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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340502/trends-in-alcohol-consumption-among-older-americans-national-health-interview-surveys-1997-to-2014
#1
Rosalind A Breslow, I-Jen P Castle, Chiung M Chen, Barry I Graubard
BACKGROUND: The majority of U.S. older adults consume alcoholic beverages. The older population is projected to almost double by 2050. Substantially more drinkers are likely. PURPOSE: To describe gender-specific trends (1997 to 2014) in prevalence of drinking status (lifetime abstention, former drinking, current drinking [including average volume], and binge drinking) among U.S. adults ages 60+ by age group and birth cohort. METHODS: In the 1997 to 2014 National Health Interview Surveys, 65,303 respondents ages 60+ (31,803 men, 33,500 women) were current drinkers; 6,570 men and 1,737 women were binge drinkers...
March 24, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340414/intersection-crash-prediction-modeling-with-macro-level-data-from-various-geographic-units
#2
Jaeyoung Lee, Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Qing Cai
There have been great efforts to develop traffic crash prediction models for various types of facilities. The crash models have played a key role to identify crash hotspots and evaluate safety countermeasures. In recent, many macro-level crash prediction models have been developed to incorporate highway safety considerations in the long-term transportation planning process. Although the numerous macro-level studies have found that a variety of demographic and socioeconomic zonal characteristics have substantial effects on traffic safety, few studies have attempted to coalesce micro-level with macro-level data from existing geographic units for estimating crash models...
March 21, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340405/population-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-furosemide-in-patients-with-hypertension-and-fluid-overload-conditions
#3
Devender Kodati, Narsimhareddy Yellu
BACKGROUND: Furosemide is a loop diuretic drug frequently indicated in hypertension and fluid overload conditions such as congestive heart failure and hepatic cirrhosis. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to establish a population pharmacokinetic model for furosemide in Indian hypertensive and fluid overload patients, and to evaluate effects of covariates on the volume of distribution (V/F) and oral clearance (CL/F) of furosemide. METHODS: A total of 188 furosemide plasma sample concentrations from 63 patients with hypertension or fluid overload conditions were collected in this study...
January 15, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340389/minilaparotomy-without-general-anesthesia-for-the-treatment-of-sigmoid-volvulus-in-high-risk-patients-a-case-series-of-4-patients
#4
Ernesto L Enrique, Kareem A Hamdy
BACKGROUND: Sigmoid volvulus (SV) is a common cause of large bowel obstruction worldwide. Presenting symptoms can be nonspecific and varied amongst the elderly population, making medical and surgical management challenging. This population is at markedly increase risk of complications and mortality with surgery under general anesthesia. In this case series, we describe 4 cases of sigmoid volvulus in octogenarians. GOALS: To demonstrate that sigmoid colectomy under local anesthesia, with or without intravenous conscious sedation, is feasible and can be done safely and with a low rate of converting to a general anesthetic...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340313/linkage-between-mitochondrial-genome-alterations-telomere-length-and-aging-population
#5
Egija Zole, Krista Zadinane, Liana Pliss, Renate Ranka
We studied telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number variations in individuals from Latvian Caucasian population in different age groups. We showed a positive correlation between TL and mtDNA copy number in individuals of up to 90 years of age; however, this correlation was not observed in the 90-100 years age group. While TL shortened with age and mtDNA content decreased with increasing age, in this study it was observed that mtDNA copy number in nonagenarians was slightly higher than in the 60-89 years age group...
March 24, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340303/epidemiology-and-patterns-of-facial-fractures-due-to-road-traffic-accidents-in-taiwan-a-15%C3%A2-years-retrospective-study
#6
Cheng-San Yang, Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen, Yung-Cheng Yang, Li-Chung Huang, How-Ran Guo, Hsin-Yi Yang
OBJECTIVE: The facial region is a commonly fractured site, but the etiology varies widely by country and geographic region. To date, there are no population-based studies of facial fractures in Taiwan. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with facial fracture and registered in the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan between 1997 and 2011. The epidemiological characteristics of this cohort were analyzed, including the etiology, fracture site, associated injuries, and sex and age distributions...
March 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340230/determinants-of-opioid-prescribing-for-nonmalignant-chronic-pain-in-us-outpatient-settings
#7
Rafia S Rasu, Maureen E Knell
Study Objectives.:  Identify prescribing trends for opioid use in non-malignant chronic pain (NMCP) from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). Determine predictors of opioid use based on patient-specific factors. Design.:  This cross-sectional study analyzed NAMCS data from 2000 to 2007. Pain medications prescribed were retrieved using NAMCS drug codes. Multivariate logistic models examined determinants of opioid prescribing among NMCP patients...
