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Inequality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231335/immigrants-in-the-one-percent-the-national-origin-of-top-wealth-owners
#1
Lisa A Keister, Brian Aronson
BACKGROUND: Economic inequality in the United States is extreme, but little is known about the national origin of affluent households. Households in the top one percent by total wealth own vastly disproportionate quantities of household assets and have correspondingly high levels of economic, social, and political influence. The overrepresentation of white natives (i.e., those born in the U.S.) among high-wealth households is well-documented, but changing migration dynamics suggest that a growing portion of top households may be immigrants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231313/a-stochastic-hybrid-systems-based-framework-for-modeling-dependent-failure-processes
#2
Mengfei Fan, Zhiguo Zeng, Enrico Zio, Rui Kang, Ying Chen
In this paper, we develop a framework to model and analyze systems that are subject to dependent, competing degradation processes and random shocks. The degradation processes are described by stochastic differential equations, whereas transitions between the system discrete states are triggered by random shocks. The modeling is, then, based on Stochastic Hybrid Systems (SHS), whose state space is comprised of a continuous state determined by stochastic differential equations and a discrete state driven by stochastic transitions and reset maps...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230402/adolescents-conceptions-of-national-wealth-distribution-connections-with-perceived-societal-fairness-and-academic-plans
#3
William F Arsenio, Chris Willems
This study examined mostly lower-middle-income Latino (37%) and African American (33%) adolescents' (N = 90, Mage = 15.90) conceptions of how U.S. wealth is and ought to be distributed, and whether these judgments are related to adolescents' views about societal and legal fairness and their immediate academic plans. Individually administered multipart interviews assessed conceptions regarding (a) actual and ideal U.S. wealth distribution and related "Rawlsian" judgments, (b) social system and legal fairness, and (c) adolescents' near-term life goals...
March 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230155/perceived-moral-traits-of-others-differentiate-the-neural-activation-that-underlies-inequity-aversion
#4
Hironori Nakatani, Akitoshi Ogawa, Chisato Suzuki, Takeshi Asamizuya, Kenichi Ueno, Kang Cheng, Kazuo Okanoya
We have a social preference to reduce inequity in the outcomes between oneself and others. Such a preference varies according to others. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging during an economic game to investigate how the perceived moral traits of others modulate the neural activities that underlie inequity-aversion. The participants unilaterally allocated money to three partners (good, neutral, and bad). During presentation of the good and neutral partners, the anterior region of the rostral medial frontal cortex (arMFC) showed increased functional connectivity with the caudate head and the anterior insula, respectively...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228572/opposed-to-the-being-of-henrietta-bioslavery-pop-culture-and-the-third-life-of-hela-cells
#5
Marlon Rachquel Moore
Operating at the intersection of thanatopolitics and African-American cultural studies, this essay argues that the commercial sale of HeLa-themed art and other bioproducts perpetuates the bioslavery of HeLa cells, a circumstance created by legal and medical discourses tracing back to US racial slavery. Racial slavery normalised economic, social and legal inequities that the nation continues to struggle with and, the article posits, laid foundation for the dynamics that currently exist between Henrietta Lacks' genealogical family, the HeLa cell line, and the medical-pharmaceutical establishment...
March 2017: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228449/neighborhood-differences-in-post-stroke-mortality
#6
Theresa L Osypuk, Amy Ehntholt, J Robin Moon, Paola Gilsanz, M Maria Glymour
BACKGROUND: Post-stroke mortality is higher among residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods, but it is not known whether neighborhood inequalities are specific to stroke survival or similar to mortality patterns in the general population. We hypothesized that neighborhood disadvantage would predict higher poststroke mortality, and neighborhood effects would be relatively larger for stroke patients than for individuals with no history of stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: Health and Retirement Study participants aged ≥50 years without stroke at baseline (n=15 560) were followed ≤12 years for incident stroke (1715 events over 159 286 person-years) and mortality (5325 deaths)...
February 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228412/inequality-in-cataract-blindness-and-services-moving-beyond-unidimensional-analyses-of-social-position
#7
Jacqueline Ramke, Anthony B Zwi, Arier C Lee, Ilse Blignault, Clare E Gilbert
OBJECTIVE: Inequalities in cataract blindness are well known, but data are rarely disaggregated to explore the combined effects of a range of axes describing social disadvantage. We examined inequalities in cataract blindness and services at the intersection of three social axes. METHODS: Three dichotomous social variables (sex (male/female); place of residence (urban/rural); literacy (literate/illiterate)) from cross-sectional national blindness surveys in Pakistan (2001-2004; n=16 507) and Nigeria (2005-2007; n=13 591) were used to construct eight subgroups, with disadvantaged subgroups selected a priori (ie, women, rural dwellers, illiterate)...
