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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333000/distributions-of-emissions-intensity-for-individual-beef-cattle-reared-on-pasture-based-production-systems
#1
G A McAuliffe, T Takahashi, R J Orr, P Harris, M R F Lee
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of livestock production systems is often based on inventory data for farms typical of a study region. As information on individual animals is often unavailable, livestock data may already be aggregated at the time of inventory analysis, both across individual animals and across seasons. Even though various computational tools exist to consider the effect of genetic and seasonal variabilities in livestock-originated emissions intensity, the degree to which these methods can address the bias suffered by representative animal approaches is not well-understood...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cleaner Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331742/a-sensitive-and-selective-immunoaffinity-column-clean-up-coupled-to-uplc-ms-ms-for-determination-of-trace-methyl-3-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic-acid-in-animal-tissues
#2
Peipei Li, Xiaojun Zhang, Juanmei Zhang, Zhongyong Yan, Shuai Zhang, Si Chen, Yi Fang
This paper described a reliable and simple method for the selective determination of MQCA in animal tissues using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). A highly targeted immunoaffinity column was used for sample purification after enzymatic hydrolysis. The purified extracts were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC-MS/MS in positive ESI and multiple reaction monitoring mode. The calibration curves showed good linearity with correlation coefficient (r2) larger than 0...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331578/molecular-detection-and-characterisation-of-babesia-and-theileria-in-australian-hard-ticks
#3
Brooke Storey-Lewis, Ann Mitrovic, Brent McParland
Babesia and Theileria are intraerythrocytic protozoans of the phylum Apicomplexa. These species are capable of infecting wild and domestic animals and have historically caused great economic loss in the agricultural industry. In recent years human babesiosis has been deemed an emerging zoonosis in North America, Europe and Asia. The first locally acquired case of babesiosis in Australia, caused by Babesia microti, was reported in March 2012. A number of native Babesia and Theileria species have been identified in Australian marsupials, however their associated tick vectors and threat to human health is unknown...
December 24, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322764/rapid-veterinary-diagnosis-of-bovine-reproductive-infectious-diseases-from-semen-using-paper-origami-dna-microfluidics
#4
Zhugen Yang, Gaolian Xu, Julien Reboud, Syed Atif Ali, Gurpreet Kaur, John McGiven, Nongthombam Boby, Praveen Gupta, Pallab Chaudhuri, Jonathan Mark Cooper
The health and well-being of cattle is a significant concern for global agricultural output. In dairy production within low and middle income countries (LMICs), there is a significant biosensing challenge in detecting sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens during animal husbandry, due in part to difficulties associated with the limited infrastructure for veterinary medicine. Here we demonstrate low-cost, multiplexed and sample-to-answer paper-origami tests for the detection of three bovine infectious reproductive diseases in semen samples, collected at a test site in rural India...
January 11, 2018: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321921/farming-q-fever-and-public-health-agricultural-practices-and-beyond
#5
REVIEW
Marcella Mori, Hendrik-Jan Roest
Since the Neolithic period, humans have domesticated herbivores to have food readily at hand. The cohabitation with animals brought various advantages that drastically changed the human lifestyle but simultaneously led to the emergence of new epidemics. The majority of human pathogens known so far are zoonotic diseases and the development of both agricultural practices and human activities have provided new dynamics for transmission. This article provides a general overview of some factors that influence the epidemic potential of a zoonotic disease, Q fever...
