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Loren Collingwood, Ben Gonzalez O'Brien, Sarah Dreier
BACKGROUND: In 2012, Washington and Colorado became the first U.S. states to legalise recreational marijuana. By 2016, eight states and the District of Columbia had legalised recreational marijuana, with more expected to consider it in 2018. Despite this trend, little academic research explains what drives ballot-initiative vote choice on marijuana legalisation. METHODS: This paper uses a pre-election random sample voter survey to examine the individual characteristics that correlated with Washington voters' support for legal recreational marijuana...
March 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Lasse Østergaard Andersen, Thomas Peter Enggaard, Jette Højsted
Pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain is associated with side effects and limited efficacy. Recently, the interest in cannabis-based medicine has led to legalisation of medical cannabis in some countries. The aim of this review is to evaluate the evidence of cannabinoids in neuropathic pain. Seventeen trials were identified; eight reported an analgesic efficacy of cannabis-based medicine, and the remaining trials showed no analgesic efficacy. Conclusions were limited by design of studies and short duration of treatment...
February 26, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Paul Webster
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2018: Lancet
Marie Overbye
BACKGROUND: The zero-tolerance approach to doping in sport has long been criticised. Legalising 'doping' under medical supervision has been proposed as a better way of protecting both athletes' health and fair competition. This paper investigates how elite athletes might react if specific doping substances were permitted under medical supervision and explore athletes' considerations about side-effects in this situation. The results are interpreted using a framework, which views elite sport as an exceptional and risky working environment...
February 22, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Bob Roehr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Hudson Reddon, Kora DeBeck, Maria Eugenia Socias, Huiru Dong, Evan Wood, Julio Montaner, Thomas Kerr, Michael-John Milloy
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Street-involved youth are known to be at elevated risk of initiating injection drug use. However, the impact of so-called 'gateway' drugs, such as cannabis, on injection initiation is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the association between cannabis use and initiation of injection drug use among a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data for this study were collected from the At-Risk Youth Study...
February 12, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
Ciaran Rochford, Deirdre Edgeworth, Mohammad Hashim, Dominic Harmon
BACKGROUND: Medicinal cannabis use is topical in the media in Ireland. A recent Health Products Regulatory Authority review, however, has recommended against its use for patients with chronic pain. This is despite evidence for its effectiveness in this patient's cohort and the inadequate pain management of these patients. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of Irish patients with chronic pain towards medicinal cannabis. METHODS: After institutional ethics committee approval, a 12-item questionnaire (excluding demographics) was randomly assigned to patients attending a chronic pain clinic (University Hospital Limerick)...
February 8, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Qiang Gao, Xin Qu, Xiukai Chen, Jicheng Zhang, Fen Liu, Suochen Tian, Chunting Wang
INTRODUCTION: Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) frequently causes liver failure in pregnant women. The relatively high mortality of AFLP behoves a better understanding of its clinical characteristics, management, outcomes and risk factors. We aimed to describe the characteristics of AFLP, and further assess its outcomes and potential risk factors from the perspectives of the mother and fetus. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 133 patients with AFLP hospitalised at four tertiary hospitals in China between January 2009 and April 2014...
January 3, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
Neha Dahiya, Suneela Garg
The UK was the first country to legalise mitochondrial donation in October 2015. In 2016, the first three-parent baby was born in Mexico and the US Food and Drug Administration declared that further research on mitochondrial donation is ethically permissible. It has now become an important issue, raising as it does, the spectre of "genetically modified designer babies".
November 14, 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Cathy Herbrand, Rebecca Dimond
This article develops the sociology of hope and patient engagement by exploring how patients' perceptions and actions are shaped by narratives of hope surrounding the clinical introduction of novel reproductive techniques. In 2015, after extensive public debates, the UK became the first country to legalise a mitochondrial donation technique aimed at preventing the transmission of inherited disorders. The article draws on the accounts of twenty-two women of reproductive age who are at risk of having a child with mitochondrial disease and would be the potential target of the technique...
December 12, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
José Miguel Cruz, Maria Fernanda Boidi, Rosario Queirolo
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The objective of this study was to measure the public support for marijuana legalisation in Uruguay, both overall and in its provisions, in nearly 4 years after its implementation. DESIGN AND METHODS: Three separate cross-national surveys were conducted in early 2014, late 2015 and mid-2017 with national representative samples of adults. The first study was carried out during the initial months of implementation of the law and used face-to-face interviews (N = 1490); the second survey was conducted using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system (N = 703); and the third study (N = 1515), using face-to-face interviews, was completed just before the implementation of pharmacy sales...