March 14, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340197/the-evolution-and-benefit-of-device-therapy-in-patients-listed-for-heart-transplant
#8
Bert Vandenberk, Mark Hinderks, Gabor Voros, Christophe Garweg, Johan Vanhaecke, Rik Willems
Aims: The latest 2015 ESC Guidelines on the prevention of sudden cardiac death make a Class IIa recommendation for ICD implantation in patients listed for heart transplantation. This recommendation was based on expert consensus in view of the sparsity of data. Methods and results: All patients listed for heart transplantation at the University Hospitals of Leuven from 2002 until 2014 were studied retrospectively. Exclusion criteria were age <16 years, cardiac disease other than ischaemic or dilated cardiomyopathy and re-transplantation...
March 9, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340149/individual-and-regional-determinants-for-physical-therapy-utilization-in-germany-multilevel-analysis-of-national-survey-data
#9
Alexander Rommel, Lars Eric Kroll
Background: Physical therapy (PT) is included in many clinical guidelines and a commonly used health service. However, access to its benefits should not strongly depend on social or demographic factors. Objective: The present study used the Andersen model to explain to what extent PT utilization in Germany depends on factors beyond medical need. Methods: The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS, 2008-2011; target population, 18-79 years) is part of the German health-monitoring system...
March 9, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340148/characteristics-of-hookah-tobacco-smoking-sessions-and-correlates-of-use-frequency-among-us-adults-findings-from-wave-1-of-the-population-assessment-of-tobacco-and-health-path-study
#10
Joelle Robinson, Baoguang Wang, Kia Jackson, Elisabeth Donaldson, Chase Ryant
Introduction: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in the US. However, information on hookah use frequency and other characteristics of hookah use is limited. Methods: Investigators analyzed data from Wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, a nationally representative, longitudinal cohort study of US youth and adults. Our analysis draws on baseline data from adult (ages ≥18 years) ever (N=10,624) and past year (n=3,947) hookah users...
March 9, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340138/a-life-without-worms
#11
Richard E Sanya, Gyaviira Nkurunungi, Irene Andia Biraro, Harriet Mpairwe, Alison M Elliott
Worms have co-evolved with humans over millions of years. To survive, they manipulate host systems by modulating immune responses so that they cause (in the majority of hosts) relatively subtle harm. Anthelminthic treatment has been promoted as a measure for averting worm specific pathology and to mitigate subtle morbidities which may include effects on anaemia, growth, cognitive function and economic activity. With our changing environment marked by rapid population growth, urbanisation, better hygiene practices and anthelminthic treatment, there has been a decline in worm infections and other infectious diseases and a rise in non-communicable diseases such as allergy, diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
March 18, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340132/the-impact-of-weight-and-weight-related-perceptions-on-smoking-status-among-young-adults-in-a-text-messaging-cessation-program
#12
Kisha I Coa, Erik Augustson, Annette Kaufman
Introduction: Weight gain and concerns about weight can influence a smoker's ability to successfully quit, and young adults are a subgroup of smokers who are particularly concerned about the impact of quitting on their body weight. This study explored the associations between body mass index (BMI), weight perceptions, and smoking status among young adults. Methods: The sample consisted of 4,027 young adults between the ages of 18 and 29 who participated in a randomized control trial of the National Cancer Institute's SmokefreeTXT program...
March 3, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340130/falling-down-on-the-job-evaluation-and-treatment-of-fall-risk-among-older-adults-with-upper-extremity-fragility-fractures
#13
Christine M McDonough, Carrie H Colla, Donald Carmichael, Anna N A Tosteson, Tor D Tosteson, John-Erik Bell, Robert V Cantu, Jonathan D Lurie, Julie P W Bynum
Background: Clinical practice guidelines recommend fall risk assessment and intervention for older adults who sustain a fall-related injury to prevent future injury and mobility decline. Objective: To describe how often Medicare beneficiaries with upper extremity fracture receive evaluation and treatment for fall risk. Design: Observational cohort. Methods Subjects: Fee-for-service beneficiaries age 66 to 99 treated as outpatients for proximal humerus or distal radius/ulna ("wrist") fragility fractures were studied using Carrier and Outpatient Hospital files...
March 2, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340119/the-risk-of-nephrolithiasis-is-causally-related-to-inactive-matrix-gla-protein-a-marker-of-vitamin-k-status-a-mendelian-randomization-study-in-a-flemish-population
#14
Fang-Fei Wei, Lutgarde Thijs, Zhen-Yu Zhang, Lotte Jacobs, Wen-Yi Yang, Erika Salvi, Lorena Citterio, Nicholas Cauwenberghs, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Nadja E A Drummen, Azusa Hara, Paolo Manunta, Yan Li, Peter Verhamme, Karel Allegaert, Daniele Cusi, Cees Vermeer, Jan A Staessen
Background.: Vitamin K (VK)-dependent γ-glutamate carboxylation and serine phosphorylation activate matrix Gla protein (MGP) to a potent locally acting inhibitor of calcification. Nephrolithiasis represents a process of unwanted calcification associated with substantial mortality and high recurrence rates. We hypothesized that the risk of nephrolithiasis increases with VK shortage, as exemplified by higher plasma levels of desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP). Methods...
