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Cancer of oropharynx

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235037/expression-and-significance-of-cytokeratin-7-a-squamocolumnar-junction-marker-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
Mitra Mehrad, William D Dupont, W Dale Plummer, James S Lewis
The favorable features of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in the head and neck are limited to those harboring transcriptionally-active HPV, which occur predominantly in the oropharynx (OP). Factors rendering the OP susceptible to HPV oncogenesis are largely unexplored. The role of cytokeratin 7 (CK7) in predisposition to HPV and cancer in the cervix has been evaluated. However, its significance in the H&N is unknown. CK7 immunohistochemistry was performed on a tissue microarray cohort of OP and non-oropharyngeal (NOP) squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) with known clinical follow-up and HPV E6/7 mRNA status...
December 12, 2017: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229323/mri-based-assessment-of-3d-intrafractional-motion-of-head-and-neck-cancer-for-radiation%C3%A2-therapy
#2
Oliver J Gurney-Champion, Dualta McQuaid, Alex Dunlop, Kee H Wong, Liam C Welsh, Angela M Riddell, Dow-Mu Koh, Uwe Oelfke, Martin O Leach, Christopher M Nutting, Shreerang A Bhide, Kevin J Harrington, Rafal Panek, Kate L Newbold
PURPOSE: To determine the 3-dimensional (3D) intrafractional motion of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images from 56 patients with HNSCC in the treatment position were analyzed. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging consisted of 3D images acquired every 2.9 seconds for 4 minutes 50 seconds. Intrafractional tumor motion was studied in the 3 minutes 43 seconds of images obtained after initial contrast enhancement...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228752/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-using-and-risk-of-head-and-neck-cancer-a-dose-response-meta-analysis-of-prospective-cohort-studies
#3
Jun Shi, Weidong Leng, Lunhua Zhao, Chenli Xu, Jue Wang, Xiaoli Chen, Yu Wang, Xingchun Peng
Conflicting results identifying the relationship between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs using and head and neck cancer risk. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to clarify and quantitative assessed the relationship between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs using and head and neck cancer risk. Up to March 2017, 11 original publications were included in this meta-analysis. Our results showed statistically significant association between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs using and head and neck cancer risk reduction...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199656/retrospective-analysis-of-palliative-metronomic-chemotherapy-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#4
V M Patil, V Noronha, A Joshi, L Nayak, N Pande, A Chandrashekharan, S Dhumal, A Bhattacharjee, S Banavali, K Prabhash
BACKGROUND: Metronomic chemotherapy has shown promising results in selected patients of head and neck cancer in a small randomized study. This retrospective analysis was done to see whether the efficacy of metronomic chemotherapy in an unselected cohort of head and neck cancer patients is similar to that reported in the randomized study and the influence of the site and subsite of head and neck cancer on survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of head and neck cancer patients who received palliative metronomic chemotherapy between January 2013 and February 2015...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199652/comparison-of-conventional-fractionation-five-fractions-per-week-and-altered-fractionation-six-fractions-per-week-in-stage-i-and-ii-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-oropharynx-an-institutional-study
#5
J Poddar, A D Sharma, S U Kunikullaya, J P Neema
BACKGROUND: The radiotherapy (RT) dose and fractionation schedule for head and neck cancers for locoregional control and acceptable organ toxicity are still debatable. Accelerated RT includes administration of six fractions per week with the same dose per fraction. AIM: Comparison of conventional versus accelerated RT in terms of locoregional control, and acute and late radiation toxicity in squamous cell carcinoma oropharynx (stage I and II). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective, double arm, phase 2, randomized study...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195668/key-role-of-local-acetaldehyde-in-upper-gi-tract-carcinogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Mikko Salaspuro
Ethanol is neither genotoxic nor mutagenic. Its first metabolite acetaldehyde, however, is a powerful local carcinogen. Point mutation in ALDH2 gene proves the causal relationship between acetaldehyde and upper digestive tract cancer in humans. Salivary acetaldehyde concentration and exposure time are the two major and quantifiable factors regulating the degree of local acetaldehyde exposure in the ideal target organ, oropharynx. Instant microbial acetaldehyde formation from alcohol represents >70% of total ethanol associated acetaldehyde exposure in the mouth...
October 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181079/survivin-expression-hpv-positivity-and-microvessel-density-in-oropharyngeal-carcinomas-and-relationship-with-survival-time
#7
Ebru Tastekin, Vuslat Yurut Caloglu, Nilufer Kilic Durankus, Necdet Sut, Gorkem Turkkan, Nuray Can, Fulya Oz Puyan, Murat Caloglu
Introduction: Among head and neck cancers, those of the oral cavity and oropharynx are the second most prevalent following the larynx. This study aimed to research immunohistochemical expression of survivin, HPV positivity and microvessel density in tumors and their relationships with prognosis. Material and methods: Pathological materials and demographic properties of 46 patients were retrospectively evaluated. Survivin, HPV and CD34 (for microvessel density evaluation) antibodies were applied tumoral tissues...
