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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208096/how-the-structure-of-agro-food-systems-shapes-nitrogen-phosphorus-and-carbon-fluxes-the-generalized-representation-of-agro-food-system-applied-at-the-regional-scale-in-france
#1
Julia Le Noë, Gilles Billen, Josette Garnier
The aim of the study was to develop a conceptual framework to analyze the agro-food system of French agricultural regions from the angle of N, P and C circulation through five major compartments (cropland, grassland, livestock biomass, local population and potential environmental losses). To reach that goal we extended the Generalized Representation of Agro-Food System approach to P and C and applied it to French regions. Using this methodology we analyzed the relation between production pattern and N surplus, P budget, and efficient organic carbon inputs (OCeff), assuming these three indicators to be good proxies for (i) N losses to waterbodies and the atmosphere, (ii) P accumulation or depletion in soils, and (iii) potential additional C sequestration in soils, respectively...
February 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199875/examining-the-impacts-of-increased-corn-production-on-groundwater-quality-using-a-coupled-modeling-system
#2
Valerie Garcia, Ellen Cooter, James Crooks, Brian Hinckley, Mark Murphy, Xiangnan Xing
This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirectional and Environmental Policy Integrated Climate modeling system incorporates agricultural management practices and N exchange processes between the soil and atmosphere to estimate levels of N that may volatilize into the atmosphere, re-deposit, and seep or flow into surface and groundwater...
February 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199147/microbiological-safety-of-animal-wastes-processed-by-physical-heat-treatment-an-alternative-to-eliminate-human-pathogens-in-biological-soil-amendments-as-recommended-by-the-food-safety-modernization-act
#3
Zhao Chen, Xiuping Jiang
Animal wastes have high nutritional value as biological soil amendments of animal origin for plant cultivation in sustainable agriculture; however, they can be sources of some human pathogens. Although composting is an effective way to reduce pathogen levels in animal wastes, pathogens may still survive under certain conditions and persist in the composted products, which potentially could lead to fresh produce contamination. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act, alternative treatments are recommended for reducing or eliminating human pathogens in raw animal manure...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197414/pharmacokinetic-and-toxicological-evaluation-of-a-zinc-gluconate-based-chemical-sterilant-using-in-vitro-and-in-silico-approaches
#4
Carlos F Araujo-Lima, Rafael J M Nunes, Raphael M Carpes, Claudia A F Aiub, Israel Felzenszwalb
Sclerosing agents as zinc gluconate-based chemical sterilants (Infertile®) are used for chemical castration. This solution is injected into the animal testis, but there are not enough evidences of its safety profiles for the receivers. The present work aimed to establish the pharmacokinetics and toxicological activity of Infertile, using in vitro and in silico approaches. The evaluation at the endpoint showed effects in a dose-dependent manner. Since necrosis is potentially carcinogenic, the possible cell death mechanism could be apoptosis...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195163/targeted-gene-knock-in-by-crispr-cas-ribonucleoproteins-in-porcine-zygotes
#5
Ki-Eun Park, Anne Powell, Shelley E S Sandmaier, Chan-Mi Kim, Alan Mileham, David M Donovan, Bhanu P Telugu
The domestic pig is an important "dual purpose" animal model for agricultural and biomedical applications. There is an emerging consensus in the biomedical community for the use of large animal models such as pigs to either serve as an alternative, or complement investigations from the mouse. However, the use of pig has not proven popular due to technical difficulties and time required in generating models with desired genetic modifications. In this regard, the ability to directly modify the genome in the zygote and generate edited animals is highly desirable...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193658/in-vitro-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo-activity-of-diamidines-against-trypanosoma-congolense-and-trypanosoma-vivax
#6
Kirsten Gillingwater, Christina Kunz, Christiane Braghiroli, David W Boykin, Richard R Tidwell, Reto Brun
African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) is caused by the tsetse-transmitted protozoans, Trypanosoma congolense and T. vivax, leading to huge agricultural losses throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Three drugs are available to treat Nagana in cattle (diminazene diaceturate, homidium- and isometamidium chloride). With increasing reports of drug-resistant populations, new molecules should be investigated as potential candidates to combat Nagana. Dicationic compounds have demonstrated excellent efficacy against different kinetoplastid parasites...
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193187/effect-modification-of-social-context-changes-on-mental-disability-in-china-from-1987-to-2006-a-multi-level-study-of-1-9-million-people
#7
Zhenjie Wang, Lihua Pang, Ning Li, Chao Guo, Gong Chen, Xiaoying Zheng
BACKGROUND: Very little literature has explored how mental disability in China is connected with inequalities in social and environmental contexts. In the study described herein, we determine whether social-context inequalities were associated with mental disability in China from 1987 to 2006. METHODS: Data were derived from national representative population-based data from the 1987 and 2006 China National Sample Survey on Disability. Both surveys used multistage, stratified random cluster sampling, with a probability proportionate to size, to derive nationally representative samples...