February 22, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226068/-multiple-causes-of-maternal-mortality-related-to-abortion-in-minas-gerais-state-brazil-2000-2011
#8
Eunice Francisca Martins, Pollyanna Ferraz Botelho de Almeida, Cilene de Oliveira Paixão, Paula Gonçalves Bicalho, Livia de Souza Pancrácio de Errico
This study aimed to analyze trends in maternal mortality from abortion in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from 2000 to 2011, addressing multiple causes of death. The analysis focused on women's social and demographic characteristics, year, location, and underlying and associated causes of death. Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and abortion-specific ratio were calculated for each year, as well as Spearman's correlation coefficient (p < 0.05), to assess the trend in ratios during the study period. One hundred and eighty-three deaths from abortion were recorded, accounting for 15% of maternal deaths, and MMR remained stable...
February 13, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226005/assessment-of-the-investigation-of-ill-defined-causes-of-death-in-brazil-in-2010
#9
Carolina Cândida da Cunha, Renato Teixeira, Elisabeth França
Objective: to assess the results of the investigation of ill-defined causes of death (IDCD) to improve the quality of cause-of-death data in Brazil. Methods: this is a descriptive study using data from the Mortality Information System; all IDCD which occurred in 2010 were selected; deaths were analyzed according to macroregions, states, state capitals and characteristics of how the investigations were carried out. Results: the proportion of IDCD was 8...
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225943/-inequalities-on-indicators-of-chronic-conditions-among-adults-in-mexico-analysis-of-three-health-surveys
#10
Juan Pablo Gutiérrez, Sebastián García-Saisó, Rodrigo Espinosa-de la Peña, Dulce Alejandra Balandrán
Objective: To analyze trends from 2000 to 2012 in socioeconomic inequalities in health related to diabetes and hypertension indicators in Mexico. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional analysis of three national health surveys (2000, 2006 and 2012), measuring inequality using absolute and relative gaps as well as the Slope Index of Inequality for diabetes and hypertension indicators. Results: From 2000 to 2012, there is a reduction in the gap related to the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes and hypertension, with a parallel reduction in the inequality related to care for those conditions, while an inequality gradient on diabetes care remains...
November 2016: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225942/-health-inequalities-on-adolescents-risk-behavior-indicators-in-mexico-analysis-of-two-national-health-surveys
#11
Juan Pablo Gutiérrez, Sebastián García-Saisó, Rodrigo Espinosa-de la Peña, Dulce Alejandra Balandrán
Objective: To document socioeconomic health inequalities on adolescents' risk behaviors in Mexico using gap and gradient measures. Materials and methods: Analysis of the national health surveys 2000 and 2012 measuring absolute and relative gaps as well as the slope index of inequality for risk behavior indicators on adolescents using socioeconomic indicators and also measuring gaps for sex, urban/rural residency, and indigenous/non-indigenous population. Results: For sexual risk behaviors, inequalities are reflected in a lower probability of using protection at the first sexual intercourse among those living in households with lower income for women and men as well as higher probability of ever being pregnant for adolescents of lower income...
November 2016: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225941/-health-inequality-on-results-and-access-indicators-for-children-in-mexico-analysis-of-national-health-surveys
#12
Juan Pablo Gutiérrez, Sebastián García-Saisó, Rodrigo Espinosa-de la Peña, Dulce Alejandra Balandrán
Objective: To analyze inequalities in health care indicators of children 0 to 9 years old in Mexico reporting gap and gradient measures. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional analysis of national health surveys in 2000, 2006 and 2012, measuring absolute and relative gap measures as well as the Slope Index of Inequality for four health care indicators (vaccination, care for acute respiratory infections, care for acute diarrheal diseases, and care for accidents) with socioeconomic stratification, as well as absolute gaps by sex, urbanicity and ethnic background...
November 2016: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225940/-monitoring-of-inequality-in-financial-protection-and-healthcare-in-mexico-an-analysis-of-health-surveys-2000-2006-and-2012
#13
Juan Pablo Gutiérrez, Sebastián García-Saisó, Rodrigo Espinosa-de la Peña, Dulce Alejandra Balandrán
Objective: To analyze trends in inequality in financial protection and healthcare in Mexico between 2000 and 2012, using simple and complex measures. Materials and methods: Analysis of national health surveys 2000, 2006 and 2012, generating estimates of absolute and relative gaps and the slope index of inequality using imputated income as socioeconomic measure, and differences by sex, rural/urban residence, and ethnic background. Results: Between 2000 and 2012, socioeconomic inequality in financial protection vanished, while it remains in healthcare access, with larger barriers to access healthcare among those in the lowest socioeconomic condition...
