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Wayne Hall
The claim that the adverse health effects of cannabis are much less serious than those of alcohol has been central to the case for cannabis legalisation. Regulators in US states that have legalised cannabis have adopted regulatory models based on alcohol. This paper critically examines the claim about adverse health effects and the wisdom of regulating cannabis like alcohol. First, it compares what we know about the adverse health effects of alcohol and cannabis. Second, it discusses the uncertainties about the long term health effects of sustained daily cannabis use...
November 28, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Kelton Tremellen, Sam Everingham
BACKGROUND: Australian law allows for altruistic surrogacy but prohibits compensation of surrogates beyond their expenses, or the use of professional surrogacy agencies. These restrictions limit local access to surrogacy, driving Australians overseas where they can access commercial surrogacy. AIM: To assess the Australian public's views regarding the use of gestational surrogacy under various social and medical scenarios, together with their level of support for financial compensation of surrogates and the use of professional surrogacy agencies...
December 2016: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Ravindra B Ghooi, Kelly Dhru, Sheela Jaywant
Many individuals at the end of life are unable to convey their wishes regarding medical treatments. Advance directives (ADs) or living wills (LWs) allow them to crystallise their wishes in a written form so that these can be carried out if the relevant situation arises. In many countries, ADs are legally valid and enforceable; they reduce the use of life-sustaining treatments, which often merely prolong life without improving or even maintaining the quality of life. Such treatment puts a financial burden on the patient's family, often leading to penury...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Emily Anne McDonald, Lucy Popova, Pamela M Ling
OBJECTIVE: To explore the intersection of tobacco, legalised marijuana and electronic vaporiser use among young adults in the 'natural laboratory' of Colorado, the first state with legalised retail marijuana. METHODS: We conducted semistructured interviews with 32 young adults (18-26 years old) in Denver, Colorado, in 2015 to understand the beliefs and practices related to the use of tobacco, marijuana and vaporisers. RESULTS: We found ambiguity about whether the phrase 'to smoke' refers to the use of tobacco or marijuana products...
October 2016: Tobacco Control
Anne Gulland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Wilson M Compton, Beth Han, Christopher M Jones, Carlos Blanco, Arthur Hughes
BACKGROUND: The study of marijuana use disorders is urgently needed because of increasing marijuana legalisation in multiple jurisdictions, the effect of marijuana use on future risk of psychiatric disorders, and deleterious effects of marijuana exposure. Thus, understanding trends of marijuana use and use disorders and examining factors that might drive these trends (eg, perceptions of harms from marijuana use) is essential. METHODS: We analysed data from US civilians aged 18 years or older who participated in annual, cross-sectional US National Surveys on Drug Use and Health from 2002 to 2014...
October 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Christian Munthe
The Swedish solution to the legal handling of professional conscientious refusal in healthcare is described. No legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession or class of professional tasks exists in Sweden, regardless of the religious or moral background of the objection. The background of this can be found in strong convictions about the importance of public service provision and related civic duties, and ideals about rule of law, equality and non-discrimination. Employee's requests to change work tasks are handled on a case-by-case basis within the frames of labour law, ensuring full voluntariness, and also employer's privilege regarding the organisation and direction of work, and duties of public institutions to provide services...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
Thomas Kistemann, Alexandra Schmidt, Hans-Curt Flemming
For the Ruhr River, bathing has been prohibited for decades. However, along with significant improvements of the hygienic water quality, there is an increasing demand of using the river for recreational purposes, in particular for bathing. In the "Safe Ruhr" interdisciplinary research project, demands, options and chances for lifting the bathing ban for the Ruhr River were investigated. As being the prominent reason for persisting recreational restrictions, microbiological water quality was in the focus of interest...
July 22, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Jørgen V Grevsen, Hanne Kirkegaard, Edith Kruse, Poul R Kruse
The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 8 deals with products from Lundbeck. Lundbeck which today is known as a considerable international pharmaceutical company could in 2015 celebrate its 100 years' jubilee. Among the early Danish medicinal companies H. Lundbeck & Co. is in many ways an exception as the company was not originally established as a pharmaceutical company. Not until several years after the foundation the company began to import foreign ready-made medicinal products and later-on to manufacture these medicinal products in own factory and even later to do research and development of own innovative products...
2016: Theriaca
Anne Scheinberg, Jelena Nesić, Rachel Savain, Pietro Luppi, Portia Sinnott, Flaviu Petean, Flaviu Pop
The European Union hosts some of the world's most developed waste management systems and an ambitious policy commitment to the circular economy. The existence of informal recycling and re-use activities in Europe has been vigorously denied until quite recently, and remains a very challenging subject for the European solid waste management sector, as well as for European government and private institutions. In countries ranging from Malta to Macedonia and from France to Turkey, informal recyclers excluded from legal recycling niches increasingly collide with formalised and controlled European Union approaches to urban waste management, packaging recovery schemes, formal re-use enterprises, and extended producer responsibility systems...