March 15, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340101/dietary-assessment-in-minority-ethnic-groups-a-systematic-review-of-instruments-for-portion-size-estimation-in-the-united-kingdom
#15
Eva Almiron-Roig, Amanda Aitken, Catherine Galloway, Basma Ellahi
Dietary assessment in minority ethnic groups is critical for surveillance programs and for implementing effective interventions. A major challenge is the accurate estimation of portion sizes for traditional foods and dishes. : The aim of this systematic review was to assess records published up to 2014 describing a portion-size estimation element (PSEE) applicable to the dietary assessment of UK-residing ethnic minorities. : Electronic databases, internet sites, and theses repositories were searched, generating 5683 titles, from which 57 eligible full-text records were reviewed...
March 14, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340051/protective-factors-for-work-ability-in-preschool-teachers
#16
I Sottimano, S Viotti, G Guidetti, D Converso
Background: Work ability (WA) describes the physical and intellectual resources on which individuals can rely to respond to work demands. While several studies have investigated the protective role of work-related psychosocial factors on WA, only a few have examined differences across age cohorts. Moreover, few studies have investigated WA in the educational context and most of those did not consider preschool teachers. Aims: To examine the role of psychosocial factors (support from colleagues, support from supervisors, work meaning, reward, skill discretion and autonomy) in sustaining WA among preschool teachers in different age cohorts...
March 8, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340003/beighton-scores-and-cut-offs-across-the-lifespan-cross-sectional-study-of-an-australian-population
#17
Harjodh Singh, Marnee McKay, Jennifer Baldwin, Leslie Nicholson, Cliffton Chan, Joshua Burns, Claire E Hiller
Objectives.: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) according to the Beighton scoring system in an Australian population. Secondary aims were to identify whether the commonly used Beighton score cut-off of ⩾4 is appropriate, and to suggest age- and sex-specific Beighton score cut-offs across the lifespan. Methods.: A thousand individuals aged 3-101 years were assessed for GJH with the Beighton scoring system. Differences between age, sex and ethnicity were investigated...
March 2, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339992/rheumatoid-arthritis-specific-cardiovascular-risk-scores-are-not-superior-to-general-risk-scores-a-validation-analysis-of-patients-from-seven-countries
#18
Cynthia S Crowson, Sherine E Gabriel, Anne Grete Semb, Piet L C M van Riel, George Karpouzas, Patrick H Dessein, Carol Hitchon, Virginia Pascual-Ramos, George D Kitas
Objectives.: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk calculators developed for the general population do not accurately predict CVD events in patients with RA. We sought to externally validate risk calculators recommended for use in patients with RA including the EULAR 1.5 multiplier, the Expanded Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Score for RA (ERS-RA) and QRISK2. Methods.: Seven RA cohorts from UK, Norway, Netherlands, USA, South Africa, Canada and Mexico were combined...
March 8, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339916/antenatal-tobacco-use-and-secondhand-smoke-exposure-in-the-home-in-india
#19
Ritesh Mistry, Anjuli Dasika
Introduction: Antenatal tobacco use and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure can have grave health consequences. We estimated the prevalence of tobacco use and SHS exposure in the home among pregnant and reproductive age women in India, and identified sociodemographic risk factors. Methods: Data were from the National Family Health Survey-3 (2005-2006), a population-based cross-sectional survey. We measured current tobacco use and SHS exposure in the home, and used logistic regression analysis to identify sociodemographic risk factors...
March 2, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339832/effects-of-feeding-original-xpc%C3%A2-to-broilers-with-a-live-coccidiosis-vaccine-under-industrial-conditions-part-2-cecal-microbiota-analysis
#20
S H Park, S Roto, H Pavlidis, D McIntyre, K Striplin, L Brammer, S C Ricke
Biological supplements in poultry feed are of continued interest due to the improvements in growth performance, protection from pathogen invasion, and benefits in overall host health. The fermentation metabolites of Diamond V Original XPC™ (XPC) have previously been shown to improve commercial performance and reduce Salmonella in poultry. The current study sought to characterize the cecal microbiota using culture-independent analysis based on 16S rRNA gene in Coccivac-D sprayed broilers supplemented with XPC and/or Salinomycin (SAL)...
March 1, 2017: Poultry Science
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