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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922404/eco-epidemiological-analysis-of-rickettsial-seropositivity-in-rural-areas-of-colombia-a-multilevel-approach
#1
Juan C Quintero V, Luis E Paternina T, Alexander Uribe Y, Carlos Muskus, Marylin Hidalgo, Juliana Gil, Astrid Vanessa Cienfuegos G, Lisardo Osorio Q, Carlos Rojas A
Rickettsiosis is a re-emergent infectious disease without epidemiological surveillance in Colombia. This disease is generally undiagnosed and several deadly outbreaks have been reported in the country in the last decade. The aim of this study is to analyze the eco-epidemiological aspects of rickettsial seropositivity in rural areas of Colombia where outbreaks of the disease were previously reported. A cross-sectional study, which included 597 people living in 246 households from nine hamlets in two municipalities of Colombia, was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920059/market-impact-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-control-strategies-a-uk-case-study
#2
Siyi Feng, Myles Patton, John Davis
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) poses a serious threat to the agricultural sector due to its highly contagious nature. Outbreaks of FMD can lead to substantial disruptions to livestock markets due to loss of production and access to international markets. In a previously FMD-free country, the use of vaccination to augment control of an FMD outbreak is increasingly being recognized as an alternative control strategy to direct slaughtering [stamping-out (SO)]. The choice of control strategy has implications on production, trade, and hence prices of the sector...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913796/allergenicity-assessment-of-transgenic-wheat-lines-in-silico
#3
Ankita Mishra, Naveen Arora
Agriculture biotechnology is a promising tool for developing varieties with enhanced quality and quantity. Transgenic proteins expressed by genetically modified (GM) food crops improve crop characteristics like nutritional value, taste, and texture, and endow plants with resistance against fungus, pests, and insects. Despite such potential benefits, there are concerns regarding possible adverse effects of GM crops on human health, animals and the environment. Among the proposed guidelines for GM food safety testing-the weight-of-evidence approach proposed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (ALINORM 03/34A) is the most recent...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910742/nonsteroidal-mycotoxin-alternariol-is-a-full-androgen-agonist-in-the-yeast-reporter-androgen-bioassay
#4
Sylwia Stypuła-Trębas, Maria Minta, Lidia Radko, Piotr Jedziniak, Andrzej Posyniak
Alternariol (AOH) is a toxic metabolite of phytopathogenic fungi of the Alternaria spp. and important contaminant of agricultural commodities. According to the recent studies, AOH has a potential to modulate the endocrine system of humans and animals. In the view of these reports, our study addressed the effects of AOH on human estrogen receptor (hERα) and androgen receptor (hAR) signaling with the use of the yeast estrogen and androgen reporter bioassays. Our results show that, apart from a weak estrogenic response, AOH induces full androgenic response of the bioassay with the EC50 of 269...
September 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910290/bird-use-of-organic-apple-orchards-frugivory-pest-control-and-implications-for-production
#5
Anna M Mangan, Liba Pejchar, Scott J Werner
As the largest terrestrial biomes, crop and pasturelands can have very large positive or negative impacts on biodiversity and human well-being. Understanding how animals use and impact agroecosystems is important for making informed decisions that achieve conservation and production outcomes. Yet, few studies examine the tradeoffs associated with wildlife in agricultural systems. We examined bird use of organic apple orchards as well as how birds influence fruit production positively through control of an economically important insect pest (codling moth (Cydia pomonella)) and negatively through fruit damage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910275/occupational-animal-exposure-among-persons-with-campylobacteriosis-and-cryptosporidiosis-nebraska-2005-2015
#6
Chia-Ping Su, Derry T Stover, Bryan F Buss, Anna V Carlson, Sara E Luckhaupt
Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium are two common causes of gastroenteritis in the United States. National incidence rates measured for these pathogens in 2015 were 17.7 and 3.0 per 100,000 population, respectively; Nebraska was among the states with the highest incidence for both campylobacteriosis (26.6) and cryptosporidiosis (≥6.01) (1). Although campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis are primarily transmitted via consumption of contaminated food or water, they can also be acquired through contact with live animals or animal products, including through occupational exposure (2)...
