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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355829/the-impact-of-social-expenditure-on-health-inequalities-in-europe
#1
Javier Álvarez-Gálvez, Antonio M Jaime-Castillo
Welfare states are assumed to play a fundamental role in the protection and promotion of the health and socioeconomic well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the effect of the welfare state is still contradictory. The inconsistency of the results has led researchers to a lack of consensus in defining the mechanisms that might explain the relationship between the welfare state and health. To shed some light on the current debate, we rely on individual and country data from the European Social Survey (ESS) and Eurostat to explore the direct and indirect effects of the welfare state on health inequalities in a sample of European countries...
January 11, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355817/the-healthy-worker-effect-do-healthy-people-climb-the-occupational-ladder
#2
Joan Costa-Font, Martin Ljunge
The association between occupational status and health has been taken to reveal the presence of occupational health inequalities. However, that interpretation assumes no influence of health status in climbing the occupational ladder. This paper documents evidence of non-negligible returns to occupation status on health (which we refer as 'healthy worker effect'). We use a unique empirical strategy that addresses the problem of reverse causality. That is, an instrumental variable strategy using the variation in average health in the migrant's country of origin, a health measure plausibly not determined by the migrant's occupational status...
January 9, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355492/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-patterns-of-long-acting-reversible-contraceptive-use-in-the-united-states-2011-2015
#3
Renee D Kramer, Jenny A Higgins, Amy L Godecker, Deborah B Ehrenthal
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether demographic, socioeconomic, and reproductive health characteristics affect long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) use differently by race-ethnicity. Results may inform the dialogue on racial pressure and bias in LARC promotion. STUDY DESIGN: Data derived from the 2011-2013 and 2013-2015 National Surveys of Family Growth (NSFG). Our study sample included 9321 women aged 15-44. Logistic regression analyses predicted current LARC use (yes vs...
January 17, 2018: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355367/gendered-race-modification-of-the-association-between-chronic-stress-and-depression-among-black-and-white-u-s-adults
#4
Ganga S Bey, Molly E Waring, Bill M Jesdale, Sharina D Person
Chronic stress stemming from social inequity has long been recognized as a risk factor for poor physical and psychological health, yet challenges remain in uncovering the mechanisms through which such exposures affect health outcomes and lead to racial and gender health disparities. Examination of sociocultural influences on group identity, coping, and the expression of stress may yield relevant insight into potential pathways of inequity's effect on risk for chronic disease. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between chronic stress as measured by allostatic load (AL) and depression by gendered race group...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355342/-i-don-t-care-about-you-as-a-person-sexual-minority-women-objectified
#5
Elliot A Tebbe, Bonnie Moradi, Kathleen E Connelly, Alexandra L Lenzen, Mirella Flores
This study investigates sexual minority women's experiences of objectification in the United States. Data from 5 focus groups with 33 sexual minority women were analyzed using thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006, 2012). Results revealed 6 themes and 34 subthemes grouped into "manifestations of objectification: general and explicit intersections," "immediate context of relational and situational characteristics," and "broader context of oppression and privilege along gender and sexualities." First, sexual minority women's experiences of objectification included both general manifestations described in prior research with heterosexual women and manifestations of objectification that reflected intersections of systems of inequality based on sexual orientation, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, and age...
January 2018: Journal of Counseling Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355215/advancing-a-conceptual-model-to-improve-maternal-health-quality-the-person-centered-care-framework-for-reproductive-health-equity
#6
May Sudhinaraset, Patience Afulani, Nadia Diamond-Smith, Sanghita Bhattacharyya, France Donnay, Dominic Montagu
Background: Globally, substantial health inequities exist with regard to maternal, newborn and reproductive health. Lack of access to good quality care-across its many dimensions-is a key factor driving these inequities. Significant global efforts have been made towards improving the quality of care within facilities for maternal and reproductive health. However, one critically overlooked aspect of quality improvement activities is person-centered care. Main body: The objective of this paper is to review existing literature and theories related to person-centered reproductive health care to develop a framework for improving the quality of reproductive health, particularly in low and middle-income countries...