February 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188320/effects-of-glyphosate-based-herbicide-sub-lethal-concentrations-on-fish-feeding-behavior
#8
Percilia Cardoso Giaquinto, Marina Borges de Sá, Vanessa Seiko Sugihara, Bruno Bastos Gonçalves, Helton Carlos Delício, Assaf Barki
Glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used in agricultural systems. Although the target organism are particularly plant organisms, there are numerous studies showing adverse effects in aquatic animals, such as inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase, effects on kidney, liver, and gill and stressors effects. This study analyzed the effects of commercial formulation of glyphosate on feeding behavior in Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus). Fish were exposed to three glyphosate concentrations (0.2, 0.6, and 1.8 ppm) for 15 days...
February 10, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185812/assessment-of-nutrition-competency-of-graduating-agriculture-students-in-ethiopia-a%C3%A2-cross-sectional-study
#9
Mesfin G Abebe, Mebit K Tariku, Tadele B Yitaferu, Ephrem D Shiferaw, Firew A Desta, Endris M Yimer, Kefyalew M Akassa, Elizabeth C Thompson
OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of nutrition-sensitive agriculture competencies of graduating midlevel animal and plant sciences students in Ethiopia and identify factors associated with the attainment of competencies. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design using structured skills observation checklists, objective written questions, and structured questionnaires was employed. SETTING: Two agriculture technical vocational education and training colleges in the 2 regions of Ethiopia...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177350/effects-of-mass-airflow-rate-through-an-open-circuit-gas-quantification-system-when-measuring-carbon-emissions
#10
Stacey A Gunter, James A Bradford, Corey A Moffet
Methane (CH) and carbon dioxide (CO) represent 11 and 81%, respectively, of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural CH emissions account for approximately 43% of all anthropogenic CH emissions. Most agricultural CH emissions are attributed to enteric fermentation within ruminant livestock; hence, the heightened interest in quantifying and mitigating this source. The automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS; GreenFeed, C-Lock, Inc., Rapid City, SD) evaluated here can be placed in a pasture with grazing cattle and can measure their CH and CO emissions with spot sampling...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170286/effects-of-alcohol-on-mitochondrial-functions-of-cumulus-cells-in-mice
#11
Wanlu Xu, Lihui Huo, Jingjing Li, Chunli Xu, Shuang Wang, Yanhong Yang, Chuang Liu, Xiaomin Zheng, Xiuliang Feng, Xingrong Yan
Alcohol is an important compound used in food, agriculture, and medicine. In this study, we investigated the effect of alcohol on oocyte quality in mice by exposing animals for different duration times during an estrous cycle. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were collected from mice after pregnant mare serum gonadotropin- and human chorionic gonadotropin-induced superovulation. Ovulation number, E2 level in serum, and parthenogenetic embryo development in vitro were evaluated. Mitochondrial gene expression, mitochondrial membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the cumulus were also assessed...
February 7, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169468/modeling-individual-movement-decisions-of-brown-hare-lepus-europaeus-as-a-key-concept-for-realistic-spatial-behavior-and-exposure-a-population-model-for-landscape-level-risk-assessment
#12
Joachim U Kleinmann, Magnus Wang
Spatial behavior is of crucial importance for the risk assessment of pesticides and for the assessment of effects of agricultural practice or multiple stressors, because it determines field use, exposition and recovery. Recently, population models have increasingly been used to understand the mechanisms driving risk and recovery or to conduct landscape level risk assessments. To include spatial behavior appropriately in population models for use in risk assessments a new method, "probabilistic walk", was developed, which simulates the detailed daily movement of individuals by taking food resources, vegetation cover and presence of conspecifics, into account...
February 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168081/tetracyclines-in-food-and-feedingstuffs-from-regulation-to-analytical-methods-bacterial-resistance-and-environmental-and-health-implications
#13
REVIEW
Fabio Granados-Chinchilla, César Rodríguez
Antibiotics are widely used as growth promoters in animal husbandry; among them, the tetracyclines are a chemical group of relevance, due to their wide use in agriculture, surpassing in quantities applied almost every other antibiotic family. Seeing the considerable amounts of tetracyclines used worldwide, monitoring of these antibiotics is paramount. Advances must be made in the analysis of antibiotics to assess correct usage and dosage of tetracyclines in food and feedstuffs and possible residues in pertinent environmental samples...
2017: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167559/anti-trypanosomal-activity-of-sterol-14%C3%AE-demethylase-cyp51-inhibitors-vni-and-vfv-in-the-swiss-mouse-models-of-chagas-disease-induced-by-the-y-strain-trypanosoma-cruzi
#14
F H Guedes-da-Silva, D G J Batista, C F Da Silva, J S De Araújo, B P Pavão, M R Simões-Silva, M B Meuser, K C Demarque, O C Moreira, C Britto, G I Lepesheva, M N C Soeiro
Chagas disease is a life-threatening infection caused by a variety of genetically diverse strains of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi The current treatment (benznidazole and nifurtimox) is unsatisfactory, and potential alternatives include inhibitors of sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51), the cytochrome P450 enzyme essential for biosynthesis of sterols in eukaryotes and the major target for clinical and agricultural antifungals. Here we performed a comparative investigation of two protozoa-specific CYP51 inhibitors, VNI and its CYP51 structure-based derivative VFV, in the murine models of infection caused by the Y strain T...