September 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905724/position-statement-functionally-appropriate-nonhuman-primate-environments-as-an-alternative-to-the-term-ethologically-appropriate-environments
#7
Mollie A Bloomsmith, John Hasenau, Rudolf P Bohm
The American Society of Primatologists (ASP), the Association of Primate Veterinarians (APV), and the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM) have come together to develop this position statement in which the term "functionally appropriate nonhuman primate environments" is proposed as a better descriptor and as an alternative to the previously used term, "ethologically appropriate environments" to describe environments that are suitable for nonhuman primates involved in biomedical research. In 2015, the United States Department of Agriculture requested comments on a petition which called for amending the Animal Welfare Act so that all research primates would be housed in "ethologically appropriate physical and social environments...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903865/economic-evaluation-of-the-eradication-program-for-bovine-viral-diarrhea-in-the-swiss-dairy-sector
#8
B Thomann, A Tschopp, I Magouras, M Meylan, G Schüpbach-Regula, B Häsler
Since 2008, the Swiss veterinary service has been running a mandatory eradication program for Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) that is focused on detecting and eliminating persistently infected (PI) animals. Detection was initially based on antigen testing from ear tag samples of the entire cattle population, followed by antigen testing of all newborn calves until 2012. Since then, bulk milk serology (dairy herds) and blood sample serology (beef herds) have been used for the surveillance of disease-free herds. From 2008 to 2012, the proportion of newborn PI calves decreased from 1...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902962/combined-genotyping-strategy-reveals-structural-differences-between-aspergillus-flavus-lineages-from-different-habitats-impacting-human-health
#9
Nikolett Baranyi, Sándor Kocsubé, Daniela Jakšić Despot, Maja Šegvić Klarić, András Szekeres, Ottó Bencsik, Anita Kecskeméti, Palanisamy Manikandan, Beáta Tóth, László Kredics, Jamal M Khaled, Naiyf S Alharbi, Csaba Vágvölgyi, János Varga
Aspergillus flavus is a filamentous fungus which is widespread on agricultural products and also able to cause various human diseases. This species is frequently isolated from indoor air as well, furthermore, it is known as a common causal agent of keratomycosis, particularly in subtropical and tropical areas. It is also able to produce aflatoxins, one of the most carcinogenic mycotoxins which are harmful to animals and humans. In this study, 59 A. flavus isolates from four different habitats and 1 A. minisclerotigenes isolate were investigated...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902284/retrieving-ascarid-and-taeniid-eggs-from-the-biological-remains-of-a-neolithic-dog-from-the-late-9th-millennium-bc-in-western-iran
#10
Niloofar Paknezhad, Farbod Haji Mazdarani, Morteza Hessari, Iraj Mobedi, Faezeh Najafi, Negar Bizhani, Mahsasadat Makki, Gholamreza Hassanpour, Gholamreza Mowlavi
BACKGROUND: Paleoparasitology reveals the status of parasitic infections in humans and animals in ancient times based on parasitic particles found in biological remains from archaeological excavations. This line of research emerged in Iran in 2013. OBJECTIVE: The identification of parasites from Neolithic times is an attractive subject that shows the oldest origins of parasitic infections in a given geographical region. From an archaeological point of view, this archaeological site is well-known for animal domestication and agriculture in ancient Iran...
September 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899674/pretreatment-of-agricultural-biomass-for-anaerobic-digestion-current-state-and-challenges
#11
REVIEW
Shukra Raj Paudel, Sushant Prasad Banjara, Oh Kyung Choi, Ki Young Park, Young Mo Kim, Jae Woo Lee
The anaerobic digestion (AD) of agricultural biomass is an attractive second generation biofuel with potential environmental and economic benefits. Most agricultural biomass contains lignocellulose which requires pretreatment prior to AD. For optimization, the pretreatment methods need to be specific to the characteristics of the biomass feedstock. In this review, cereal residue, fruit and vegetable wastes, grasses and animal manure were selected as the agricultural biomass candidates, and the fundamentals and current state of various pretreatment methods used for AD of these feedstocks were investigated...
September 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898466/an-overview-of-genetically-modified-crop-governance-issues-and-challenges-in-malaysia
#12
REVIEW
Andrew Johnny, Ismail Normaz Wana, Djama Marcel
The application of agricultural biotechnology attracts the interest of many stakeholders. Genetically modified (GM) crops, for example, are rapidly increase in production for the last 20 years. Despite its known benefits, GM crops also pose many concerns not only to human and animal health but also the environment. Malaysia, in general, allows the use of GM technology applications but it has to come with precautionary and safety measures consistent with the international obligations and domestic legal frameworks...
September 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895870/protection-of-commercial-turkeys-following-inactivated-or-recombinant-h5-vaccine-application-against-the-2015u-s-h5n2-clade-2-3-4-4-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus
#13
Darrell R Kapczynski, Matthew J Sylte, Mary L Killian, Mia K Torchetti, Klaudia Chrzastek, David L Suarez
Between December 2014 and June 2015, North America experienced the largest recorded foreign animal disease outbreak with over 47 million poultry dead or euthanized from viral exposure to a clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epizootic. Soon after the epizootic began, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) began testing the efficacy of different vaccines as a possible future control strategy. The aim of these studies were to evaluate the efficacy three H5 vaccines to aid in control of HPAI in commercial turkeys...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894911/diminished-conspecific-odor-recognition-in-the-rusty-crayfish-orconectes-rusticus-following-a-96-h-exposure-to-atrazine
#14
Rachelle M Belanger, Kendra R Evans, Noor K Abraham, Kaldoun M Barawi
The presence of agricultural contaminants has been shown to disrupt olfactory-mediated behaviors in aquatic animals. We assessed the effects of atrazine on the ability of reproductively active (form I), male crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) to identify and respond to conspecific chemical signals involved in mating. Male crayfish were exposed to atrazine (80 ppb) and water (control) for 96 h. We analyzed odor localization and locomotor behaviors of herbicide-treated and control male crayfish to two different odor sources: female odor or water (control) delivered from the proximal end of a test arena...
