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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840628/survey-shows-that-swedish-healthcare-professionals-have-a-positive-attitude-towards-surrogacy-but-the-health-of-the-child-is-a-concern
#1
G Armuand, C Lampic, A Skoog-Svanberg, K Wånggren, G Sydsjö
AIM: In February 2016, Sweden upheld its ban on surrogacy following a Government enquiry. This survey investigated attitudes towards surrogacy among primary health professionals working with children and their experiences of working with families following surrogacy abroad. METHODS: From April to November 2016, nurses, physicians and psychologist working in primary child health care in four counties in Sweden were invited to participate in a cross-sectional online survey about surrogacy...
August 25, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707583/cannabis-an-overview-of-its-adverse-acute-and-chronic-effects-and-their-implications
#2
Talitha C Ford, Amie C Hayley, Luke A Downey, Andrew C Parrott
In many communities, cannabis is perceived as a low-risk drug, leading to political lobbying to decriminalise its use. However, acute and chronic cannabis use has been shown to be harmful to several aspects of psychological and physical health, such as mood states, psychiatric outcomes, neurocognition, driving and general health. Furthermore, cannabis is highly addictive, and the adverse effects of withdrawal can lead to regular use. These in turn have adverse implications for public safety and health expenditure...
July 12, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573404/minors-and-euthanasia-a-systematic-review-of-argument-based-ethics-literature
#3
REVIEW
Giulia Cuman, Chris Gastmans
Euthanasia was first legalised in the Netherlands in 2002, followed by similar legislation in Belgium the same year. Since the beginning, however, only the Netherlands included the possibility for minors older than 12 years to request euthanasia. In 2014, the Belgian Act legalising euthanasia was amended to include requests by minors who possess the capacity of discernment. This amendment sparked great debate, and raised difficult ethical questions about when and how a minor can be deemed competent. We conducted a systematic review of argument-based literature on euthanasia in minors...
July 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572268/oral-fluid-testing-for-marijuana-intoxication-enhancing-objectivity-for-roadside-dui-testing
#4
Mitchell L Doucette, Shannon Frattaroli, Jon S Vernick
Reducing marijuana-impaired driving is an important part of any strategy to prevent motor vehicle traffic injuries. In Colorado, the first of eight US states and the District of Columbia to legalise marijuana for recreational use, drivers with positive tests for the presence of marijuana accounted for a larger proportion of fatal MVCs after marijuana commercialisation. The use of blood tests to screen for marijuana intoxication, in Colorado and elsewhere in the USA, poses a number of challenges. Many high-income countries use oral fluid drug testing (OF) to provide roadside evidence of marijuana intoxication...
June 1, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571045/new-zealand-doctors-and-nurses-views-on-legalising-assisted-dying-in-new-zealand
#5
Pam Oliver, Michael Wilson, Phillipa Malpas
BACKGROUND: Assisted dying (AD) has been legalised by statute or court decisions in at least 15 jurisdictions internationally. Nonetheless, only three medical professional bodies (and none in nursing) across those jurisdictions have proactively developed authorised policy, practice standards, guidelines or protocols, or other professional supports for health practitioners who may legally participate in AD services, and the majority internationally remain formally opposed to AD. There is a perceived likelihood that AD may be legalised in New Zealand soon...
June 2, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548865/a-national-survey-of-canadian-psychiatrists-attitudes-toward-medical-assistance-in-death
#6
Skye Rousseau, Sarah Turner, Harvey Max Chochinov, Murray W Enns, Jitender Sareen
BACKGROUND: Bill C-14 allows for medical assistance in dying (MAID) for patients who have intolerable physical or psychological suffering that occurs in the context of a reasonably foreseeable death. In Canada, psychiatrist support for MAID on the basis of mental illness and beliefs influencing level of support are unknown. The objectives of this research were to 1) determine if psychiatrists are supportive of MAID under certain conditions and on the basis of mental illness and 2) determine what factors are related to psychiatrist support for MAID on the basis of mental illness...
