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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646217/why-do-physicians-lack-engagement-with-smoking-cessation-treatment-in-their-copd-patients-a-multinational-qualitative-study
#1
Eva Anne Marije van Eerd, Mette Bech Risør, Mark Spigt, Maciek Godycki-Cwirko, Elena Andreeva, Nick Francis, Anja Wollny, Hasse Melbye, Onno van Schayck, Daniel Kotz
Smoking cessation is the only effective intervention to slow down the accelerated decline in lung function in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Nevertheless, physicians often do not routinely provide evidence-based smoking cessation treatment to their patients. To understand underlying reasons, we explored how physicians engage in smoking cessation treatment in their chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. In total, 21 focus group discussions were held with general practitioners and pulmonologists in seven different countries in Europe and Asia...
June 23, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645947/role-structure-and-effects-of-medical-tourism-in-africa-a-systematic-scoping-review-protocol
#2
John Jo Mogaka, Joyce M Tsoka-Gwegweni, Lucia M Mupara, Tivani Mashamba-Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Some patients travel out of, while others come into Africa for medical care through a growing global phenomenon referred to as medical tourism (MT): the travel in search of medical care that is either unavailable, unaffordable or proscribed at home healthcare systems. While some castigate MT as promoting healthcare inequity, others endorse it as a revenue generator, promising local healthcare system strengthening. Currently, however, the understanding of this component of healthcare in Africa is inadequate...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645046/a-paradigm-shift-for-socioeconomic-justice-and%C3%A2-health-from-focusing-on-inequalities-to%C3%A2-aiming%C3%A2-at-sustainable-equity
#3
Juan E Garay, David E Chiriboga
OBJECTIVES: To measure the 'best possible health for all', incorporating sustainability, and to establish the magnitude of global health inequity. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, retrospective. METHODS: We identified countries with three criteria: (1) a healthy population-life expectancy above world average; (2) living conditions feasible to replicate worldwide-per-capita gross domestic product (GDP-pc) below the world average; and (3) sustainability-per-capita carbon dioxide emissions lower than the planetary pollution boundary...
June 20, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645042/the-changing-health-priorities-of-earthquake-response-and-implications-for-preparedness-a-scoping-review
#4
REVIEW
C Cartwright, M Hall, A C K Lee
OBJECTIVES: Earthquakes have substantial impacts on mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The academic evidence base to support Disaster Risk Reduction activities in LMIC settings is, however, limited. We sought to address this gap by identifying the health and healthcare impacts of earthquakes in LMICs and to identify the implications of these findings for future earthquake preparedness. STUDY DESIGN: Scoping review. METHODS: A scoping review was undertaken with systematic searches of indexed databases to identify relevant literature...
June 20, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645039/fundamental-causes-of-accelerated-declines-in-colorectal-cancer-mortality-modeling-multiple-ways-that-disadvantage-influences-mortality-risk
#5
Sean A P Clouston, Marcie S Rubin, David Chae, Jeremy Freese, Barbara Nemesure, Bruce G Link
BACKGROUND: Improvements in colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality reflect the distribution of effective preventions. Social inequalities often generate unequal diffusion of medical interventions, resulting in disparate outcomes while preventions are being disseminated throughout the population. This study used a novel method to examine whether Race (Black versus White) and SES influenced when rates of CRC mortality started to decline, and how rapidly they did so. METHOD: Mortality counts from 1968-2010 were derived from death certificates of U...
June 13, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644780/avoiding-racial-essentialism-in-medical-science-curricula
#6
Lundy Braun, Barry Saunders
A wave of medical student activism is shining a spotlight on medical educators' sometimes maladroit handling of racial categories in teaching about health disparities. Coinciding with recent critiques, primarily by social scientists, regarding the imprecise and inappropriate use of race as a biological or epidemiological risk factor in genetics research, medical student activism has triggered new collaborations among students, faculty, and administrators to rethink how race is addressed in the medical curriculum...
June 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644729/promoting-prenatal-exercise-from-a-sociocultural-and-life-course-perspective-an-embodied-conceptual-framework
#7
Shannon Jette, Julie Maier, Katelyn Esmonde, Cherise Davis
PURPOSE: Prenatal exercise is a health behavior that is receiving growing attention amid concern that women in Western societies are gaining excess weight during pregnancy and contributing to future obesity in both the mother and child. In this article, we draw on insights from the fields of social epidemiology and social theory of the body to examine existing prenatal exercise interventions and to propose a multidimensional framework intended to guide future theorizing and intervention design...
