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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728401/research-trends-in-outdoor-pig-production
#1
Hyun-Suk Park, Sang Hyon Oh
Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system...
July 17, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727425/the-database-and-bioinformatics-studies-of-probiotics
#2
Lin Tao, Bohua Wang, Yafen Zhong, Siok Hoon Pow, Xian Zeng, Chu Qin, Peng Zhang, Shangying Chen, Weidong He, Ying Tan, Hongxia Liu, Yuyang Jiang, Weiping Chen, Yu Zong Chen
Probiotics have been widely explored for health benefits, animal cares, and agricultural applications. Recent advances in microbiome, microbiota and microbial dark matter research have fueled greater interests in and paved ways for the study of the mechanisms of probiotics and the discovery of new probiotics from uncharacterized microbial sources. A probiotics database named PROBIO was developed to facilitate these efforts and the need for the information of the known probiotics, which provides the comprehensive information about the probiotic functions of 448 marketed, 167 clinical trial/field trial and 382 research probiotics for use or being studied for use in humans, animals, and plants...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726994/cell-biology-symposium-practical-application-of-the-basic-aspects-of-glut4-membrane-trafficking-and-insulin-signaling-on-issues-related-to-animal-agriculture
#3
S B Smith
Because of the relatively short lifespans of beef cattle, membrane trafficking in relation to inflammation is not considered important unless it overtly affects productivity. However, glucose uptake and utilization is important for adipose tissue development in beef cattle, and increasing glucose utilization in intramuscular adipose tissue can increase carcass quality. Research from the 1980s demonstrated a lack of insulin sensitivity in isolated bovine adipocytes and adipose tissue explants incubated in vitro...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724098/nitrogen-sulfur-and-oxygen-isotope-ratios-of-animal-and-plant-based-organic-fertilizers-used-in-south-korea
#4
Woo-Jin Shin, Jong-Sik Ryu, Bernhard Mayer, Kwang-Sik Lee, Insu Kim
Organic fertilizers are increasingly used in agriculture in Asia and elsewhere. Tracer techniques are desirable to distinguish the fate of nutrients added to agroecosystems with organic fertilizers from those contained in synthetic fertilizers. Therefore, we determined the nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing compounds in animal- and plant-based organic fertilizers (ABOF and PBOF, respectively) used in South Korea to evaluate whether they are isotopically distinct. The δN values of total and organic nitrogen for ABOF ranged from +7 to +19‰ and were higher than those of PBOF (generally <+6‰)...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723966/activated-carbon-a-useful-medium-to-bind-chlordecone-in-soil-and-limit-its-transfer-to-growing-goat-kids
#5
Sarah Yehya, Matthieu Delannoy, Agnès Fournier, Moomen Baroudi, Guido Rychen, Cyril Feidt
Chlordecone (Kepone) (CLD) is a highly persistent pesticide which was extensively used in the French West Indies; high levels of CLD can still currently be found in large agricultural areas. As CLD transfers from soil to animals mainly via involuntary ingestion, the consumption of foodstuffs derived from animals raised in contaminated areas may significantly contribute to exposure of humans to CLD. The present study was designed to test the efficacy of two different activated carbons (ACs) sources in limiting CLD transfer from soil to animal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715152/demographic-and-ecological-risk-factors-for-human-influenza-a-virus-infections-in-rural-indonesia
#6
Elisabeth Dowling Root, Dwi Agustian, Cissy Kartasasmita, Timothy M Uyeki, Eric A F Simões
BACKGROUND: Indonesia has the world's highest reported mortality for human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus. Indonesia is an agriculturally-driven country where human-animal mixing is common and provides a unique environment for zoonotic influenza A virus transmission. OBJECTIVES: To identify potential demographic and ecological risk factors for human infection with seasonal influenza A viruses in rural Indonesia, a population-based study was conducted in Cileunyi and Soreang sub-districts near Bandung in western Java from 2008 to 2011...
July 17, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712087/toxicity-of-cypermethrin-and-deltamethrin-insecticides-on-embryos-and-larvae-of-physalaemus-gracilis-anura-leptodactylidae
#7
Natani Macagnan, Camila F Rutkoski, Cassiane Kolcenti, Guilherme V Vanzetto, Luan P Macagnan, Paola F Sturza, Paulo A Hartmann, Marilia T Hartmann
It is important to establish the toxicity pesticides against non-target species, especially those pesticides used in commercial formulations. Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used in agriculture despite their toxicity to aquatic animals. In this study, we determine the toxicity of commercial formulation of two pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin and deltamethrin, in two life stages of Physalaemus gracilis, a frog that breeds in agricultural ecosystems and has potential contact with pyrethroid pesticides...