November 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532401/risk-reassurance-and-routine-a-qualitative-study-of-narrative-understandings-of-the-potential-for-hiv-self-testing-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-england
#7
T Charles Witzel, Peter Weatherburn, Alison J Rodger, Adam H Bourne, Fiona M Burns
BACKGROUND: HIV testing has seen a rapid evolution over the last decade with multiple modalities now in use globally. In recent years HIV self-testing (HIVST) has been legalised in the UK paving the way for further expansion of testing. Interventions are delivered in particular social contexts which shape uptake. It is therefore important to understand how novel interventions are likely to be received by their intended users. This study aims to understand how HIVST compliments existing testing strategies considered or adopted by men who have sex with men (MSM)...
May 22, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515192/study-protocol-for-a-transversal-study-to-develop-a-screening-model-for-excessive-gambling-behaviours-on-a-representative-sample-of-users-of-french-authorised-gambling-websites
#8
Bastien Perrot, Jean-Benoit Hardouin, Jean-Michel Costes, Julie Caillon, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju
INTRODUCTION: Since the legalisation of online gambling in France in 2010, gambling operators must implement responsible gambling measures to prevent excessive gambling practices. However, actually there is no screening procedure for identifying problematic gamblers. Although several studies have already been performed using several data sets from online gambling operators, the authors deplored several methodological and clinical limits that prevent scientifically validating the existence of problematic gambling behaviour...
May 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497419/gender-differences-in-the-presentation-of-observable-risk-indicators-of-problem-gambling
#9
Paul Delfabbro, Anna Thomas, Andrew Armstrong
In many countries where gambling is legalised, there has been a strong public policy focus on the need for strategies to reduce gambling related harm. These have often included policies requiring staff in gambling venues to identify and/or assist people who might be experiencing gambling-related harm. To facilitate this process, researchers have developed visible behavioural indicators that might be used to profile potentially problematic gambling. Few of these studies have, however, examined whether such indicators or 'warning signs' might differ between men and women...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492115/human-dignity-and-the-future-of-the-voluntary-active-euthanasia-debate-in-south-africa
#10
Donrich W Jordaan
The issue of voluntary active euthanasia was thrust into the public policy arena by the Stransham-Ford lawsuit. The High Court legalised voluntary active euthanasia - however, ostensibly only in the specific case of Mr Stransham-Ford. The Supreme Court of Appeal overturned the High Court judgment on technical grounds, not on the merits. This means that in future the courts can be approached again to consider the legalisation of voluntary active euthanasia. As such, Stransham-Ford presents a learning opportunity for both sides of the legalisation divide...
April 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363885/canada-announces-plans-to-legalise-recreational-marijuana
#11
Owen Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320602/recreational-cannabis-legalisation-in-the-usa-outpaces-research-into-health-effects
#12
Bryant Furlow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259650/can-we-make-cannabis-safer
#13
REVIEW
Amir Englund, Tom P Freeman, Robin M Murray, Philip McGuire
Cannabis use and related problems are on the rise globally alongside an increase in the potency of cannabis sold on both black and legal markets. Additionally, there has been a shift towards abandoning prohibition for a less punitive and more permissive legal stance on cannabis, such as decriminalisation and legalisation. It is therefore crucial that we explore new and innovative ways to reduce harm. Research has found cannabis with high concentrations of its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), to be more harmful (in terms of causing the main risks associated with cannabis use, such as addiction, psychosis, and cognitive impairment) than cannabis with lower concentrations of THC...
August 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255026/conscientious-objection-in-healthcare-and-the-duty-to-refer
#14
Christopher Cowley
Although some healthcare professionals have the legal right to conscientiously object to authorise or perform certain lawful medical services, they have an associated duty to provide the patient with enough information to seek out another professional willing to authorise or provide the service (the 'duty to refer'). Does the duty to refer morally undermine the professional's conscientious objection (CO)? I narrow my discussion to the National Health Service in Britain, and the case of a general practitioner (GP) being asked by a pregnant woman to authorise an abortion...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184070/the-legal-and-moral-perceptions-of-clinical-and-non-clinical-undergraduates-regarding-substance-use-a-pilot-project
#15
J Puryer, A Rowley, J Saimbi, A Waylen
Introduction Heavy alcohol and illicit drug use has been documented amongst medical and dental professionals and educational programs have been developed to attempt to reduce such behaviour in clinical undergraduates. This pilot study aims to investigate the legal and moral perceptions of substance use in clinical and non-clinical undergraduates.Method A cross-sectional self-report questionnaire was administered to 107 clinical and non-clinical undergraduates to investigate their moral and legal perceptions of alcohol and illicit substance use...