November 6, 2017: Gates Open Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355028/impact-of-change-over-time-in-self-reported-discrimination-on-blood-pressure-implications-for-inequities-in-cardiovascular-risk-for-a-multi-racial-urban-community
#7
Alana M W LeBrón, Amy J Schulz, Graciela Mentz, Angela G Reyes, Cindy Gamboa, Barbara A Israel, Edna A Viruell-Fuentes, James S House
OBJECTIVES: The 21st century has seen a rise in racism and xenophobia in the United States. Few studies have examined the health implications of heightened institutional and interpersonal racism. This study examines changes in reported discrimination and associations with blood pressure over time among non-Latino Blacks (NLBs), Latinos, and non-Latino Whites (NLWs) in an urban area, and variations by nativity among Latinos. DESIGN: Data from a probability sample of NLB, Latino, and NLW Detroit, Michigan residents were collected in 2002-2003, with follow-up at the same addresses in 2007-2008...
January 21, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353888/palliative-care-in-resource-poor-settings-inequalities-challenges-and-opportunities
#8
Ganesh Dangal, Bishnu Datta Paudel, Anjani Kumar Jha
N/A.
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353512/social-disadvantage-severe-child-abuse-and-biological-profiles-in-adulthood
#9
Chioun Lee, Christopher L Coe, Carol D Ryff
Guided by the stress process model and the life course perspective, we hypothesize: (1) that childhood abuse is concentrated, in terms of type and intensity, among socially disadvantaged individuals, and (2) that experiencing serious abuse contributes to poor biological profiles in multiple body systems in adulthood. Data came from the Biomarker subsample of Midlife in the United States (2004-2006). We used latent class analysis to identify distinct profiles of childhood abuse, each reflecting a combination of type and severity...
September 2017: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353493/exploring-the-great-schism-in-the-social-sciences-confirmation-bias-and-the-interpretation-of-results-relating-to-biological-influences-on-human-behavior-and-psychology
#10
Jeffrey Winking
The nature-nurture debate is one that biologists often dismiss as a false dichotomy, as all phenotypic traits are the results of complex processes of gene and environment interactions. However, such dismissiveness belies the ongoing debate that is unmistakable throughout the biological and social sciences concerning the role of biological influences in the development of psychological and behavioral traits in humans. Many have proposed that this debate is due to ideologically driven biases in the interpretation of results...
January 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353293/alcohol-tobacco-and-cannabis-consumption-in-adolescents-from-a-multicultural-population-burela-lugo
#11
Ainara Díaz Geada, Alicia Busto Miramontes, Francisco Caamaño Isorna
Social inequalities have been associated with morbidity and mortality. Gender, ethnic group and inequalities were studied in an adolescent population to analyze alcohol, tobacco and cannabis consumption. We carried out a cross-sectional study of pupils from high schools in Burela (northern Spain) (n=238). We used the "Factors de Risc en Estudiants de Secundária" questionnaire designed by Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: nationality and weekly pocket money...
January 15, 2018: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353228/association-of-lifelong-occupation-and-educational-level-with-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-different-european-regions-results-from%C3%A2-the-improve-study
#12
Calogero C Tedesco, Fabrizio Veglia, Ulf de Faire, Sudhir Kurl, Andries J Smit, Rainer Rauramaa, Philippe Giral, Mauro Amato, Alice Bonomi, Alessio Ravani, Beatrice Frigerio, Samuela Castelnuovo, Daniela Sansaro, Elmo Mannarino, Steve E Humphries, Anders Hamsten, Elena Tremoli, Damiano Baldassarre
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to examine the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and subclinical atherosclerosis, as assessed by carotid intima-media-thickness (C-IMT) and to investigate whether the effect of social inequality on C-IMT is mediated by cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and whether it is dissimilar in men and women, and in different European countries. METHODS: We assessed the association of lifelong occupation and educational level with C-IMT in the IMPROVE study cohort including 3703 subjects (median age 64...
December 20, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352817/the-association-between-sexual-behaviours-and-initiation-of-post-secondary-education-in-south-africa
#13
Annah V Bengesai, Hafiz T A Khan, Russell Dube
Although young people in South Africa are growing up in an era where their socioeconomic circumstances are seemingly better than those of their parents' generation, they face greater risks in their trajectory to adulthood. This is mainly because the environment in which they are making sexual decisions is also rapidly evolving. Currently, South Africa has the highest prevalence of HIV and AIDS in the world among young people aged 15-24. This study examined the effect of sexual behaviours initiated in adolescence on enrolment in post-secondary education...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352706/environmental-conditions-in-health-care-facilities-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-coverage-and-inequalities
#14
Ryan Cronk, Jamie Bartram
Safe environmental conditions and the availability of standard precaution items are important to prevent and treat infection in health care facilities (HCFs) and to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for health and water, sanitation, and hygiene. Baseline coverage estimates for HCFs have yet to be formed for the SDGs; and there is little evidence describing inequalities in coverage. To address this, we produced the first coverage estimates of environmental conditions and standard precaution items in HCFs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); and explored factors associated with low coverage...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352580/individual-student-characteristics-and-attainment-in-pre-registration-physiotherapy-a-retrospective-multi-site-cohort-study
#15
Meriel Norris, John A Hammond, Annabel Williams, Robert Grant, Sandra Naylor, Catherine Rozario
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide there is a desire to diversify the physiotherapy workforce. However, limited research indicates that some student characteristics linked to under-representation in pre registration physiotherapy education have lower attainment and greater attrition. This study explored the relationship between individual characteristics and success of students in pre registration physiotherapy education within South East England. DESIGN: A retrospective multi site cohort study including pre registration physiotherapy programmes in the South East of England...
