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Julia Zaccarelli-Magalhães, Natalia Moreira, Thaisa Meira Sandini, Gabriel Ramos de Abreu, Angélica Maria Sánchez-Sarmiento, Esther Lopes Ricci, André Rinaldi Fukushima, Helenice de Souza Spinosa
Varenicline is a synthetic chemical substance produced from the alkaloid cytisine, used for smoking treatment, which acts as a partial agonist for α4β2 and α3β4 nicotinic cholinergic receptors and as a total agonist for α7 receptor. While there are studies regarding varenicline's non-smoking-related effects, as in treatment for drug dependence, there are no studies in the literature evaluating the long-term toxicity of varenicline through a physiological approach. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate possible toxicity through hematological, biochemical and anatomopathological parameters of prolonged exposure (30 days) to varenicline in rats...
September 25, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Ricardo Henrique Belmiro, Alline Artigiani Lima Tribst, Marcelo Cristianini
High pressure homogenization (HPH) is an emerging process in which a fluid product is pumped by pressure intensifiers forcing it to flows through a narrow gap, usually measured in the order of micrometers. Gums are polysaccharides from vegetal, animal or microbial origin, widely employed in food and chemical industries as thickeners, stabilizers, gelling agents and emulsifiers. Choosing a specific gum will depend on its application and purpose, as each form of gum has particular values for viscosity, intrinsic viscosity, stability, emulsifying and gelling properties, being these parameters determined by its structure...
September 25, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Yu S Sidorova, V А Sarkisyan, N A Petrov, A A Kochetkova, V K Mazo
Rats of the experimental group for 30 days received a ration in which the fat component (sunflower oil) was completely substituted with a lipid module enriched with docosahexaenoic acid and astaxanthin. Anxiety of animals in elevated plus-maze test and muscle tone in the grip strength test were evaluated before and after the experiment. Exhausting treadmill exercise was simulated after 30 days of feeding the lipid module. Modification of the lipid component of the diet (enrichment with docosahexaenoic acid and astaxanthin) reduced fatigue during exhausting physical exercise, increased muscle tone, and produced an anxiolytic effect...
September 25, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Thomas O Richardson, Luca Giuggioli, Nigel R Franks, Ana B Sendova-Franks
Animals often display a marked tendency to return to previously visited locations that contain important resources, such as water, food, or developing brood that must be provisioned. A considerable body of work has demonstrated that this tendency is strongly expressed in ants, which exhibit fidelity to particular sites both inside and outside the nest. However, thus far many studies of this phenomena have taken the approach of reducing an animal's trajectory to a summary statistic, such as the area it covers...
August 2017: Methods in Ecology and Evolution
Sébastien Lebreton, Mikael A Carlsson, Peter Witzgall
Many animals adjust their reproductive behavior according to nutritional state and food availability. Drosophila females for instance decrease their sexual receptivity following starvation. Insulin signaling, which regulates many aspects of insect physiology and behavior, also affects reproduction in females. We show that insulin signaling is involved in the starvation-induced reduction in female receptivity. More specifically, females mutant for the insulin-like peptide 5 (dilp5) were less affected by starvation compared to the other dilp mutants and wild-type flies...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Anna Stępień, Piotr Kukliński, Maria Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Małgorzata Krzemińska, Gudmundur Gudmundsson
Body size is one of the most important biological characters, as it defines many aspects of organismal functioning at the individual and community level. As body size controls many ecological aspects of species, it is often used as a proxy for the status of the ecosystem. So far no consistent mechanism driving size shift has been proposed. In this study, we investigated bathymetric variability in zooid's size and shape in aquatic colonial animals, Bryozoa. Although the response of bryozoan zooid size to temperature or food concentration has been experimentally proven, the effects of natural environmental variability on marine bryozoan populations has been much less explored...
