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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913486/prognostic-implications-of-single-sample-confirmatory-testing-for-undiagnosed-diabetes-a-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Elizabeth Selvin, Dan Wang, Kunihiro Matsushita, Morgan E Grams, Josef Coresh
Background: Current clinical definitions of diabetes require repeated blood work to confirm elevated levels of glucose or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to reduce the possibility of a false-positive diagnosis. Whether 2 different tests from a single blood sample provide adequate confirmation is uncertain. Objective: To examine the prognostic performance of a single-sample confirmatory definition of undiagnosed diabetes. Design: Prospective cohort study...
June 19, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913457/anti-inflammatory-action-of-sitagliptin-and-linagliptin-in-doxorubicin-nephropathy
#2
Chor Ho Jo, Sua Kim, Joon-Sung Park, Gheun-Ho Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors are known to have a protective effect on diabetic kidney disease, possibly via reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation in the kidney. However, whether these potential mechanisms play a role in non-diabetic proteinuric kidney diseases is not clear. METHODS: Two different animal experiments were carried out using sitagliptin and linagliptin for DPP4 inhibition. In each experiment, male Sprague-Dawley rats were uninephrectomized and randomly divided into vehicle-treated and doxorubicin-treated rats, with or without DPP4 inhibition...
June 15, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913451/progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-affects-hdl-impact-on-lipoprotein-lipase-lpl-mediated-vldl-lipolysis-efficiency
#3
Agnieska Ćwiklińska, Monika Cackowska, Ewa Wieczorek, Ewa Król, Robert Kowalski, Agnieszka Kuchta, Barbara Kortas-Stempak, Anna Gliwińska, Kamil Dąbkowski, Justyna Zielińska, Alicja Dębska-Ślizień, Maciej Jankowski
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG) and reduction and dysfunction of high density lipoprotein (HDL) are common lipid disturbances in chronic kidney disease (CKD). HTG in CKD is caused mainly by the decreased efficiency of lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated very low density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG) lipolysis. It has not been clarified whether HDL dysfunction in CKD contributes directly to HTG development; thus, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of CKD progression on the ability of HDL to enhance LPL-mediated VLDL-TG lipolysis efficiency...
June 15, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913183/predictive-metabolic-signatures-of-end-stage-renal-disease-a-multivariate-analysis-of-population-based-data
#4
Robson E Silva, João L Baldim, Daniela A Chagas-Paula, Marisi G Soares, João H G Lago, Reggiani V Gonçalves, Rômulo D Novaes
The variability of molecular signatures and predictive low molecular weight markers of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in different populations are poorly understood. Thus, in a large sample with 4763 people we compare the molecular signatures and metabolites with diagnostic relevance in plasma and urine of CKD patients of different geographical origins. From an integrated model based on dynamic networks and multivariate statistics, metabolites with predictive value obtained from targeted and untargeted molecular analysis, interactions between metabolic pathways affected by CKD, and the methodological quality of metabolomic studies were analyzed...
June 15, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913034/new-insights-on-innate-b-cell-immunity-in-transplantation
#5
REVIEW
Emmanuel Zorn
Innate B cells and natural antibodies (Nabs) have been extensively studied in normal physiological conditions as well as in several diseases. However, their significance in the context of ABO-compatible solid organ transplantation is only emerging. This review summarizes recent studies exploring these often neglected innate immune elements in situations related to sensitization and clinical graft rejection. A focus is placed on class-switched IgG Nabs that develop amidst inflammation, rather than IgM Nabs abundant at the steady state, as new evidence point to their implication in serum reactivity to HLA and kidney graft failure...
May 2018: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912813/an-observational-cohort-feasibility-study-to-identify-microvesicle-and-micro-rna-biomarkers-of-acute-kidney-injury-following-pediatric-cardiac-surgery
#6
Nikol Sullo, Silvia Mariani, Maria JnTala, Tracy Kumar, Marcin J Woźniak, Dawn Smallwood, Paolo Pais, Claire Westrope, Attilio Lotto, Gavin J Murphy
OBJECTIVES: Micro-RNA, small noncoding RNA fragments involved in gene regulation, and microvesicles, membrane-bound particles less than 1 μm known to regulate cellular processes including responses to injury, may serve as disease-specific biomarkers of acute kidney injury. We evaluated the feasibility of measuring these signals as well as other known acute kidney injury biomarkers in a mixed pediatric cardiac surgery population. DESIGN: Single center prospective cohort feasibility study...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912597/cystatin-c-as-a-predictor-of-mortality-in-elderly-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
Sebastjan Bevc, Nina Hojs, Maša Knehtl, Robert Ekart, Radovan Hojs
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the elderly is high. Serum cystatin C is an accurate marker of kidney function and it also has prognostic utility in CKD patients. The aim of our study was to determine the prediction of serum cystatin C and other markers of kidney function on long-term survival in elderly CKD patients. METHODS: Fifty eight adult Caucasian patients, older than 65 years, without known malignancy, thyroid disease and/or not on steroid therapy were enrolled in the study...