February 10, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173984/into-the-void-regulating-pesticide-use-in-colorado-s-commercial-cannabis-markets
#16
Todd Subritzky, Simone Pettigrew, Simon Lenton
BACKGROUND: In 2014, Colorado implemented the world's first seed-to-sale recreational cannabis market under a commercial model. This paper aims to provide a thick descriptive account that gives insight into the issues and complexities of Colorado's pioneering and evolving attempt to regulate the use of pesticides on commercial cannabis plantations. METHODS: The paper examines multiple data sets including: (i) Colorado State Government documents; (ii) recreational cannabis regulations; (iii) mass and niche media publications (n=175); (iv) face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders, including seniors, regulators and industry executives (n=8); and (v) field notes from relevant conferences and cultivation facility tours in Denver in October, 2016...
February 4, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130026/national-sex-work-policy-and-hiv-prevalence-among-sex-workers-an-ecological-regression-analysis-of-27-european-countries
#17
Aaron Reeves, Sarah Steele, David Stuckler, Martin McKee, Andrew Amato-Gauci, Jan C Semenza
BACKGROUND: Sex workers are disproportionately affected by HIV compared with the general population. Most studies of HIV risk among sex workers have focused on individual-level risk factors, with few studies assessing potential structural determinants of HIV risk. In this Article, we examine whether criminal laws around sex work are associated with HIV prevalence among female sex workers. METHOD: We estimate cross-sectional, ecological regression models with data from 27 European countries on HIV prevalence among sex workers from the European Centre for Disease Control; sex-work legislation from the US State Department's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices and country-specific legal documents; the rule of law and gross-domestic product per capita, adjusted for purchasing power, from the World Bank; and the prevalence of injecting drug use among sex workers...
March 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127993/three-persons-three-genetic-contributors-three-parents-mitochondrial-donation-genetic-parenting-and-the-immutable-grammar-of-the-three-x-x
#18
Rebecca Dimond, Neil Stephens
In 2015, two novel in vitro fertilisation techniques intended to prevent the inheritance of mitochondrial disease were legalised in the United Kingdom, following an intense period of inquiry including scientific reviews, public consultations, government guidance and debates within the Houses of Parliament. The techniques were controversial because (1) they introduced a third genetic contributor into the reproductive process and (2) they are germline, meaning this genetic change could then be passed down to subsequent generations...
January 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109121/cannabis-use-and-dating-violence-among-college-students-a-call-for-research
#19
Ryan C Shorey, Ellen Haynes, Catherine Strauss, Jeff R Temple, Gregory L Stuart
Dating violence is a serious and prevalent problem on college campuses. Although there is a robust literature documenting that alcohol use is consistently associated with increased risk for perpetrating dating violence, little research has examined the role of cannabis in dating violence perpetration. With increasing legalisation of cannabis throughout the world, it is imperative to understand what role, if any, cannabis may play in the important public health problem of dating violence. In this commentary, we discuss the current state of the research on cannabis and dating violence and suggest avenues for additional research in this area...
January 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086792/irish-general-practitioner-attitudes-toward-decriminalisation-and-medical-use-of-cannabis-results-from-a-national-survey
#20
Des Crowley, Claire Collins, Ide Delargy, Eamon Laird, Marie Claire Van Hout
BACKGROUND: Governmental debate in Ireland on the de facto decriminalisation of cannabis and legalisation for medical use is ongoing. A cannabis-based medicinal product (Sativex®) has recently been granted market authorisation in Ireland. This unique study aimed to investigate Irish general practitioner (GP) attitudes toward decriminalisation of cannabis and assess levels of support for use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes (CTP). METHODS: General practitioners in the Irish College of General Practitioner (ICGP) database were invited to complete an online survey...
January 13, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
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