June 23, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644669/entanglement-and-nonlocality-in-infinite-1d-systems
#8
Zizhu Wang, Sukhwinder Singh, Miguel Navascués
We consider the problem of detecting entanglement and nonlocality in one-dimensional (1D) infinite, translation-invariant (TI) systems when just near-neighbor information is available. This issue is deeper than one might think a priori, since, as we show, there exist instances of local separable states (classical boxes) which admit only entangled (nonclassical) TI extensions. We provide a simple characterization of the set of local states of multiseparable TI spin chains and construct a family of linear witnesses which can detect entanglement in infinite TI states from the nearest-neighbor reduced density matrix...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644656/entanglement-enhanced-phase-estimation-without-prior-phase-information
#9
G Colangelo, F Martin Ciurana, G Puentes, M W Mitchell, R J Sewell
We study the generation of planar quantum squeezed (PQS) states by quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement of an ensemble of ^{87}Rb atoms with a Poisson distributed atom number. Precise calibration of the QND measurement allows us to infer the conditional covariance matrix describing the F_{y} and F_{z} components of the PQS states, revealing the dual squeezing characteristic of PQS states. PQS states have been proposed for single-shot phase estimation without prior knowledge of the likely values of the phase...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644405/socioeconomic-status-and-health-a-new-approach-to-the-measurement-of-bivariate-inequality
#10
Guido Erreygers, Roselinde Kessels
We suggest an alternative way to construct a family of indices of socioeconomic inequality of health. Our indices belong to the broad category of linear indices. In contrast to rank-dependent indices, which are defined in terms of the ranks of the socioeconomic variable and the levels of the health variable, our indices are based on the levels of both the socioeconomic and the health variable. We also indicate how the indices can be modified in order to introduce sensitivity to inequality in the socioeconomic distribution and to inequality in the health distribution...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643658/quality-assessment-of-pelvic-ultrasound-for-uterine-myoma-according-to-the-cngof-guidelines
#11
D Perrot, H Fernandez, J M Levaillant, P Capmas
INTRODUCTION: French guidelines regarding the minimum criteria for gynaecological ultrasound were given in a recent report in 2016, by the French National College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (CNGOF). An accurate report is essential for the optimal care of women, especially those presenting myomas. The goal of this study was to evaluate the quality of gynaecological ultrasound reports for women with type 0 to 2 uterine myomas, referring to the items contained in the French guidelines...
April 2017: Journal of gynecology obstetrics and human reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643435/interventions-for-enhancing-the-distribution-of-dental-professionals-a-concise-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Ralf Jäger, Neeltje van den Berg, Falk Schwendicke
BACKGROUND: A spatially unequal distribution of dentists or dental care professionals (D/DCPs), such as therapists or hygienists, could reduce the quality of health services and increase health inequities. This review describes the interventions available to enhance this spatial distribution and systematically assesses their effectiveness. METHODS: Electronic databases (Cochrane CENTRAL, Medline, Embase, CINAHL) were searched and cross-referencing was performed using a standardised searching algorithm...
June 23, 2017: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643269/-doing-difference-and-fast-food-consumption-patterns-among-a-sample-of-white-and-african-american-emerging-adults
#13
Jeannette M Wade
Previous research has demonstrated that frequent consumption of fast food is linked to obesity and that trends in both are disparate across race and sex categories. Contextualizing race- and sex-related factors that structure fast food consumption in emerging adulthood is a much-needed contribution to social research. Specifically, this study uses the "doing difference" framework, to examine the frequency of fast food consumption in a sample of White and African American (18-25 years old). According to the framework, social inequalities are reproduced through dramaturgical performances of race, class, and gender...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643157/effect-of-variance-ratio-on-anova-robustness-might-1-5-be-the-limit
#14
María J Blanca, Rafael Alarcón, Jaume Arnau, Roser Bono, Rebecca Bendayan
Inconsistencies in the research findings on F-test robustness to variance heterogeneity could be related to the lack of a standard criterion to assess robustness or to the different measures used to quantify heterogeneity. In the present paper we use Monte Carlo simulation to systematically examine the Type I error rate of F-test under heterogeneity. One-way, balanced, and unbalanced designs with monotonic patterns of variance were considered. Variance ratio (VR) was used as a measure of heterogeneity (1.5, 1...