June 18, 2018: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912582/biomarkers-of-aggressiveness-in-genitourinary-tumors-with-emphasis-on-kidney-bladder-and-prostate-cancer
#8
Alessia Cimadamore, Silvia Gasparrini, Matteo Santoni, Liang Cheng, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Nicola Battelli, Francesco Massari, Francesca Giunchi, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Marina Scarpelli, Rodolfo Montironi
Over the last decade, the improvement in molecular techniques and the acquisition of genomic information has transformed and increased the quality of patient care and our knowledge of diseases. Areas covered: Protein expression levels in immunohistochemistry and molecular biomarkers are reported for their ability to predict recurrence, progression, development of metastases, or patient survival. In particular, for renal cell carcinoma, we take into consideration the biomarkers applicable to immunohistochemistry and with molecular and genetic analyses...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911393/renal-and-cardiac-implications-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-sglt2-inhibitors-the-state-of-the-science
#9
Joseph E Cruz, Tania Ahuja, Mary Barna Bridgeman
OBJECTIVE: To review the role of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), including the effects on renal and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. DATA SOURCES: A literature search of MEDLINE databases (1964 through May 2018) was conducted utilizing key words sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, and diabetes; additional limits for drug names were added. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Available English-language data from reviews, abstracts, presentations, and clinical trials of use of SGLT2 therapy specifically detailing outcomes on CV and renal disease in humans were reviewed...
June 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911149/characterization-of-marek-s-disease-virus-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-meq-gene-from-an-outbreak-in-poultry-in-meghalaya-of-northeast-india
#10
Kekungu-U Puro, Uttaran Bhattacharjee, Samprity Baruah, Arnab Sen, Samir Das, Sandeep Ghatak, Sunil Doley, Rajkumari Sanjukta, Ingudam Shakuntala
The aim of the present study was to characterize the virus from the lesions and histopathology of organs associated with mortality in Kuroiler (dual purpose variety of poultry developed and marketed by Keggfarms Pvt. Ltd, India) birds suspected of Marek's disease. Among 1047 birds from two farms of different location with 5.5 and 34% mortality, two types of lesion were observed in post mortem examination; tumors in vital organs-liver, spleen, kidney, lung and ovaries and generalized small nodular tumour in the abdominal cavity...
June 2018: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911044/advanced-diabetic-nephropathy-with-clean-eyes-an-extreme-phenotype
#11
Debmalya Sanyal, Sudip Chatterjee
Introduction: It is generally accepted that renal and eye changes in diabetes are concordant. There are however a fair number of patients with diabetes who have end-stage renal disease (ESRD) without any of the typical eye changes. The present study highlights the discordance between retinopathy and nephropathy and describes a series of patients of long-standing diabetes undergoing renal transplant who had little or no evidence of retinopathy. Methods: All patients with ESRD undergoing renal transplants underwent comprehensive fundus evaluation including dilated indirect ophthalmoscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, and fundus photography...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911007/elevated-mean-pulmonary-artery-pressure-and-right-ventricular-dysfunction-in-children-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
Igoche D Peter, Mustafa O Asani, Ibrahim Aliyu, Patience N Obiagwu
Background: Elevated mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and right heart failure increase mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of elevated mPAP in children with CKD compared with matched controls and to ascertain the relationship between elevated mPAP with right ventricular dysfunction and history of hemodialysis. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study of mPAP and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion of 21 children with CKD and age- and sex-matched controls asymptomatic for cardiac disease was conducted...