2018: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321884/gut-microbiota-composition-is-associated-with-environmental-landscape-in-honey-bees
#6
Julia C Jones, Carmelo Fruciano, Falk Hildebrand, Hasan Al Toufalilia, Nicholas J Balfour, Peer Bork, Philipp Engel, Francis Lw Ratnieks, William Oh Hughes
There is growing recognition that the gut microbial community regulates a wide variety of important functions in its animal hosts, including host health. However, the complex interactions between gut microbes and environment are still unclear. Honey bees are ecologically and economically important pollinators that host a core gut microbial community that is thought to be constant across populations. Here, we examined whether the composition of the gut microbial community of honey bees is affected by the environmental landscape the bees are exposed to...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321862/assessing-the-utility-of-metabarcoding-for-diet-analyses-of-the-omnivorous-wild-pig-sus-scrofa
#7
Michael S Robeson, Kamil Khanipov, George Golovko, Samantha M Wisely, Michael D White, Michael Bodenchuck, Timothy J Smyser, Yuriy Fofanov, Noah Fierer, Antoinette J Piaggio
Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species descended from both domestic swine and Eurasian wild boar that was introduced to North America during the early 1500s. Wild pigs have since become the most abundant free-ranging exotic ungulate in the United States. Large and ever-increasing populations of wild pigs negatively impact agriculture, sport hunting, and native ecosystems with costs estimated to exceed $1.5 billion/year within the United States. Wild pigs are recognized as generalist feeders, able to exploit a broad array of locally available food resources, yet their feeding behaviors remain poorly understood as partially digested material is often unidentifiable through traditional stomach content analyses...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315333/cell-penetrating-peptide-driven-cre-recombination-in-porcine-primary-cells-and-generation-of-marker-free-pigs
#8
Qianqian Kang, Zhaolin Sun, Zhiyuan Zou, Ming Wang, Qiuyan Li, Xiaoxiang Hu, Ning Li
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been increasingly used to deliver various molecules, both in vitro and in vivo. However, there are no reports of CPPs being used in porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs). The increased use of transgenic pigs for basic research and biomedical applications depends on the availability of technologies for efficient genetic-modification of PFFs. Here, we report that three CPPs (CPP5, TAT, and R9) can efficiently deliver active Cre recombinase protein into PFFs via an energy-dependent endocytosis pathway...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310722/habitat-properties-are-key-drivers-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-s-l-prevalence-in-ixodes-ricinus-populations-of-deciduous-forest-fragments
#9
Steffen Ehrmann, Sanne C Ruyts, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Jürgen Bauhus, Jörg Brunet, Sara A O Cousins, Marc Deconchat, Guillaume Decocq, Pieter De Frenne, Pallieter De Smedt, Martin Diekmann, Emilie Gallet-Moron, Stefanie Gärtner, Karin Hansen, Annette Kolb, Jonathan Lenoir, Jessica Lindgren, Tobias Naaf, Taavi Paal, Marcus Panning, Maren Prinz, Alicia Valdés, Kris Verheyen, Monika Wulf, Jaan Liira
BACKGROUND: The tick Ixodes ricinus has considerable impact on the health of humans and other terrestrial animals because it transmits several tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) such as B. burgdorferi (sensu lato), which causes Lyme borreliosis (LB). Small forest patches of agricultural landscapes provide many ecosystem services and also the disservice of LB risk. Biotic interactions and environmental filtering shape tick host communities distinctively between specific regions of Europe, which makes evaluating the dilution effect hypothesis and its influence across various scales challenging...
January 8, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305724/tools-for-monitoring-aquatic-environments-to-identify-anthropic-effects
#10
Monyque Palagano da Rocha, Priscila Leocadia Rosa Dourado, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Liliam Silva Cândido, Joelson Gonçalves Pereira, Kelly Mari Pires de Oliveira, Alexeia Barufatti Grisolia
Anthropic activities are directly related to the contamination of aquatic ecosystems owing to the release of numerous chemicals from agricultural and urban waste. These contaminants cause environmental degradation and a decrease in the availability of water quality. The objective of this search was to evaluate the efficiency of physicochemical, chemical, and microbiological tests; extraction of chlorophyll a; and genetic parameters to identify anthropic activities and weather condition effects on the stream water quality and the consequences of its use by the population...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302994/environmental-impact-and-bioremediation-of-seleniferous-soils-and-sediments
#11
Shrutika L Wadgaonkar, Yarlagadda V Nancharaiah, Giovanni Esposito, Piet N L Lens
Selenium concentrations in the soil environment are directly linked to its transfer in the food chain, eventually causing either deficiency or toxicity associated with several physiological dysfunctions in animals and humans. Selenium bioavailability depends on its speciation in the soil environment, which is mainly influenced by the prevailing pH, redox potential, and organic matter content of the soil. The selenium cycle in the environment is primarily mediated through chemical and biological selenium transformations...