2017: Marine Biology
Fabiano Barreto, Cristina B D Ribeiro, Rodrigo Barcellos Hoff, Teresa Dalla Costa
This work describes the development and validation of a quantitative and confirmatory method to determination of nine fluoroquinolones residues in poultry, bovine, swine and fish muscle using LC-MS/MS. Sample preparation was based in a fast solvent extraction with acetonitrile with 1% of formic acid followed by a low-temperature clean up procedure and centrifugation, without further steps. The recoveries ranged between 79% and 115%. The concentration work range was 0-200μgkg(-1). The LOD and LOQ were 5 and 10μgkg(-1), respectively...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Marcel Massoud, Fouad Kerbage, Leony Antoun, Ribal Merhi, Souheil Hallit, Rabih Hallit
Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic infections worldwide caused by gram negative bacilli of the genus Brucella. It is transmitted to humans by contact with infected animals or derived food products such as unpasteurized milk. Brucellosis' clinical presentation varies widely from multi-systemic involvement to asymptomatic infection. We present the case of a 52-year-old Lebanese male who was admitted to our hospital with a 3-week history of fever (up to 40 °C), chills, night sweats and abdominal pain...
August 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Patrick P J Mulder, Patricia López Sanchez, Massimo Castelari, Dorina Bodi, Stefan Ronczka, Angelika Preiß-Weigert, Anja These
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary metabolites of plant families such as Asteraceae or Boraginaceae and are suspected to be genotoxic carcinogens. Recent investigations revealed their frequent occurrence in honey and in particular in tea. In order to get a comprehensive overview on the PA-content in animal- and plant-derived food from the European market, and to provide a basis for future risk analysis, a total of 1105 samples were collected in 2014 and 2015. The investigation comprised milk and milk products, eggs, meat and meat products, (herbal) teas and (herbal) food supplements collected in supermarkets, retail shops and via internet...
September 25, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Saulo Alberto do Carmo Araújo, Guilherme Pires Bicalho, Norberto da Silva Rocha, Cláudia Braga Pereira Bento, Marluci Olício Ortêncio
We studied the feed intake and milk production of Holstein × Zebu crossbred cows fed sorghum silage diets and concentrates, with and without the addition of crambe meal. Using a change-over design for a total of 120 days, eight cows were fed two diets (concentrates + silages with and without crambe meal) in four 30-day periods, with four replications (animals). The crambe meal diet increased (P < 0.05) the dry matter intake (DMI), crude protein intake (CPI), and non-fibrous carbohydrates intake (NFCI) as well as milk production (4...
September 23, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Julia Esbelin, Tiago Santos, Michel Hébraud
Water is essential for all living organisms, for animals as well as for plants and micro-organisms. For these latter, the presence of water or a humid environment with a high air relative humidity (RH) is necessary for their survival and growth. Thus, variations in the availability of water or in the air relative humidity constitute widespread environmental stresses which challenge microorganisms, and especially bacteria. Indeed, in their direct environment, bacteria are often faced with conditions that remove cell-bound water through air-drying of the atmosphere...
February 2018: Food Microbiology
Arnau Vidal, Vicente Sanchis, Antonio J Ramos, Sonia Marín
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most frequently occurring mycotoxins in wheat crops worldwide and poses a risk to human and animal health due to its wide range of adverse effects. Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside) is a DON plant conjugate that is widely found in cereal products. As DON accumulation in the field seems unavoidable, it is important to investigate all of the conditions that affect its stability during food processing. One of the most consumed cereal product around the world is bread, however the published information about DON stability in bread shows a large variability of results because a huge amount of factors affect DON and its modified forms...
November 2017: Food Research International
Adam W Westbrook, Xiang Ren, Murray Moo-Young, C Perry Chou
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a high-value biopolymer used in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Current methods of HA production, including extraction from animal sources and streptococcal cultivations, are associated with high costs and health risks. Accordingly, the development of bioprocesses for HA production centered on robust 'Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS)' organisms such as Bacillus subtilis is highly attractive. Here, we report the development of novel strains of B. subtilis in which the membrane cardiolipin (CL) content and distribution has been engineered to enhance the functional expression of heterologously expressed hyaluronan synthase of Streptococcus equisimilis (SeHAS), in turn, improving the culture performance for HA production...
