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Food animal

Hans-Uwe Dahms, Eun-Ji Won, Hui-Su Kim, Jeonghoon Han, Heum Gi Park, Sami Souissi, Sheikh Raisuddin, Jae-Seong Lee
Aquatic invertebrates contribute significantly to environmental impact assessment of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Much effort has been made to identify viable and ecologically relevant invertebrate test organisms to meet rigorous regulatory requirements. Copepods, which are ecologically important and widely distributed in aquatic organisms, offer a huge opportunity as test organisms for aquatic toxicity testing. They have a major role not only in the transfer of energy in aquatic food chains, but also as a medium of transfer of aquatic pollutants across the tropic levels...
October 14, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Verónica María Corrales-Carvajal, Aldo A Faisal, Carlos Ribeiro
Internal states can profoundly alter the behavior of animals. A quantitative understanding of the behavioral changes upon metabolic challenges is key to a mechanistic dissection of how animals maintain nutritional homeostasis. We used an automated video tracking setup to characterize how amino acid and reproductive states interact to shape exploitation and exploration decisions taken by adult Drosophila melanogaster. We find that these two states have specific effects on the decisions to stop at and leave proteinaceous food patches...
October 22, 2016: ELife
Xuan Zhang, Yi-Chi Zhang, Jia-Wei Zhang
Chloramphenicol (CAP), as a broad-spectrum antibiotic, has been worldwide banned for using in the food producing animals due to its overuse may cause severe threats to public health. It is therefore highly desirable to develop facile, selective and sensitive biosensor for CAP detection and monitoring in drug and foodstuff samples. In this work, three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (3DRGO) architectures were prepared through a green and template-free approach and used as active electrode materials to develop a highly selective electrochemical sensor for CAP detection...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Sinem Acar, Ece Bulut, Bora Durul, Ilhan Uner, Mehmet Kur, M Dilek Avsaroglu, Hüseyin Avni Kirmaci, Yasar Osman Tel, Fadile Y Zeyrek, Yesim Soyer
192 Food samples (commonly consumed 8 food types), 355 animal samples (animal feces of bovine, ovine, goat and chicken) and 50 samples from clinical human cases in Sanliurfa city, Turkey in a year were collected to determine the Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica mosaic in Turkey. 161 Salmonella isolates represented 17 serotypes, 20 sequence types (STs) and 44 PFGE patterns (PTs). 3 serotypes, S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and S. Kentucky, were recovered from three different hosts. The highest discriminatory power was obtained by PFGE (SID=0...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Lanfang Tian, Siyuan Chen, Haiyan Liu, Mingzhang Guo, Wentao Xu, Xiaoyun He, Yunbo Luo, Xiaozhe Qi, Hongxia Luo, Kunlun Huang
Hepcidin, one kind of antimicrobial peptides, is one of the promising alternatives to antibiotics with broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Hepcidins cloned from different kinds of fishes have been produced using exogenous expression systems, and their in vitro antimicrobial effects have been verified. However their in vivo effects on gut microbiota and gut health of hosts remain unclear. Here we performed a safety study of hepcidin so that it can be used to reduce microbial contaminations in the food and feed...
2016: PloS One
Rui Seixas, Tânia Raquel Santos, Jorge Machado, Luís Tavares, Fernando Bernardo, Teresa Semedo-Lemsaddek, Manuela Oliveira
The increase in prevalence of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- related infections over the last few years has been considered a public health issue in many European countries, especially as this serovar may be associated with tetraresistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines (R-type ASSuT). Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates (n = 187) obtained by the Portuguese National Laboratory from different sources, including human clinical cases (n = 170), veterinary (n = 10), environmental (n = 6), and food samples (n = 1), were collected from 15 districts between 2006 and 2011...
October 21, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Paula Viviani, Adrian Lifschitz, Jorge García, María Laura Maté, Miguel Angel Quiroga, Carlos Lanusse, Guillermo Virkel
1. Precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) from food-producing animals have not been extensively used to study xenobiotic metabolism, and thus information on this field of research is sparse. 2. The aims of the present work were to further validate the technique of production and culture of bovine PCLS and to characterize the metabolic interaction between the anthelmintic albendazole (ABZ) and the flavin-monooxygenase (FMO) inhibitor methimazole (MTZ). 3. Nine (9) steers were used as donors. PCLS were produced and incubated under two methods, a dynamic organ culture (DOC) incubator and a well-plate (WP) system...