July 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712062/genome-editing-and-genetic-engineering-in-livestock-for-advancing-agricultural-and-biomedical-applications
#8
Bhanu P Telugu, Ki-Eun Park, Chi-Hun Park
Genetic modification of livestock has a longstanding and successful history, starting with domestication several thousand years ago. Modern animal breeding strategies predominantly based on marker-assisted and genomic selection, artificial insemination, and embryo transfer have led to significant improvement in the performance of domestic animals, and are the basis for regular supply of high quality animal derived food. However, the current strategy of breeding animals over multiple generations to introduce novel traits is not realistic in responding to the unprecedented challenges such as changing climate, pandemic diseases, and feeding an anticipated 3 billion increase in global population in the next three decades...
July 15, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711026/recent-advancement-in-biosensors-technology-for-animal-and-livestock-health-management
#9
REVIEW
Suresh Neethirajan, Satish K Tuteja, Sheng-Tung Huang, David Kelton
The term biosensors encompasses devices that have the potential to quantify physiological, immunological and behavioural responses of livestock and multiple animal species. Novel biosensing methodologies offer highly specialised monitoring devices for the specific measurement of individual and multiple parameters covering an animal's physiology as well as monitoring of an animal's environment. These devices are not only highly specific and sensitive for the parameters being analysed, but they are also reliable and easy to use, and can accelerate the monitoring process...
July 8, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705746/first-report-of-ehrlichia-infection-in-goats-china
#10
Hui Zhang, Zhenyu Chang, Khalid Mehmood, Yajing Wang, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Fazul Nabi, Ahamad Jawad Sabir, Xueting Liu, Xiaoxing Wu, Xinxin Tian, Donghai Zhou
Ehrlichiosis is an emerging infectious disease of domestic animals which is transmitted by ticks. This disease has been reported earlier in most parts of China in dogs, cattle and humans, but there is no published data regarding this disease in goats. The present study provided the evidence of Ehrlichia infection in goats in Wuhan, China on the basis of clinical signs, gross lesions, serum-biochemical, histopathological and PCR. Twenty four goats were presented to the veterinary hospital of Huazhong Agricultural University during July, 2016...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704160/assessment-of-tribal-bison-worker-hazards-using-trusted-research-facilitators
#11
Ellen Duysen, Kelsey Irvine, Aaron Yoder, Christina Topliff, Clayton Kelling, Shireen Rajaram
OBJECTIVES: Agriculture is one of the most hazardous industries in the United States. Within agriculture, livestock handling is particularly dangerous. While injury and fatality rates for bison handlers have not been reported, workers in many of the newly established tribal bison herds have limited safety training and animal handling experience, making this a vulnerable workforce. Veterinarians and herd managers, working with tribal bison herds, recognized the need for improvement in the working environment and for worker safety training...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702790/heavy-metal-induced-oxidative-stress-on-seed-germination-and-seedling-development-a-critical-review
#12
Mihiri Seneviratne, Nishanta Rajakaruna, Muhammad Rizwan, H M S P Madawala, Yong Sik Ok, Meththika Vithanage
Heavy metal contamination in soils can influence plants and animals, often leading to toxicosis. Heavy metals can impact various biochemical processes in plants, including enzyme and antioxidant production, protein mobilization and photosynthesis. Hydrolyzing enzymes play a major role in seed germination. Enzymes such as acid phosphatases, proteases and α-amylases are known to facilitate both seed germination and seedling growth via mobilizing nutrients in the endosperm. In the presence of heavy metals, starch is immobilized and nutrient sources become limited...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702011/bridging-the-gap-to-non-toxic-fungal-control-lupinus-derived-blad-containing-oligomer-as-a-novel-candidate-to-combat-human-pathogenic-fungi
#13
Ana M Pinheiro, Alexandra Carreira, Thomas A K Prescott, Ricardo B Ferreira, Sara A Monteiro
The lack of antifungal drugs with novel modes of action reaching the clinic is a serious concern. Recently a novel antifungal protein referred to as Blad-containing oligomer (BCO) has received regulatory approval as an agricultural antifungal agent. Interestingly its spectrum of antifungal activity includes human pathogens such as Candida albicans, however, its mode of action has yet to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that BCO exerts its antifungal activity through inhibition of metal ion homeostasis which results in apoptotic cell death in C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692911/relationship-between-heavy-metal-accumulation-and-morphometric-parameters-in-european-hare-lepus-europaeus-inhabiting-various-types-of-landscapes-in-southern-poland
#14
Marek Wajdzik, Wiktor Halecki, Konrad Kalarus, Michał Gąsiorek, Marek Pająk
To evaluate the influence of hazardous substances in the environment, studies of pollutant accumulation in wild living animals are needed. Studies dealing with heavy metal contamination in mammals usually focus on a single organ. We investigated accumulation of heavy metals as well as iron in European hare (Lepus europaeus) living in southern Poland, Małopolska Province. Hares were captured during the hunting season. We tested metal accumulation in 14 organs and tissues using 35 individuals with known body weight and sex inhabiting agricultural, industrial and other types of landscapes...