October 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178862/prevalence-and-types-of-high-risk-human-papillomaviruses-in-head-and-neck-cancers-from-bangladesh
#8
Mushfiq H Shaikh, Aminul I Khan, Anwar Sadat, Ahmed H Chowdhury, Shahed A Jinnah, Vinod Gopalan, Alfred K Lam, Daniel T W Clarke, Nigel A J McMillan, Newell W Johnson
BACKGROUND: There is a dramatic rise in the incidence of Human papillomavirus (HPV) - associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in the world, with considerable variation by geography, gender and ethnicity. Little is known about the situation in Bangladesh, where tobacco- and areca nut-related head and neck cancers (HNCs) are the most common cancers in men. We aimed to determine the prevalence of HPV in HNSCC in Bangladesh and to explore the possible value of cell cycle markers in clinical diagnostic settings...
November 25, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173756/proton-therapy-for-head-and-neck-cancers
#9
REVIEW
Pierre Blanchard, Gary Brandon Gunn, Alexander Lin, Robert L Foote, Nancy Y Lee, Steven J Frank
Because of its sharp lateral penumbra and steep distal fall-off, proton therapy offers dosimetric advantages over photon therapy. In head and neck cancer, proton therapy has been used for decades in the treatment of skull-base tumors. In recent years the use of proton therapy has been extended to numerous other disease sites, including nasopharynx, oropharynx, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, periorbital tumors, skin, and salivary gland, or to reirradiation. The aim of this review is to present the physical properties and dosimetric benefit of proton therapy over advanced photon therapy; to summarize the clinical benefit described for each disease site; and to discuss issues of patient selection and cost-effectiveness...
January 2018: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171929/ahns-series-do-you-know-your-guidelines-principles-of-treatment-for-locally-advanced-or-unresectable-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#10
Cory D Fulcher, Missak Haigentz, Thomas J Ow
This article is a continuation of the "Do You Know Your Guidelines" series, initiated by the Education committee of the American Head and Neck Society. Treatment guidelines for advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma are reviewed here, including the critical roles of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and the recent application of immunotherapy agents. We will be limiting this discussion to include cancers of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx. It should be noted that much of the article pertains to human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative oropharyngeal cancer where applicable, as HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma carries a different natural history, different prognosis, and now different staging criteria...
November 24, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128262/intraoperative-imaging-during-minimally-invasive-transoral-robotic-surgery-using-near-infrared-light
#11
Nicholas Scott-Wittenborn, Ryan S Jackson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of the FIREFLY imaging system could be an asset in transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). The system uses indocyanine green dye (ICG), which fluoresces when illuminated by near-infrared light from the Da Vinci robot. The system may improve visualization of tumor margins, highlight important vascular structures, and help identify the location of tumors and unknown primary head and neck cancers...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126495/surgical-management-of-oral-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Rabie M Shanti, Bert W O'Malley
Today, most head and neck cancer subsites, such as the larynx, hypopharynx, nasopharynx, and oropharynx, are treated with radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy as a primary treatment modality. Surgery is reserved for the salvage of recurrent tumors that occur within the head and neck in the absence of distant (ie, lung, liver) metastasis. However, unlike all other head and neck subsites, oral cancer should ideally be managed with primary surgery with the possibility of adjuvant radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy depending on the presence of certain high-risk pathologic features...
January 2018: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118826/prevalence-of-hpv-infection-in-hypopharyngeal-and-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-at-thailand-s-largest-tertiary-referral-center
#13
Warut Pongsapich, Nitathip Eakkasem, Sontana Siritantikorn, Paveena Pithuksurachai, Kshidej Bongsabhikul, Cheerasook Chongkolwatana
Background: Following the well-established relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical carcinoma, the carcinogenicity of this virus has also been confirmed in subsets of head and neck carcinoma (HNCA), but mainly in the oropharynx. Other subsites of HNCA with less known association to HPV have never been studied in Thailand. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA in hypopharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Thai population...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107665/eps8-expression-is-significantly-lower-in-p16-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinomas-hnscc-compared-to-p16-hnscc
#14
Elham Nasri, Lisa B Wiesen, Jacquelyn A Knapik, Kristianna M Fredenburg
In vitro head and neck cancer studies have demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor kinase substrate 8 (Eps8) overexpression contributes to squamous carcinogenesis. Oral squamous cell carcinoma studies have correlated Eps8 expression with metastatic disease and poor prognosis. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) studies comparing its expression by anatomic site or in in vivo regional metastases have not been performed. In this study, we compared Eps8 expression in HNSCCs arising in the oral cavity (OCSCC) and oropharynx (OPSCC) along with their corresponding regional lymph nodes (LNs) metastases...