September 2016: Waste Management & Research
Kevin P Hill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Wayne Hall, Michael Lynskey
The citizens of four US states-Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington-have voted to legalise the sale of cannabis to adults for recreational purposes, and more states look likely to follow. Experience with alcohol and tobacco suggests that a for-profit legal cannabis industry will increase use by making cannabis more socially acceptable to use, making it more readily available at a cheaper price, and increasing the number of users and frequency of their use. We argue that it is too early to see the full effects of legalised cannabis policies on use and harm because several factors could delay the full commercialisation of a legal cannabis industry...
September 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
Chris Wilkins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
Ian Freckelton
Attempts at medicinal cannabis law reform in Australia are not new. However, in historical perspective 2015 and 2016 will be seen as the time when community debate about legalisation of medicinal cannabis reached a tipping point in a number of Australian jurisdictions and when community impetus for change resulted in major reform initiatives. In order to contextualise the changes, the August 2015 Report of the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC) and then the Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (Vic) introduced in December 2015 into the Victorian Parliament by the Labor Government are scrutinised...
March 2016: Journal of Law and Medicine
Dan Joseph Stein For The Executive Committee Of The Central Drug Authority
There is an ongoing national debate around cannabis policy. This brief position statement by the Executive Committee of the Central Drug Authorityoutlines some of the factors that have contributed to this debate, delineates reduction strategies, summarises the harms and benefits ofmarijuana, and provides recommendations. These recommendations emphasise an integrated and evidence-based approach, the need forresources to implement harm reduction strategies against continued and chronic use of alcohol and cannabis, and the potential value of afocus on decriminalisation rather than the legalisation of cannabis...
May 16, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Dan Allman, Melissa Hope Ditmore
This article provides an editorial introduction to a virtual special issue on sex work and prostitution. It offers a brief history of sex work studies as published in the journal Culture, Health & Sexuality; reflects on the breadth and scope of papers the journal has published; considers the contribution of the journal's papers to the wellbeing and sexuality of people who sell sex; and envisions future areas of inquiry for sex work studies. As authors, we identify major themes within the journal's archive, including activism, agency, context, discourse, hazard, health, legalisation, love, place, power, race, relationships, stigma and vulnerabilities...
May 18, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Gaurav Aggarwal, Samiran Adhikary
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a condition better discussed than suffered. People suffering from ESRD are at a disadvantage not only financially, but also emotionally and in terms of the quality of their lives. The majority of their productive time is spent in hospital, on dialysis machines, or in the search for a suitable kidney donor, so that they may be able to improve upon the quality of their remaining lifespan. Only a "lucky few" are able to find a suitable matching donor, be it living (related) or a cadaver, whilst the others are left to fend for themselves...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Sami Isaac, Bandana Saini, Betty B Chaar
BACKGROUND: Medicinal cannabis has recently attracted much media attention in Australia and across the world. With the exception of a few countries, cannabinoids remain illegal-known for their adverse effects rather than their medicinal application and therapeutic benefit. However, there is mounting evidence demonstrating the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in alleviating neuropathic pain, improving multiple sclerosis spasticity, reducing chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and many other chronic conditions...
2016: PloS One
Philippe Coulon, Ali Gorji
Novel psychoactive substances flood worldwide markets faster than they can be banned. Legislators struggle to find a balance between free availability, prescription systems, and criminalisation, while physicians try to balance risks and benefits of drug treatment and identify drug abuse - a tightrope walk. Classification of psychoactive substances is central to these decision-making processes but existing classifications rely on unrelated, inconsistent, and shifting guidelines that categorise drugs by chemical structure, toxicity, or addictive potency...
July 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Shalem Y Leemaqz, Gustaaf A Dekker, Lesley M McCowan, Louise C Kenny, Jenny E Myers, Nigel A B Simpson, Lucilla Poston, Claire T Roberts
Widespread legalisation of marijuana raises safety concerns for its use in pregnancy. This study investigated the association of marijuana use prior to and during pregnancy with pregnancy outcomes in a prospective cohort of 5588 nulliparous women from the international SCOPE study. Women were assessed at 15±1 and 20±1 weeks' gestation. Cases [278 Preeclampsia, 470 gestational hypertension, 633 small-for-gestational-age, 236 spontaneous preterm births (SPTB), 143 gestational diabetes] were compared separately with 4114 non-cases...
July 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
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