July 7, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692893/contamination-of-organic-nutrient-sources-with-potentially-toxic-elements-antibiotics-and-pathogen-microorganisms-in-relation-to-p-fertilizer-potential-and-treatment-options-for-the-production-of-sustainable-fertilizers-a-review
#15
REVIEW
E Bloem, A Albihn, J Elving, L Hermann, L Lehmann, M Sarvi, T Schaaf, J Schick, E Turtola, K Ylivainio
Organic nutrient sources such as farmyard manure, sewage sludge, their biogas digestates or other animal by-products can be valuable fertilizers delivering organic matter to the soil. Currently, especially phosphorus (P) is in the focus of research since it is an essential plant nutrient with finite resources, estimated to last only for some more decades. Efficient utilization of organic P sources in agriculture will help to preserve P resources and thereby has the potential to close nutrient cycles and prevent unwanted P-losses to the environment, one of the major causes for eutrophication of water bodies...
July 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692815/efficient-generation-of-goats-with-defined-point-mutation-i397v-in-gdf9-through-crispr-cas9
#16
Yiyuan Niu, Xiaoe Zhao, Jiankui Zhou, Yan Li, Yu Huang, Bei Cai, Yutai Liu, Qiang Ding, Shiwei Zhou, Jin Zhao, Guangxian Zhou, Baohua Ma, Xingxu Huang, Xiaolong Wang, Yulin Chen
The recent emergence of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 system has attracted significant attention for its potential to improve traits of agricultural importance. However, most applications in livestock species to date have depended on aberrant DNA repair to generate frameshifting indels. Whether this genomic engineering technique involving homology-dependent repair (HDR) can be used to introduce defined point mutations has been less explored. Previously, we reported a G→A point mutation (g...
July 11, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692174/effects-of-pyriproxifen-on-wild-populations-of-the-house-fly-musca-domestica-and-compatibility-with-its-principal-parasitoids
#17
Haim Biale, Christopher J Geden, Elad Chiel
BACKGROUND: The house fly, Musca domestica L., is an important pest of animal agriculture. Effective fly management requires integration of manure management, mass trapping, biological control, and selective insecticide use. Insecticidal control of house flies is difficult due to the rapidity of resistance development, yet the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen (PPF) is one of few insecticides that may still be effective. Here, we tested the susceptibility of four wild house fly populations in the USA and in Israel to PPF, as well as the effect of PPF on house fly parasitoids of the genera Muscidifurax and Spalangia...
July 10, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690626/agronomic-evaluation-of-sorghum-hybrids-for-silage-production-cultivated-in-semiarid-conditions
#18
Alexandre F Perazzo, Gleidson G P Carvalho, Edson M Santos, Higor F C Bezerra, Thiago C Silva, Gildenia A Pereira, Rosângela C S Ramos, José A S Rodrigues
The aim of this study was to study the agronomic traits of different Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench hybrids for silage productionin semiarid conditions. It was a 1-year evaluation conducted in a randomized block design with 24 treatments and three replicates. The treatments were sorghum hybrids developed by the breeding program of "Embrapa Milho e Sorgo" (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation). The fresh matter yield (FMY) in the first cut varied from 22,643.56 to 44,033.15 kg/ha, with an average of 32,607...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685816/central-nervous-system-tumors-and-agricultural-exposures-in-the-prospective-cohort-agrican
#19
C Piel, C Pouchieu, S Tual, L Migault, C Lemarchand, C Carles, M Boulanger, A Gruber, V Rondeau, E Marcotullio, P Lebailly, I Baldi
Studies in farmers suggest a possible role of pesticides in the occurrence of Central Nervous System (CNS) tumors but scientific evidence is still insufficient. Using data from the French prospective agricultural cohort AGRICAN (Agriculture & Cancer), we investigated the associations between exposure of farmers and pesticide users to various kinds of crops and animal farming and the incidence of CNS tumors, overall and by subtypes. Over the 2005-2007, 181,842 participants completed the enrollment questionnaire that collected a complete job calendar with lifetime history of farming types...
July 7, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685329/impairment-of-mitochondrial-integrity-and-redox-status-in-brain-regions-during-a-low-dose-long-term-exposition-of-rats-to-pyrethrino%C3%A3-ds-the-preventive-effect-of-quercetin
#20
Afafe Beghoul, Mohamed Kebieche, Salim Gasmi, Zeyneb Chouit, Chouaib Amiour, Asma Lahouel, Zhora Lakroun, Rachid Rouabhi, Hamadi Fetoui, Rachid Soulimani
Pyrethrinoïds are synthetic pesticides widely used in agriculture and farms to protect crops from weeds, insects, fungi, and molds. Increased and uncontrolled use of these pollutants can have harmful effects on human health via consumption of contaminated food products. In the present study, deltamethrin (DLT = 3.72 mg/kg) and Bifenthrin (BF = 2.6 mg/kg) were used during a long-term exposition in the rats to assess their effect on mitochondrial integrity and function in different brain areas (hippocampus, striatum, cortex, and cerebellum)...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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