November 2016: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225909/tuberculosis-as-a-marker-of-inequities-in-the-context-of-socio-spatial-transformation
#14
Alexandre San Pedro, Gerusa Gibson, Jefferson Pereira Caldas Dos Santos, Luciano Medeiros de Toledo, Paulo Chagastelles Sabroza, Rosely Magalhães de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the association between the incidence of tuberculosis and different socioeconomic indicators in a territory of intense transformation of the urban space. METHODS: This is an ecological study, whose analysis units were the neighborhoods of the city of Itaboraí, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The data have been analyzed by generalized linear models. The response variable was incidence of tuberculosis from 2006 to 2011. The independent variables were the socio-demographic indicators...
February 16, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225732/integrating-and-assessing-structural-competency-in-an-innovative-prehealth-curriculum-at-vanderbilt-university
#15
Jonathan M Metzl, JuLeigh Petty
PROBLEM: Structural competency is a framework for conceptualizing and addressing health-related social justice issues that emphasizes diagnostic recognition of economic and political conditions producing and racializing inequalities in health. Strategies are needed to teach prehealth undergraduate students concepts central to structural competency (e.g., structural inequity, structural racism, structural stigma) and to evaluate their impact. APPROACH: The curriculum for Vanderbilt University's innovative prehealth major in medicine, health, and society (MHS) was reshaped in 2013 to incorporate structural competency concepts and skills into undergraduate courses...
March 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225657/let-them-breathe
#16
Marilyn Clifford
Childhood asthma is caused by an interaction of genetic and modifiable environmental factors. Health inequities compound these environmental factors. As features of asthma are established during preschool years, these health inequities in urban children with asthma need to be addressed by preschool nurses.
March 2017: NASN School Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225463/doctors-without-borders
#17
Val Wass, Lesley Southgate
The unprecedented demands of patient and population priorities created by globalization and escalating health and social inequities will not be met unless medical education changes. Educators have failed to move fast enough to create an education framework that meets current population needs. A new common set of professional values around global social accountability is necessary. Education borders must be broken down at three levels-societal-institutional, interpersonal, and individual.At a societal-institutional level, global health must be embraced as part of a philosophy of population needs, human rights, equity, and justice...
February 21, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224441/does-medicaid-insurance-confer-adequate-access-to-adult-orthopaedic-care-in-the-era-of-the-patient-protection-and-affordable-care-act
#18
Joseph T Labrum, Taylor Paziuk, Theresa C Rihn, Alan S Hilibrand, Alexander R Vaccaro, Mitchell G Maltenfort, Jeffrey A Rihn
BACKGROUND: A current appraisal of access to orthopaedic care for the adult patient receiving Medicaid is important, since Medicaid expansion was written into law by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Do orthopaedic practices provide varying access to orthopaedic care for simulated patients with Medicaid insurance versus private insurance in a blinded survey? (2) What are the surveyed state-by-state Medicaid acceptance rates for adult orthopaedic practices in the current era of Medicaid expansion set forth by the PPACA? (3) Do surveyed rates of access to orthopaedic care in the adult patient population vary across practice setting (private vs academic) or vary with different Medicaid physician reimbursement rates? (4) Are there differences in the surveyed Medicaid acceptance rates for adult orthopaedic practices in states that have expanded Medicaid coverage versus states that have foregone expansion? METHODS: Simulated Patient Survey: We performed a telephone survey study of orthopaedic offices in four states with Medicaid expansion...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224349/mapping-the-health-information-landscape-in-a-rural-culturally-diverse-region-implications-for-interventions-to-reduce-information-inequality
#19
A Susana Ramírez, Erendira Estrada, Ariana Ruiz
The media is an important source of health information, especially critical in rural communities with geographically-dispersed populations that are harder to reach through other channels. Yet health information is unequally distributed; these information disparities are compounded in rural areas, which may contribute to health disparities. We identify and describe health-related news in a culturally-diverse rural California county characterized by high levels of poverty, unemployment, low educational attainment, and over half of Mexican-origin...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Primary Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224213/community-maturity-to-implement-health-in-all-policies
#20
Jonas Bech Andersen, Gabriel Gulis
OBJECTIVES: To provide a fundament for practical guidance on implementation of HiAP to Danish Municipalities HiAP. METHODS: This study is based on a descriptive case study design where a mixed method is used. A questionnaire survey with 64 respondents was conducted in the five political sectors of Esbjerg municipality and it was followed up by four semi-structured interviews with key respondents based on a Dutch prototype model from 2014; The Capability Maturity Model for HiAP...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
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