January 5, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302776/epidemiological-situation-of-transboundary-animal-diseases-in-north-african-countries-proposition-of-a-regional-control-strategy
#12
REVIEW
Moustafa Kardjadj
The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) defined transboundary animal diseases (TADs) as those that are of significant economic, trade, and food security importance for a considerable number of countries. TADs can easily spread to other countries, reach epidemic proportions, and where control, management, or exclusion is required cooperation between several countries. The North African countries are vulnerable to several TADs by virtue of its geographical location, its borders with the Sahel region, and peculiar control constraints on the budgets of the national veterinary services of each country and on the livelihoods of livestock owners across the region...
January 5, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300761/investigation-of-prevalence-of-free-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-stec-specific-bacteriophages-and-its-correlation-with-stec-bacterial-hosts-in-a-produce-growing-area-in-salinas-california
#13
Yen-Te Liao, Irwin A Quintela, Kimberly Nguyen, Alexandra Salvador, Michael B Cooley, Vivian C H Wu
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) causes approximately 265,000 illnesses and 3,600 hospitalizations annually and is highly associated with animal contamination due to the natural reservoir of ruminant gastrointestinal tracts. Free STEC-specific bacteriophages against STEC strains are also commonly isolated from fecal-contaminated environment. Previous studies have evaluated the correlation between the prevalence of STEC-specific bacteriophages and STEC strains to improve animal-associated environment. However, the similar information regarding free STEC-specific bacteriophages prevalence in produce growing area is lacking...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299529/studying-the-symbiotic-bacterium-xenorhabdus-nematophila-in-individual-living-steinernema-carpocapsae-nematodes-using-microfluidic-systems
#14
Matthew D Stilwell, Mengyi Cao, Heidi Goodrich-Blair, Douglas B Weibel
Animal-microbe symbioses are ubiquitous in nature and scientifically important in diverse areas, including ecology, medicine, and agriculture. Steinernema nematodes and Xenorhabdus bacteria compose an established, successful model system for investigating microbial pathogenesis and mutualism. The bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila is a species-specific mutualist of insect-infecting Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes. The bacterium colonizes a specialized intestinal pocket within the infective stage of the nematode, which transports the bacteria between insects that are killed and consumed by the pair for reproduction...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298935/coupling-movement-and-landscape-ecology-for-animal-conservation-in-production-landscapes
#15
REVIEW
Tim S Doherty, Don A Driscoll
Habitat conversion in production landscapes is among the greatest threats to biodiversity, not least because it can disrupt animal movement. Using the movement ecology framework, we review animal movement in production landscapes, including areas managed for agriculture and forestry. We consider internal and external drivers of altered animal movement and how this affects navigation and motion capacities and population dynamics. Conventional management approaches in fragmented landscapes focus on promoting connectivity using structural changes in the landscape...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298744/-the-swiss-border-veterinary-service-in-the-20th-century
#16
J Schluep
The first animal disease act of Switzerland was released in 1872. Its revision in 1886 brought the basis for establishing a border veterinary inspection service. This service was first reporting to the federal Ministry of Agriculture; after 1914, the newly created Federal Veterinary Office became responsible for it. The border checks were first limited to live biungulate animals and horses; later on they were extended to meat and meat products and finally to venison and fishery products. At the beginning, part-time veterinarians with own practice were engaged...