October 21, 2016: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Ding Tang, Keli Chen, Luqi Huang, Juan Li
Apigenin, a natural flavone, is widely distributed in plants such as celery, parsley and chamomile. It is present principally as glycosylated in nature. Higher intake of apigenin could reduce the risk of chronic diseases. It has gained particular interest in recent years as a beneficial, health-promoting agent with low intrinsic toxicity. Areas covered: This review summarizes and the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) properties of apigenin, and drug-drug interaction of apigenin. Expert opinion: Since apigenin is a bioactive plant flavone and is widely distributed in common food, its consumption through the diet is recommended...
October 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Huy X Ngo, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova, Keith D Green
Fungal infections directly affect millions of people each year. In addition to the invasive fungal infections of humans, the plants and animals that comprise our primary food source are also susceptible to diseases caused by these eukaryotic microbes. The need for antifungals, not only for our medical needs, but also for use in agriculture and livestock causes a high demand for novel antimycotics. Herein, we provide an overview of the most commonly used antifungals in medicine and agriculture. We also present a summary of the recent progress (from 2010-2016) in the discovery/development of new agents against fungal strains of medical/agricultural relevance, as well as information related to their biological activity, their mode(s) of action, and their mechanism(s) of resistance...
July 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Eduardo Huber, Diego Lucas Francio, Vanessa Biasi, Natália Mezzomo, Sandra Regina Salvador Ferreira
ABSTRACT: Vegetable fibers have been used lately as ingredients in popular meat products in order to increase its nutritional value. The objective of this study was the physical-chemical characterization of six vegetable fibers in order to apply them in chicken burger formulations as animal fat substitutes. The studied fibers showed moisture content below 14 %, low content of fat, protein and ash, and high levels of carbohydrates. The oat, wheat and bamboo fibers showed the highest content of total dietary fiber...
July 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Mariya Markova, Olga Pivovarova, Silke Hornemann, Stephanie Sucher, Turid Frahnow, Katrin Wegner, Jürgen Machann, Klaus Jürgen Petzke, Johannes Hierholzer, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Christian Herder, Maren Carstensen-Kirberg, Michael Roden, Natalia Rudovich, Susanne Klaus, Ralph Thomann, Rosemarie Schneeweiss, Sascha Rohn, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased risk of hepatic, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. High-protein diets, rich in methionine and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), apparently reduce liver fat but may induce insulin resistance. We investigated the effects of diets high in animal protein vs plant protein, which differ in levels of methionine and BCAA, in subjects with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD. We examined levels of liver fat, lipogenic indices, markers of inflammation, serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and activation of signaling pathways in adipose tissue...
October 17, 2016: Gastroenterology
Tatiane Aparecida Ribeiro, Kelly Valério Prates, Audrei Pavanello, Ananda Malta, Laize Peron Tófolo, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, Elaine Vieira, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Luiz Felipe Barella, Flávio Andrade Francisco, Vander Silva Alves, Sandra da Silva Silveira, Veridiana Mota Moreira, Gabriel Sergio Fabricio, Kesia Palma-Rigo, Deborah M Sloboda, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias
Acephate has been used extensively as an insecticide in agriculture. Its downstream sequelae are associated with hyperglycemia, lipid metabolism dysfunction, DNA damage, and cancer, which are rapidly growing epidemics and which lead to increased morbidity and mortality rates and soaring health-care costs. Developing interventions will require a comprehensive understanding of which excess insecticides during perinatal life can cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. A Wistar rat animal model suggests that acephate exposure during pregnancy and lactation causes alterations in maternal glucose metabolism and programs the offspring to be susceptible to type 2 diabetes at adulthood...