October 31, 2017: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352573/h%C3%A2-control-for-uncertain-linear-system-over-networks-with-bernoulli-data-dropout-and-actuator-saturation
#16
Jimin Yu, Chenchen Yang, Xiaoming Tang, Ping Wang
This paper investigates the H∞ control problems for uncertain linear system over networks with random communication data dropout and actuator saturation. The random data dropout process is modeled by a Bernoulli distributed white sequence with a known conditional probability distribution and the actuator saturation is confined in a convex hull by introducing a group of auxiliary matrices. By constructing a quadratic Lyapunov function, effective conditions for the state feedback-based H∞ controller and the observer-based H∞ controller are proposed in the form of non-convex matrix inequalities to take the random data dropout and actuator saturation into consideration simultaneously, and the problem of non-convex feasibility is solved by applying cone complementarity linearization (CCL) procedure...
January 15, 2018: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352539/income-inequality-and-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-association-and-a-scoping-review-of-mechanisms
#17
Vikram Patel, Jonathan K Burns, Monisha Dhingra, Leslie Tarver, Brandon A Kohrt, Crick Lund
Most countries have witnessed a dramatic increase of income inequality in the past three decades. This paper addresses the question of whether income inequality is associated with the population prevalence of depression and, if so, the potential mechanisms and pathways which may explain this association. Our systematic review included 26 studies, mostly from high-income countries. Nearly two-thirds of all studies and five out of six longitudinal studies reported a statistically significant positive relationship between income inequality and risk of depression; only one study reported a statistically significant negative relationship...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351609/inequity-in-contraceptive-care-between-refugees-and-other-migrant-women-a-retrospective-study-in-dutch-general-practice
#18
Liselotte A D Raben, Maria E T C van den Muijsenbergh
Background: Female refugees are at high risk of reproductive health problems including unmet contraceptive needs. In the Netherlands, the general practitioner (GP) is the main entrance to the healthcare system and plays a vital role in the prescription of contraceptives. Little is known about contraceptive care in female refugees in primary care. Objective: To get insight into GP care related to contraception in refugees and other migrants compared with native Dutch women...
January 17, 2018: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351607/sector-wide-or-disease-specific-implications-of-trends-in-development-assistance-for-health-for-the-sdg-era
#19
Anne L Buffardi
The record of the Millennium Development Goals broadly reflects the trade-offs of disease-specific financing: substantial progress in particular areas, facilitated by time-bound targets that are easy to measure and communicate, which shifted attention and resources away from other areas, masked inequalities and exacerbated fragmentation. In many ways, the Sustainable Development Goals reflect a profound shift towards a more holistic, system-wide approach. To inform responses to this shift, this article builds upon existing work on aggregate trends in donor financing, bringing together what have largely been disparate analyses of sector-wide and disease-specific financing approaches...
January 16, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350940/experimental-verification-of-a-jarzynski-related-information-theoretic-equality-by-a-single-trapped-ion
#20
T P Xiong, L L Yan, F Zhou, K Rehan, D F Liang, L Chen, W L Yang, Z H Ma, M Feng, V Vedral
Most nonequilibrium processes in thermodynamics are quantified only by inequalities; however, the Jarzynski relation presents a remarkably simple and general equality relating nonequilibrium quantities with the equilibrium free energy, and this equality holds in both the classical and quantum regimes. We report a single-spin test and confirmation of the Jarzynski relation in the quantum regime using a single ultracold ^{40}Ca^{+} ion trapped in a harmonic potential, based on a general information-theoretic equality for a temporal evolution of the system sandwiched between two projective measurements...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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