the-hippocampus-of-animals
#11
Huimei Hao, Shanshan Wang
Though important for a variety of medical procedures, general anesthesia is not a problem free. Some anesthetics have been suggested to affect a number of signals, which are associated with memory consolidation and cognition. In the present study, we attempted to investigate the molecular mechanism of anesthesia-regulated processes. We found that under hypothermic condition, anesthetic of isoflurane enhances various signals expression in hippocampus, including Hspd1, Actb, Mgst1, THBS4, Syp, C1QC, Serpine, Plat, and Ngf, which were related to cellular stress, neural plasticity responses, and hippocampal injury...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938441/canonical-wnt-signaling-regulates-the-pituitary-organizer-and-pituitary-gland-formation
#12
Allison M Osmundsen, Jessica L Keisler, M Mark Taketo, Shannon W Davis
The pituitary organizer is a domain within the ventral diencephalon that expresses Bmp4, Fgf8, and Fgf10, which induces the formation of the pituitary precursor, Rathke's pouch, from the oral ectoderm. The WNT signaling pathway regulates this pituitary organizer such that loss of Wnt5a leads to an expansion of the pituitary organizer and an enlargement of Rathke's pouch. WNT signaling is classified into canonical signaling, which is mediated by β-CATENIN, and non-canonical signaling, which operates independently of β-CATENIN...
August 16, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938425/linking-stress-and-infertility-a-novel-role-for-ghrelin
#13
Luba Sominsky, Deborah M Hodgson, Eileen A McLaughlin, Roger Smith, Hannah M Wall, Sarah J Spencer
Infertility affects a remarkable one in four couples in developing countries. Psychological stress is a ubiquitous facet of life, and while stress affects us all at some point, prolonged or unmanageable stress may become harmful for some individuals, negatively impacting on their health, including fertility. For instance, women who struggle to conceive are twice as likely to suffer from emotional distress than fertile women. Assisted reproductive technology treatments place an additional physical, emotional and financial burden of stress, particularly on women, who are often exposed to invasive techniques associated with treatment...
July 27, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936783/experimental-variation-of-the-level-and-the-ratio-of-angiogenic-and-osteogenic-signaling-affects-the-spatiotemporal-expression-of-bone-specific-markers-and-organization-of-bone-formation-in-ectopic-sites
#14
Norman Moser, Jan Goldstein, Phillip Kauffmann, Matthias Epple, Henning Schliephake
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the ratio of angiogenic and osteogenic signaling affects ectopic bone formation when delivered in different amounts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Porous composite PDLLA/CaCO3 scaffolds were loaded with rhBMP2 and rhVEGF in different dosage combinations and implanted into the gluteal muscles of 120 adult male Wistar rats. Bone formation and expression of alkaline phosphatase and Runx2 were quantified by histomorphometry...
September 22, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936162/rna-sequencing-analysis-reveals-a-regulatory-role-for-transcription-factor-fezf2-in-the-mature-motor-cortex
#15
Alison J Clare, Hollie E Wicky, Ruth M Empson, Stephanie M Hughes
Forebrain embryonic zinc finger (Fezf2) encodes a transcription factor essential for the specification of layer 5 projection neurons (PNs) in the developing cerebral cortex. As with many developmental transcription factors, Fezf2 continues to be expressed into adulthood, suggesting it remains crucial to the maintenance of neuronal phenotypes. Despite the continued expression, a function has yet to be explored for Fezf2 in the PNs of the developed cortex. Here, we investigated the role of Fezf2 in mature neurons, using lentiviral-mediated delivery of a shRNA to conditionally knockdown the expression of Fezf2 in the mouse primary motor cortex (M1)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935640/attenuation-of-pulmonary-ace2-activity-impairs-inactivation-of-des-arg9-bradykinin-bkb1r-axis-and-facilitates-lps-induced-neutrophil-infiltration
#16
Chhinder P Sodhi, Christine Wohlford-Lenane, Yukihiro Yamaguchi, Thomas Prindle, William B Fulton, Sanxia Wang, Paul B McCray, Mark C Chappell, David J Hackam, Hongpeng Jia
Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a terminal carboxypeptidase with important functions in the renin angiotensin system and plays a critical role in inflammatory lung diseases. ACE2 cleaves single terminal residues from several bioactive peptides such as angiotensin II. However, few of its substrates in the respiratory tract have been identified and the mechanism underlying the role of ACE2 in inflammatory lung disease has not been fully characterized. In an effort to identify biological targets of ACE2 in the lung, we tested its effects on des-arg9 bradykinin (DABK) in airway epithelial cells based upon a hypothesis that DABK is a biological substrate of ACE2 in the lung and ACE2 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute lung inflammation partly through modulating DABK/BKB1R axis signaling...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935506/endothelial-specific-sirt3-deletion-impairs-glycolysis-and-angiogenesis-and-causes-diastolic-dysfunction
#17
Xiaochen He, Heng Zeng, Sean T Chen, Richard J Roman, Judy L Aschner, Sean Didion, Jian-Xiong Chen
Endothelial glycolysis plays a critical role in the regulation of angiogenesis. We investigated the role of Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) on endothelial cell (EC) glycolytic metabolism, angiogenesis, and diastolic function. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that loss of SIRT3 in ECs impairs endothelial glycolytic metabolism and angiogenesis and contributes to myocardial capillary rarefaction and the development of diastolic dysfunction. Using SIRT3 deficient ECs, SIRT3 was found to regulate a metabolic switch between mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934193/oxidative-stress-prefrontal-cortex-hypomyelination-and-cognitive-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#18
REVIEW
D A Maas, A Vallès, G J M Martens
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a broad symptomatology, including cognitive symptoms that are thought to arise from the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The neurobiological aetiology of these symptoms remains elusive, yet both impaired redox control and PFC dysconnectivity have been recently implicated. PFC dysconnectivity has been linked to white matter, oligodendrocyte (OL) and myelin abnormalities in SZ patients. Myelin is produced by mature OLs, and OL precursor cells (OPCs) are exceptionally susceptible to oxidative stress...
July 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933679/thyroid-hormone-stimulates-the-onset-of-adult-feeding-kinematics-in-zebrafish
#19
Sarah McMenamin, Casey Carter, Wiliam James Cooper
The physical demands for swimming and feeding change dramatically over the course of development for many aquatic animals. Indeed, in teleosts, the transition from larva to adult involves major shifts in both trophic morphology and feeding behavior. A spike in thyroid hormone (TH) coordinates many developmental processes that occur during this adult transition in numerous vertebrate species. Using mutant and transgenic zebrafish, we tested the hypothesis that TH is essential for the transition from larval to adult feeding kinematic profiles...
September 21, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932356/interleukin-19-is-cardioprotective-in-dominant-negative-cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate-response-element-binding-protein-mediated-heart-failure-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#20
Danielle R Bruns, Alexander R Ghincea, Christian V Ghincea, Yasu-Taka Azuma, Peter A Watson, Michael V Autieri, Lori A Walker
AIM: To investigate the role of interleukin-19 (IL-19) in a murine model of female-dominant heart failure (HF). METHODS: Expression of one copy of a phosphorylation-deficient cyclic adenosine monophosphate response-element binding protein (dnCREB) causes HF, with accelerated morbidity and mortality in female mice compared to males. We assessed expression of IL-19, its receptor isoforms IL-20R α/β, and downstream IL-19 signaling in this model of female-dominant HF...
August 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
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