January 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289831/quantification-of-spatial-and-seasonal-variations-in-the-proportional-contribution-of-nitrate-sources-using-a-multi-isotope-approach-and-bayesian-isotope-mixing-model
#17
Aminreza Meghdadi, Narmin Javar
Spatial and seasonal variations in nitrate contamination are a globally concern. While numerous studies have used δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3 to elucidate the dominant sources of nitrate in groundwater, this approach has significant limitations due to the overlap of nitrate isotopic ranges and the occurrence of nitrate isotopic fractionation. This study quantitatively assessed the spatial and seasonal variations in the proportional contributions of nitrate sources from different land uses in the Tarom watershed in North-West Iran...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288959/ivermectin-acute-administration-impaired-the-spermatogenesis-and-spermiogenesis-of-adult-rats
#18
Flora Cordeiro, Vagner Gonçalves, Natalia Moreira, João Iosif Slobodticov, Nathalia de Andrade Galvão, Helenice de Souza Spinosa, Leoni Villano Bonamin, Eduardo Fernandes Bondan, Claudia Helena Pastor Ciscato, Cláudia Maria Barbosa, Maria Martha Bernardi
Ivermectin (IVM) is an antiparasitic agent widely used in agricultural, domestic animals and in human clinical practice. In the present study, the temporal effects of therapeutic doses of IVM in the morphometric and histological assessment of testis were studied to verify if IVM acute administration impaired the spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis of adult rats, if these effects are reversible. The testosterone levels and the plasmatic IVM levels were assessed. The results show: 1) IVM acute exposure, mainly in the higher dose, reduced the testicular volume, the tubular diameter and the germinal epithelium height; 2) no interferences on Leydig cells frequency; 3) histological studies show that tubular sections containing several histological changes indicative of spermatogenesis interruption, such as disorganization of germinal epithelium, vacuolar degeneration of the germ cells and sloughing of cells into the tubular lumen; 4) no differences in testosterone levels; 5) The IVM plasmatic levels were significantly reduced at 72h after the 0...
December 18, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288903/environmental-and-human-health-risk-indicators-for-agricultural-pesticides-in-estuaries
#19
Elsa Teresa Rodrigues, Maria Fátima Alpendurada, Fernando Ramos, Miguel Ângelo Pardal
The present study aims to contribute to a better assessment of pesticide environmental and human health (here evaluated in the context of human exposure via food items) risks for the estuarine system by comprehensively studying the spatial and temporal occurrence of the pesticides atrazine, azoxystrobin, bentazon, λ-cyhalothrin, penoxsulam and terbuthylazine in the River Mondego estuary (Portugal). Pesticide quantification was performed in surface water, sediment, macroalgae (Ulva spp., Gracilaria gracilis, Fucus vesiculosus), aquatic plants (Zostera noltii, Spartina maritime, Scirpus maritimus) and bivalves (Scrobicularia plana)...
December 27, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288298/persistent-organochlorine-pesticides-in-aquatic-environments-and-fishes-in-taiwan-and-their-risk-assessment
#20
Geng-Ruei Chang
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are ubiquitous contaminants with high bioaccumulation and persistence in the environment; they can have adverse effects in humans and animals. This study examined residual concentrations in water, sediments, and fishes as well as the association between the health risks of OCPs and fish consumption in the Taiwanese population. Various water and sediment samples from Taiwanese aquaculture and fish samples from different sources were collected and analyzed through gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to determine the concentrations of 20 OCPs, namely, aldrin; cis-chlordane; trans-chlordane; dieldrin; endrin; alpha-endosulfan; beta-endosulfan; heptachlor; hexachlorobenzene; alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane; beta-hexachlorocyclohexane; lindane; mirex; pentachlorobenzene; o,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); p,p'-DDT; and DDT metabolites (o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [DDD]; p,p'-DDD; o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [DDE]; and p,p'-DDE)...
December 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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