December 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Andrea Boggio
Since 2004, the regulation of assisted reproduction in Italy has undergone substantial reform as an effect of key judicial intervention. Limitations on embryo production, screening and transfer, the prohibition against engaging in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and embryo selection, and the ban on gamete donation have all been removed by courts. In this article, I discuss how judicial intervention has improved the ability of Italian couples to access assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs), and how the expansion of reproductive rights is, however, still incomplete...
March 2017: European Journal of Health Law
Caroline Victorri-Vigneau, David Trewick, Thomas Dejoie, Damien Masson, Samuel Bulteau, Morgane Rousselet, Anne Sauvaget, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Pascale Jolliet
AIM: Poppers have become legal in France since June 2013. Is their liberalisation associated with an increase of severe side effects observed? METHODS: To identify elevated methaemoglobinaemia related to poppers abuse, we reviewed all methaemoglobin concentrations measured in Nantes university hospital, during 12 months. RESULTS: Methaemoglobin concentrations were superior to 25% in three cases of poppers consumption that occurred after the legalisation...
October 23, 2017: Thérapie
G Armuand, C Lampic, A Skoog-Svanberg, K Wånggren, G Sydsjö
AIM: In February 2016, Sweden upheld its ban on surrogacy following a Government enquiry. This survey investigated attitudes towards surrogacy among primary health professionals working with children and their experiences of working with families following surrogacy abroad. METHODS: From April to November 2016, nurses, physicians and psychologist working in primary child health care in four counties in Sweden were invited to participate in a cross-sectional online survey about surrogacy...
August 25, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
Talitha C Ford, Amie C Hayley, Luke A Downey, Andrew C Parrott
In many communities, cannabis is perceived as a low-risk drug, leading to political lobbying to decriminalise its use. However, acute and chronic cannabis use has been shown to be harmful to several aspects of psychological and physical health, such as mood states, psychiatric outcomes, neurocognition, driving and general health. Furthermore, cannabis is highly addictive, and the adverse effects of withdrawal can lead to regular use. These in turn have adverse implications for public safety and health expenditure...
July 12, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Giulia Cuman, Chris Gastmans
Euthanasia was first legalised in the Netherlands in 2002, followed by similar legislation in Belgium the same year. Since the beginning, however, only the Netherlands included the possibility for minors older than 12 years to request euthanasia. In 2014, the Belgian Act legalising euthanasia was amended to include requests by minors who possess the capacity of discernment. This amendment sparked great debate, and raised difficult ethical questions about when and how a minor can be deemed competent. We conducted a systematic review of argument-based literature on euthanasia in minors...
July 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
Mitchell L Doucette, Shannon Frattaroli, Jon S Vernick
Reducing marijuana-impaired driving is an important part of any strategy to prevent motor vehicle traffic injuries. In Colorado, the first of eight US states and the District of Columbia to legalise marijuana for recreational use, drivers with positive tests for the presence of marijuana accounted for a larger proportion of fatal MVCs after marijuana commercialisation. The use of blood tests to screen for marijuana intoxication, in Colorado and elsewhere in the USA, poses a number of challenges. Many high-income countries use oral fluid drug testing (OF) to provide roadside evidence of marijuana intoxication...
June 1, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Pam Oliver, Michael Wilson, Phillipa Malpas
BACKGROUND: Assisted dying (AD) has been legalised by statute or court decisions in at least 15 jurisdictions internationally. Nonetheless, only three medical professional bodies (and none in nursing) across those jurisdictions have proactively developed authorised policy, practice standards, guidelines or protocols, or other professional supports for health practitioners who may legally participate in AD services, and the majority internationally remain formally opposed to AD. There is a perceived likelihood that AD may be legalised in New Zealand soon...
June 2, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
Skye Rousseau, Sarah Turner, Harvey Max Chochinov, Murray W Enns, Jitender Sareen
BACKGROUND: Bill C-14 allows for medical assistance in dying (MAID) for patients who have intolerable physical or psychological suffering that occurs in the context of a reasonably foreseeable death. In Canada, psychiatrist support for MAID on the basis of mental illness and beliefs influencing level of support are unknown. The objectives of this research were to 1) determine if psychiatrists are supportive of MAID under certain conditions and on the basis of mental illness and 2) determine what factors are related to psychiatrist support for MAID on the basis of mental illness...
November 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
T Charles Witzel, Peter Weatherburn, Alison J Rodger, Adam H Bourne, Fiona M Burns
BACKGROUND: HIV testing has seen a rapid evolution over the last decade with multiple modalities now in use globally. In recent years HIV self-testing (HIVST) has been legalised in the UK paving the way for further expansion of testing. Interventions are delivered in particular social contexts which shape uptake. It is therefore important to understand how novel interventions are likely to be received by their intended users. This study aims to understand how HIVST compliments existing testing strategies considered or adopted by men who have sex with men (MSM)...
May 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
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