October 17, 2016: Toxicology
Marlene D Kristensen, Nathalie T Bendsen, Sheena M Christensen, Arne Astrup, Anne Raben
BACKGROUND: Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef) because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas) should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Laura Acevedo-Pacheco, Sergio O Serna-Saldívar
BACKGROUND: One way to diminish protein malnutrition in children is by enriching cereal-based flours for the manufacturing of maize tortillas, wheat flour tortillas, and yeast-leavened breads, which are widely consumed among low socio-economic groups. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine and compare the essential amino acid (EAA) scores, protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), and in vivo protein quality (protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio (PER), biological values (BV), and net protein utilization (NPU) values) of regular versus soybean-fortified maize tortillas, yeast-leavened bread, and wheat flour tortillas...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Y J Mu, B F Zhang, J Y Zhao, Z Q Wang, S L Xia, X Y Huang, B L Xu
Objective: To understand the distribution of Salmonella in external environment in Henan province, and explore the distribution of different serotypes of the Salmonella and their homology. Methods: A total of 4 488 samples were collected form animal dung, meat products and kitchen utensils, and identified by biochemical tests and serotyped by serum agglutination reaction. The predominant serotypes were further typed by PFGE. Results: A total of 324 Salmonella strains were detected in these samples, the detection rate was 7...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Aditi Sharma, Seung-Hwan Lee, Dajeong Lim, Han-Ha Chai, Bong-Hwan Choi, Yongmin Cho
BACKGROUND: The native cattle breeds are an important genetic resource for meat and milk production throughout Asia. In Asia cattle were domesticated around 10,000 years ago and in Korea cattle are being raised since 2000 B.C. There are three native breeds of cattle in Korea viz. Brown Hanwoo, Brindle Hanwoo and Jeju Black. While one of these breeds, Brown Hanwoo, is a part of a Food and Agricultural Organization and national genetic evaluation plans, others get little attention. This study is an effort to understand and provide a detailed insight into the population structure and genetic variability of the Korean cattle breeds along with other Asian breeds using various methods...
October 20, 2016: BMC Genetics
Cheng-Shiuan Lee, Nicholas S Fisher
Methylmercury (MeHg) is known to biomagnify in marine food chains, resulting in higher concentrations in upper trophic level animals than their prey. To better understand how marine copepods, an important intermediate between phytoplankton and forage fish at the bottom of the food chain, assimilate and release MeHg, we performed a series of laboratory experiments using the gamma-emitting radiotracer (203) Hg(2+) and Me(203) Hg with the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. Assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of Hg(2+) and MeHg ranged from 25 to 31% and 58 to 79%, respectively, depending on algal diets...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Robert P Ellis, Mauricio A Urbina, Rod W Wilson
Exponentially rising CO2 (currently ~400 μatm) is driving climate change and causing acidification of both marine and freshwater environments. Physiologists have long known that CO2 directly affects acid-base and ion regulation, respiratory function and aerobic performance in aquatic animals. More recently, many studies have demonstrated that elevated CO2 projected for end of this century (e.g. 800-1000 μatm) can also impact physiology, and have substantial effects on behaviours linked to sensory stimuli (smell, hearing and vision) both having negative implications for fitness and survival...
October 20, 2016: Global Change Biology
Xingxing Dong, Xiaohong Wang, Xingchun Chen, Zhiyun Yan, Jing Cheng, Liangliang Gao, Yuan Liu, Jinquan Li
Staphylococcus aureus, a commensal and a pathogenic bacterium, causes a wide variety of diseases in humans and animals with a high impact on public health and the livestock industry. The risk of zoonotic transmission to humans highlights the need to understand the molecular ecology of S. aureus in foods. In this study, we obtained 25 S. aureus isolates from 39 crayfish samples in Hubei, China. PCR was applied for detection of presence of virulence and methicillin resistance genes in the pathogen genome. The result revealed that all of the 25 S...
October 19, 2016: Current Microbiology
Noelle Merchak, Virginie Silvestre, Denis Loquet, Toufic Rizk, Serge Akoka, Joseph Bejjani
Triacylglycerols, which are quasi-universal components of food matrices, consist of complex mixtures of molecules. Their site-specific (13)C content, their fatty acid profile, and their position on the glycerol moiety may significantly vary with the geographical, botanical, or animal origin of the sample. Such variables are valuable tracers for food authentication issues. The main objective of this work was to develop a new method based on a rapid and precise (13)C-NMR spectroscopy (using a polarization transfer technique) coupled with multivariate linear regression analyses in order to quantify the whole set of individual fatty acids within triacylglycerols...
October 19, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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