September 11, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893322/bovine-trypanosomosis-changes-in-parasitemia-and-packed-cell-volume-in-dry-and-wet-seasons-at-gidami-district-oromia-regional-state-western-ethiopia
#15
Efrem Degneh, Workineh Shibeshi, Getachew Terefe, Kaleab Asres, Hagos Ashenafi
BACKGROUND: Animal trypanosomosis is one of the major disease problems affecting agricultural productivity in Ethiopia. The impact of the disease is believed to vary with season and agro-ecologies in line with fly vector distribution. A cross-sectional study on bovine trypanosomosis was conducted from November 2015 to June 2016, in seven selected villages of Gidami district, Oromia Regional State, western Ethiopia. A total of 930 blood samples were collected and subjected to parasitological and hematological analysis...
September 11, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892851/a-phosphorous-flow-analysis-in-spain
#16
Jesús Álvarez, Marc Roca, Cesar Valderrama, José Luis Cortina
Phosphorus (P) is a vital macronutrient required to improve the agricultural yields but its excessive use as a fertilizer has resulted in pollution of water bodies leading to eutrophication. With no reserves of phosphorus source in Spain, increased dependence on phosphorus in agriculture have not only increased dependence on imports but also has raised concerns on its future availability as a resource. A Phosphorous Flow Analysis (PFA) was conducted for Spain for the year 2012 focusing on the food production and consumption systems...
September 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890534/harnessing-ancient-genomes-to-study-the-history-of-human-adaptation
#17
REVIEW
Stephanie Marciniak, George H Perry
The past several years have witnessed an explosion of successful ancient human genome-sequencing projects, with genomic-scale ancient DNA data sets now available for more than 1,100 ancient human and archaic hominin (for example, Neandertal) individuals. Recent 'evolution in action' analyses have started using these data sets to identify and track the spatiotemporal trajectories of genetic variants associated with human adaptations to novel and changing environments, agricultural lifestyles, and introduced or co-evolving pathogens...
September 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890457/healing-animals-in-an-antibiotic-age-veterinary-drugs-and-the-professionalism-crisis-1945-1970
#18
Kendra Smith-Howard
Between 1945 and 1970, the introduction of antibiotics in agriculture forced veterinarians to articulate the boundaries of their professional identity. While veterinarians welcomed the new aid to arrest infectious diseases of livestock, they worried as farmers took animal healing into their own hands without veterinary supervision, and resented the competition from retail outlets that sold the drugs. Veterinary antibiotics also set off heated debates within the field about whether the profession should position itself as preventers or healers of disease, debates that were akin to the kinds of professional discourses among physicians and pharmacists in the same period...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887368/segment-specific-responses-of-intestinal-epithelium-transcriptome-to-in-feed-antibiotics-in-pigs
#19
Kaifan Yu, Chunlong Mu, Yuxiang Yang, Yong Su, Wei-Yun Zhu
Despite widespread use of antibiotics for treatment of human diseases and promotion of growth of agricultural animals, our understanding of their effects on the host is still very limited. We used a pig model fed with a cocktail of antibiotics or without, and found based on the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns that the fecal bacteria from the treatment and control animals were distinct. Furthermore, the total bacterial population in the feces tended to be decreased by the antibiotic treatment (P=0...
September 8, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886594/elemental-sulfur-use-and-associations-with-pediatric-lung-function-and-respiratory-symptoms-in-an-agricultural-community-california-usa
#20
Rachel Raanan, Robert B Gunier, John R Balmes, Alyssa J Beltran, Kim G Harley, Asa Bradman, Brenda Eskenazi
BACKGROUND: Elemental sulfur, "the oldest of all pesticides," is the most heavily used agricultural pesticide in California and Europe. Sulfur is considered relatively safe and is used in both conventional and organic farming systems. Adverse respiratory effects have been reported in applicators and animals, but the effect on residential populations, and especially on children living in proximity to fields treated with elemental sulfur, is not known. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated associations between residential proximity to elemental sulfur applications and respiratory symptoms and spirometry of children living in an agricultural community...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
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