June 22, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642641/inequality-in-human-capital-and-endogenous-credit-constraints
#15
Rong Hai, James J Heckman
This paper investigates the determinants of inequality in human capital with an emphasis on the role of the credit constraints. We develop and estimate a model in which individuals face uninsured human capital risks and invest in education, acquire work experience, accumulate assets and smooth consumption. Agents can borrow from the private lending market and from government student loan programs. The private market credit limit is explicitly derived by extending the natural borrowing limit of Aiyagari (1994) to incorporate endogenous labor supply, human capital accumulation, psychic costs of working, and age...
April 2017: Review of Economic Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642040/global-geriatric-oncology-achievements-and-challenges
#16
REVIEW
Enrique Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Nienke A de Glas, Tina Hsu, Ravindran Kanesvaran, Christopher Steer, Ana Patricia Navarrete-Reyes, Nicolo Matteo Luca Battisti, Yanin Chavarri-Guerra, Anita O'Donovan, Jose Alberto Avila-Funes, Arti Hurria
The aging of the population is a global challenge. The number of older adults is rapidly growing, leading to an increase in the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases associated with aging, such as cancer. Worldwide, older adults account for approximately half of all cancer cases, and this proportion is projected to increase globally. Furthermore, the majority of older adults live in less developed regions, where health systems are generally ill-equipped to provide care for complex chronic conditions. Worldwide, there is paucity of geriatric training, and most of the oncology workforce lacks the skills and knowledge to provide comprehensive care for older patients...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641815/impulsive-stabilization-of-fractional-differential-systems
#17
Liguang Xu, Jiankang Li, Shuzhi Sam Ge
This paper investigates the impulsive stabilization problem of fractional differential systems (FDSs in short). Both the global exponential stability and ultimate boundedness criteria are established using Lyapunov functions, algebraic inequality techniques and boundedness of Mittag-Leffler functions. It is shown that unstable and unbounded FDSs can be stable and bounded respectively under impulsive control. Examples and simulations are also provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the derived theoretical results...
June 19, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641374/intergenerational-socioeconomic-mobility-and-adult-depression-the-constances-study
#18
Maria Melchior, Abdelkrim Ziad, Emilie Courtin, Marcel Goldberg, Marie Zins, Judith van der Waerden
Socioeconomic mobility from childhood onwards may predict depression risk in adulthood. Using data from the nationally representative CONSTANCES study in France (2012-2014, n = 67,057), we assessed the relationship between intergenerational socioeconomic mobility and adult depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, > = 16 in men, > = 20 in women) and antidepressant use. Socioeconomic position was ascertained by occupational grade (childhood: maternal and paternal measures prior to age 15 years combined; adult: participant own)...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641056/the-odd-couple-using-biomedical-and-intersectional-approaches-to-address-health-inequities
#19
Olena Hankivsky, Lesley Doyal, Gillian Einstein, Ursula Kelly, Janet Shim, Lynn Weber, Robin Repta
BACKGROUND: Better understanding and addressing health inequities is a growing global priority. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we contribute to the literature examining complex relationships between biological and social dimensions in the field of health inequalities. Specifically, we explore the potential of intersectionality to advance current approaches to socio-biological entwinements. DESIGN: We provide a brief overview of current approaches to combining both biological and social factors in a single study, and then investigate the contributions of an intersectional framework to such work...
January 2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640664/%C3%A2-somos-iguales-using-a-structural-violence-framework-to-understand-gender-and-health-inequities-from-an-intersectional-perspective-in-the-peruvian-amazon
#20
Geordan D Shannon, Angelica Motta, Carlos F Cáceres, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Diana Bowie, Audrey Prost
BACKGROUND: In the Peruvian Amazon, historical events of colonization and political marginalization intersect with identities of ethnicity, class and geography in the construction of gender and health inequities. Gender-based inequalities can manifest in poor health outcomes via discriminatory practices, healthcare system imbalances, inequities in health research, and differential exposures and vulnerabilities to diseases. Structural violence is a comprehensive framework to explain the mechanisms by which social forces such as poverty, racism and gender inequity become embodied as individual experiences and health outcomes, and thus may be a useful tool in structuring an intersectional analysis of gender and health inequities in Amazonian Peru...
January 2017: Global Health Action
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