February 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163993/herbicide-resistance-and-biodiversity-agronomic-and-environmental-aspects-of-genetically-modified-herbicide-resistant-plants
#15
REVIEW
Gesine Schütte, Michael Eckerstorfer, Valentina Rastelli, Wolfram Reichenbecher, Sara Restrepo-Vassalli, Marja Ruohonen-Lehto, Anne-Gabrielle Wuest Saucy, Martha Mertens
Farmland biodiversity is an important characteristic when assessing sustainability of agricultural practices and is of major international concern. Scientific data indicate that agricultural intensification and pesticide use are among the main drivers of biodiversity loss. The analysed data and experiences do not support statements that herbicide-resistant crops provide consistently better yields than conventional crops or reduce herbicide amounts. They rather show that the adoption of herbicide-resistant crops impacts agronomy, agricultural practice, and weed management and contributes to biodiversity loss in several ways: (i) many studies show that glyphosate-based herbicides, which were commonly regarded as less harmful, are toxic to a range of aquatic organisms and adversely affect the soil and intestinal microflora and plant disease resistance; the increased use of 2,4-D or dicamba, linked to new herbicide-resistant crops, causes special concerns...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161212/advances-in-peste-des-petits-ruminants-vaccines
#16
Naveen Kumar, Sanjay Barua, Thachamvally Riyesh, Bhupendra N Tripathi
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease of small ruminants that leads to high morbidity and mortality thereby results in devastating economic consequences to the livestock industry. PPR is currently endemic across most parts of Asia and Africa, the two regions with the highest concentration of poor people in the world. Sheep and goats in particularly contribute significantly towards the upliftment of livelihood of the poor and marginal farmers in these regions. In this context, PPR directly affecting the viability of sheep and goat husbandry has emerged as a major hurdle in the development of these regions...
January 17, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160702/safety-assessment-of-nanopesticides-using-the-roundworm-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Mauricio T Jacques, Jhones L Oliveira, Estefânia V R Campos, Leonardo F Fraceto, Daiana Silva Ávila
The extensive use of pesticides is causing environmental pollution, affecting animal organisms in different habitats and also leading human health at risk. In this study, we present as an alternative the use of nanoparticles loaded with pesticides and report their toxicological assessment to a soil organism, Caenorhabditis elegans. Three nanoparticle formulations were analyzed: solid lipid nanoparticles loaded or not with atrazine and simazine, SLN; polymeric nanoparticles, NC_PCL loaded with atrazine; and chitosan/tripolyphosphate, CS/TPP, loaded or not with paraquat...
February 1, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159793/aphid-heritable-symbiont-exploits-defensive-mutualism
#18
Matthew R Doremus, Kerry M Oliver
: Insects and other animals commonly form symbioses with heritable bacteria, which can exert large influences on host biology and ecology. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, is a model for studying effects of infection with heritable facultative symbionts (HFS) and each of its seven common HFS species have been reported to provide resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses. However, one common HFS, called X-type, rarely occurs as a single infection in field populations and instead typically superinfects individual aphids with Hamiltonella defensa, another HFS that protects aphids against attack by parasitic wasps...
February 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155801/bacterial-bile-salt-hydrolase-an-intestinal-microbiome-target-for-enhanced-animal-health
#19
Wenjing Geng, Jun Lin
To effectively mitigate antimicrobial resistance in the agricultural ecosystem, there is an increasing pressure to reduce and eliminate the use of in-feed antibiotics for growth promotion and disease prevention in food animals. However, limiting antibiotic use could compromise animal production efficiency and health. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop effective alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs). Increasing evidence has shown that the growth-promoting effect of AGPs was highly correlated with the reduced activity of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacterial enzyme that has a negative impact on host fat digestion and energy harvest; consistent with this finding, the population of Lactobacillus species, the major intestinal BSH-producer, was significantly reduced in response to AGP use...
December 2016: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152045/comparative-analysis-of-sterol-acquisition-in-the-oomycetes-saprolegnia-parasitica-and-phytophthora-infestans
#20
Paul Dahlin, Vaibhav Srivastava, Sophia Ekengren, Lauren S McKee, Vincent Bulone
The oomycete class includes pathogens of animals and plants which are responsible for some of the most significant global losses in agriculture and aquaculture. There is a need to replace traditional chemical means of controlling oomycete growth with more targeted approaches, and the inhibition of sterol synthesis is one promising area. To better direct these efforts, we have studied sterol acquisition in two model organisms: the sterol-autotrophic Saprolegnia parasitica, and the sterol-heterotrophic Phytophthora infestans...
2017: PloS One
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