April 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Echography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910771/use-of-readily-accessible-inflammatory-markers-to-predict-diabetic-kidney-disease
#13
REVIEW
Lauren Winter, Lydia A Wong, George Jerums, Jas-Mine Seah, Michele Clarke, Sih Min Tan, Melinda T Coughlan, Richard J MacIsaac, Elif I Ekinci
Diabetic kidney disease is a common complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and is the primary cause of end-stage renal disease in developed countries. Early detection of diabetic kidney disease will facilitate early intervention aimed at reducing the rate of progression to end-stage renal disease. Diabetic kidney disease has been traditionally classified based on the presence of albuminuria. More recently estimated glomerular filtration rate has also been incorporated into the staging of diabetic kidney disease...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910685/activation-of-central-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-reverses-suppressed-immune-function-of-t-lymphocytes-and-protects-against-sepsis-lethality
#14
Chao Ren, Xiu-Hua Li, Shi-Bin Wang, Li-Xue Wang, Ning Dong, Yao Wu, Yong-Ming Yao
Sepsis remains the leading cause of high mortality and huge financial burden in intensive care units (ICU), but with scarce effective treatments due to refractory multiple organ dysfunction and persistent immunosuppression. Treatments that aim at modulating immune function and attenuating multiple organ injury will certainly benefit septic cases. Alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAchR) has been reported with potent immunomodulatory properties in various diseases as the essential mediator of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP)...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910605/role-of-etelcalcetide-in-the-management-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-review-on-current-data-and-place-in-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Claudia Friedl, Emanuel Zitt
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) is a frequently occurring severe complication of advanced kidney disease. Its clinical consequences include extraskeletal vascular and valvular calcifications, changes in bone metabolism resulting in renal osteodystrophy, and an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Calcimimetics are a cornerstone of parathyroid hormone (PTH)-lowering therapy, as confirmed by the recently updated 2017 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes chronic kidney disease - mineral and bone disorder clinical practice guidelines...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910579/bedside-ultrasonography-screening-for-congenital-renal-anomalies-in-children-with-congenital-heart-diseases-undergoing-cardiac-repair
#16
Hussam K Hamadah, Omar Hijazi, Mohammad A Faraji, Mohamed S Kabbani
Introduction: Ultrasound (US) assessment of renal anomalies in children requiring pediatric cardiac surgery is not a standard practice. This study is highlighting the role of bedside US performed by intensivist to detect occult renal anomalies associated with congenital heart disease (CHD). Methods: A cross sectional study for 100 consecutive children with CHD admitted to Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (PCICU) in 2015. US of kidneys screening was performed by trained pediatric cardiac intensivists to ascertain the presence of both kidneys in renal fossae without gross anomalies and to investigate if early detection of occult kidney anomaly would have any impact on outcome...
April 2018: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910038/idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome-in-children
#17
REVIEW
Damien G Noone, Kazumoto Iijima, Rulan Parekh
The incidence of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) is 1·15-16·9 per 100 000 children, varying by ethnicity and region. The cause remains unknown but the pathogenesis of idiopathic NS is thought to involve immune dysregulation, systemic circulating factors, or inherited structural abnormalities of the podocyte. Genetic risk is more commonly described among children with steroid-resistant disease. The mainstay of therapy is prednisone for the vast majority of patients who are steroid responsive; however, the disease can run a frequently relapsing course, necessitating the need for alternative immunosuppressive agents...
June 14, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910024/dulaglutide-versus-insulin-glargine-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-moderate-to-severe-chronic-kidney-disease-award-7-a-multicentre-open-label-randomised-trial
#18
Katherine R Tuttle, Mark C Lakshmanan, Brian Rayner, Robert S Busch, Alan G Zimmermann, D Bradley Woodward, Fady T Botros
BACKGROUND: Many antihyperglycaemic drugs, including insulin, are primarily cleared by the kidneys, restricting treatment options for patients with kidney disease. Dulaglutide is a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist that is not cleared by the kidneys, and confers a lower risk of hypoglycaemia than does insulin. We assessed the efficacy and safety of dulaglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease. METHODS: AWARD-7 was a multicentre, open-label trial done at 99 sites in nine countries...
June 14, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909935/ckd-and-sedentary-time-results-from-the-canadian-health-measures-survey
#19
Tamara Glavinovic, Thomas Ferguson, Paul Komenda, Claudio Rigatto, Todd A Duhamel, Navdeep Tangri, Clara Bohm
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Sedentary behavior and low physical activity are associated with incident diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and early mortality. Previous studies have examined associations between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and physical activity, but little is known about the role of sedentary time. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional national survey. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: A nationally representative sample of adults (n=8,444) participating in the Canadian Health Measures Survey's (CHMS) activity monitoring component (2007-2013)...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909932/interventional-radiology-and-interventional-endoscopy-in-treatment-of-nephroureteral-disease-in-the-dog-and-cat
#20
REVIEW
Alexander Gallagher
Interventional endoscopy and interventional radiology have led to the development of minimally invasive techniques for management of kidney and ureteral diseases in the dog and cat including idiopathic renal hematuria, ureteral obstruction, and ectopic ureters. Sclerotherapy is a renal-sparing chemical cauterization technique used in cases of idiopathic renal hematuria. Diagnosis of ureteral obstruction is challenging in some cases based on ultrasound alone and antegrade pyelography should be considered. Treatment options for obstructions include nephrostomy tubes, ureteral stents, and subcutaneous ureteral bypass devices...
June 14, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
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