September 23, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Maider Greño, María Castro-Puyana, María Ángeles García, María Luisa Marina
Natural, synthetic or semisynthetic antibiotics are highly used to prevent or treat diseases in humans and animals, and to promote animal growth. This fact makes that antibiotics residues or their transformation products may be present in food or in the environment after human or animal excretion. For this reason, it is imperative to develop reliable and sensitive analytical methodologies for their analysis. The main aim of this work is to present and discuss the most recent applications of capillary electromigration methods for the analysis of antibiotics, including the developments and applications of their use as chiral selectors in CE...
September 23, 2017: Electrophoresis
Cecilia G Sanchez, Steven V Molinski, Rafael Gongora, Meredith Sosulski, Taylor Fuselier, Stephen S MacKinnon, Debasis Mondal, Joseph A Lasky
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is considered a key factor in fibrogenesis, and blocking TGF-β1 signaling pathways diminishes fibrogenesis in animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether nelfinavir mesylate (NFV), a drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating HIV infection can be repurposed to treat pulmonary fibrosis in systemic scleroderma (SSc) METHODS: Normal human lung, ventricular, and skin fibroblasts, as well as lung fibroblasts from SSc patients, were used to determine the effects of NFV on fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation (FMD) mediated by TGF-β1...
September 21, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Kevin Frank, Adrian Brückner, Andrea Hilpert, Michael Heethoff, Nico Blüthgen
At the basis of a trophic web, coprophagous animals like dung beetles (Scarabaeoidea) utilize resources that may have advantages (easy gain and handling) as well as drawbacks (formerly processed food). Several studies have characterized the nutrients, e.g. C/N ratios and organic matter content, for specific types of dung. However, a comparative approach across dung types and feeding guilds of dung producers, and relationships between dung nutrients and preferences by coprophages, have been missing. Hence, we analyzed water content, C/N ratio, amino acid, neutral lipid fatty acid, free fatty acid and sterol composition and concentrations in dung from 23 vertebrates, including carnivore, omnivore and herbivore species...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Vincent G Martinson, Javier Carpinteyro-Ponce, Nancy A Moran, Therese A Markow
Almost all animals possess microbial gut communities, but the nature of these communities varies immensely. For example, in social bees and mammals, composition is relatively constant within species and dominated by specialist bacteria that do not live elsewhere; whereas, in laboratory studies and field surveys of Drosophila melanogaster, gut communities consist of bacteria that are ingested with food and that vary widely among individuals and localities. We addressed whether an ecological specialist in its natural habitat has a microbiota dominated by gut specialists or by environmental bacteria...
September 22, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Clara Fernández-Álvarez, Yolanda Torres-Corral, Ysabel Santos
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is a rapid methodology for identification of bacteria that is increasingly used in diagnostic laboratories. This work aimed at evaluating the potential of MALDI-TOF-MS for identification of the main serotypes of Flavobacterium psychrophilum isolated from salmonids, and its discrimination from closely related Flavobacterium spp. A mass spectra library was constructed by analysing 70 F. psychrophilum strains representing the serotypes O1, O2a, O2b and O3, including reference and clinical isolates...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Arbind Kumar Choudhary, Etheresia Pretorius
Aspartame is a synthetic dipeptide artificial sweetener, frequently used in foods, medications, and beverages, notably carbonated and powdered soft drinks. Since 1981, when aspartame was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, researchers have debated both its recommended safe dosage (40 mg/kg/d) and its general safety to organ systems. This review examines papers published between 2000 and 2016 on both the safe dosage and higher-than-recommended dosages and presents a concise synthesis of current trends...
September 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
Parisa Shokryazdan, Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi, Juan Boo Liang, Yin Wan Ho
Probiotics have become highly recognized as supplements for humans and animals because of their beneficial effects on health and well-being. The present review aims to provide an overview of different steps through which microbial strains become applicable probiotics in food and/or feed industries. Isolation of potential probiotic strains is the first step. Lactic acid bacteria are the most frequently used microorganisms as probiotics, which can be isolated from human, animal, plant, and environment. The next steps are identification of the isolates and characterization of them based on the main selection criteria for any potential probiotic microorganism, including resistance to gastric acidity and bile salt, adherence to mucus and/or intestinal epithelial cells and cell lines, and antimicrobial and antagonism activity against potentially pathogenic microbes...
September 22, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
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