October 28, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103758/40-year-incidence-trends-for-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-the-united-states
#15
Nosayaba Osazuwa-Peters, Matthew C Simpson, Sean T Massa, Eric Adjei Boakye, Jastin L Antisdel, Mark A Varvares
OBJECTIVES: To determine differences in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) incidence between 1975 and 2014 stratified by race, sex, and age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained age-adjusted OPSCC incidence rates for race and sex groups from 1975 to 2014 using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 9 database. We defined OPSCC as cancers of the base of tongue, lingual/palatine tonsil, oropharynx, soft palate, uvula, and Waldeyer's ring. We used Joinpoint analyses to determine incidence trends for race/sex/age groupings...
November 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103745/assessment-of-adjuvant-therapy-in-resected-head-and-neck-cancer-with-high-risk-features
#16
Gaurav S Ajmani, Cheryl C Nocon, Chi-Hsiung Wang, Mihir K Bhayani
OBJECTIVES: Subgroup analysis from two randomized trials showed a survival benefit for adjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) over radiation alone (RT) in patients with extracapsular spread (ECS) of involved lymph nodes and/or positive margins (PM) in resected head and neck cancer (HNSCC). However, results were not analyzed separately for patients with ECS or PM and were not stratified by tumor subsite/HPV status. We therefore sought to determine whether adjuvant CRT is associated with a survival benefit, separately among patients with ECS or PM and stratified by subsite/HPV status...
November 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096895/microbiota-and-breast-cancer
#17
Sridhar Mani
Breast carcinogenesis and/or cancer growth and/or drug sensitivity has a multifactorial etiology-perhaps the least well-characterized aspect being that of the distant environmental influences, namely, the microbiota that inhabit humans. For the purposes of this chapter, and to keep the subject matter well defined, microbiota is defined as bacterial microbes only. In this chapter, the pathways that lead to priming of breast cancer and/or the maintenance of a malignant state and/or influences on drug sensitivity via bacterial influences will be identified and described...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083238/critical-weight-loss-in-patients-with-oropharynx-cancer-during-radiotherapy-%C3%A2-chemotherapy
#18
Belinda Vangelov, Rebecca L Venchiarutti, Robert I Smee
Critical weight loss (CWL) defined as ≥5% in one month, is common in patients with oropharynx cancer and identification of patients at risk is challenging. We aimed to investigate if predictors of CWL in this population exist to guide nutritional intervention. Data were collected retrospectively on 134 patients who had radiotherapy (RT) ± concurrent chemotherapy (CRT) ± surgery. Body weights were collected pre-RT and during RT, with percentage weight change measured against baseline. Logistic regression was used to analyze chosen predictors...
October 30, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075744/multidisciplinary-clinic-management-of-head-and-neck-cancer
#19
Melanie Townsend, Dorina Kallogjeri, Nicholas Scott-Wittenborn, Katherine Gerull, Stacy Jansen, Brian Nussenbaum
Importance: Contemporary management of head and neck cancer involves professionals from multiple specializations. Streamlined care that reduces delays yet allows for comprehensive evaluation is needed. Objective: To evaluate a single-day, single-appointment, multidisciplinary head and neck clinic model for reduction in treatment delay and comprehensiveness of care. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted from June 1, 2015, to July 31, 2016, of outpatients at a single, academic medical center...
October 26, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074172/low-prevalence-of-hpv-driven-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-north-east-italy
#20
Lorena Baboci, Dana Holzinger, Paolo Boscolo-Rizzo, Giancarlo Tirelli, Roberto Spinato, Valentina Lupato, Roberto Fuson, Markus Schmitt, Angelika Michel, Gordana Halec, Maria Cristina Da Mosto, Michael Pawlita, Annarosa Del Mistro
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the frequency of Human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) among patients living in North-East Italy, by assessing HPV-DNA positivity in all tumors and additional markers whenever possible. MATERIAL AND METHODS: HPV types, viral load, viral RNA, HPV16/18 E6 protein and p16INK4a and pRb expression were determined in primary tumor tissues from 247 HNSCC patients. Tumor-specific HPV seropositivity was analyzed in 102 patients...
December 2016: Papillomavirus Research
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