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Biomarkers neurological damage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203097/cerebral-malaria-insight-into-pathogenesis-complications-and-molecular-biomarkers
#1
Farah Hafiz Yusuf, Muhammad Yusuf Hafiz, Maria Shoaib, Syed Ahsanuddin Ahmed
Cerebral malaria is a medical emergency. All patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria with neurologic manifestations of any degree should be urgently treated as cases of cerebral malaria. Pathogenesis of cerebral malaria is due to damaged vascular endothelium by parasite sequestration, inflammatory cytokine production and vascular leakage, which result in brain hypoxia, as indicated by increased lactate and alanine concentrations. The levels of the biomarkers' histidine-rich protein II, angiopoietin-Tie-2 system and plasma osteoprotegrin serve as diagnostic and prognostic markers...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183829/retinal-structure-assessed-by-oct-as-a-biomarker-of-brain-development-in-children-born-small-for-gestational-age
#2
Victoria Pueyo, Teresa Pérez, Inmaculada González, Irene Altemir, Galadriel Gimenez, Esther Prieto, Cristina Paules, Daniel Oros, Javier Lopez-Pison, Nicolás Fayed, Gracián Garcia-Martí, Roberto Sanz-Requena, Miguel Angel Marin
PURPOSE: To identify differences in neuronal tissue from retinal and brain structures in children born small for gestational age (SGA) with no abnormality in neonatal brain ultrasonography and no previous neurological impairment, and to evaluate the relationship between retinal structure and brain changes in school-age children born SGA. METHODS: Two cohorts of children were recruited: 25 children born SGA and 25 children born with an appropriate birth weight according to gestational age...
February 9, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142140/dha-reduces-oxidative-stress-after-perinatal-asphyxia-a-study-in-newborn-piglets
#3
Rønnaug Solberg, Mariangela Longini, Fabrizio Proietti, Serafina Perrone, Cosetta Felici, Alessio Porta, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Giuseppe Buonocore
BACKGROUND: Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage is a major cause of acute mortality and chronic neurological morbidity in infants and children. Oxidative stress due to free radical formation and the initiation of abnormal oxidative reactions appears to play a key role. Docosahexanoic acid (DHA), a main component of brain membrane phospholipids, may act as a neuroprotectant after hypoxia-ischemia by regulating multiple molecular pathways and gene expression. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that DHA provides significant protection against lipoperoxidation damage in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in a neonatal piglet model of severe hypoxia-reoxygenation...
February 1, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088349/stroke-biomarkers-in-clinical-practice-a-critical-appraisal
#4
REVIEW
Geelyn J L Ng, Amy M L Quek, Christine Cheung, Thiruma V Arumugam, Raymond C S Seet
Biomarkers provide critical mechanistic insights to key biologic processes that occur during cerebral ischemia which, when carefully applied, can improve clinical decision-making in acute stroke management. The translation of a blood-based biomarker in ischemic stroke to clinical practice is challenging, in part, due to the complexity of ischemic stroke pathogenesis and the presence of a blood-brain barrier that restricts the release of brain-specific markers into the circulation. The pathologic and clinical aspects of ischemic stroke are described in this review, where a non-exhaustive list of biomarkers that interrogate different aspects of ischemic stroke such as oxidative damage, inflammation, thrombus formation, cardiac function and brain injury are described...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077936/redox-proteomic-identification-of-carbonylated-proteins-in-autism-plasma-insight-into-oxidative-stress-and-its-related-biomarkers-in-autism
#5
Chengyun Feng, Youjiao Chen, Jintao Pan, Aochu Yang, Li Niu, Jie Min, Xianling Meng, Liping Liao, Kaoyuan Zhang, Liming Shen
BACKGROUND: Autism is a severe childhood neurological disorder with poorly understood etiology and pathology. Currently, there is no authentic laboratory test to confirm the diagnosis of autism. Oxidative damage may play a central role in the pathogenesis of autism. Present study is an effort to search for possible biomarkers of autism and further clarify the molecular changes associated with oxidative stress that occurs in the plasma of autistic children. METHODS: We performed redox proteomics analysis to compare carbonylated proteins in the plasma of autistic subjects and healthy controls...
2017: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054291/elevated-serum-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-gfap-is-associated-with-poor-functional-outcome-after-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#6
Kirsten Helwig, Florian Seeger, Hans Hölschermann, Volker Lischke, Tibo Gerriets, Marion Niessner, Christian Foerch
BACKGROUND: The neurological prognosis of patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is difficult to assess. GFAP is an astrocytic intermediate filament protein released into bloodstream in case of cell death. We performed a prospective study aiming to compare the predictive potential of GFAP after resuscitation to the more widely used biomarker neuron-specific enolase (NSE). METHODS: One hundred patients were included at 48 h (tolerance interval ±12 h) after cardiac arrest...
January 4, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011613/spinal-arachnoiditis-as-a-complication-of-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis-in-non-hiv-previously-healthy-adults
#7
Anil A Panackal, Mika Komori, Peter Kosa, Omar Khan, Dima A Hammoud, Lindsey B Rosen, Sarah K Browne, Yen-Chih Lin, Elena Romm, Charu Ramaprasad, Bettina C Fries, John E Bennett, Bibiana Bielekova, Peter R Williamson
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus can cause meningoencephalitis (CM) among previously healthy non-HIV adults. Spinal arachnoiditis is under-recognized, since diagnosis is difficult with concomitant central nervous system (CNS) pathology. METHODS: We describe 6 cases of spinal arachnoiditis among 26 consecutively recruited CM patients with normal CD4 counts who achieved microbiologic control. We performed detailed neurological exams, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunophenotyping and biomarker analysis before and after adjunctive immunomodulatory intervention with high dose pulse corticosteroids, affording causal inference into pathophysiology...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995945/the-developing-landscape-of-diagnostic-and-prognostic-biomarkers-for-spinal-cord-injury-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-blood
#8
REVIEW
C H Hulme, S J Brown, H R Fuller, J Riddell, A Osman, J Chowdhury, N Kumar, W E Johnson, K T Wright
STUDY DESIGN: Review study. OBJECTIVES: The identification of prognostic biomarkers of spinal cord injury (SCI) will help to assign SCI patients to the correct treatment and rehabilitation regimes. Further, the detection of biomarkers that predict permanent neurological outcome would aid in appropriate recruitment of patients into clinical trials. The objective of this review is to evaluate the current state-of-play in this developing field. SETTING: Studies from multiple countries were included...
February 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987229/neuronal-damage-biomarkers-in-the-identification-of-patients-at-risk-of-long-term-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-after-cardiac-surgery
#9
W F Kok, J Koerts, O Tucha, T W L Scheeren, A R Absalom
Biomarkers of neurological injury can potentially predict postoperative cognitive dysfunction. We aimed to identify whether classical neuronal damage-specific biomarkers, including brain fatty acid-binding protein, neuron-specific enolase and S100 calcium-binding protein β, as well as plasma-free haemoglobin concentration as a measure of haemolysis, could be used to predict the risk of long-term cognitive decline after coronary artery bypass grafting with or without cardiopulmonary bypass. We assessed cognitive function using the CogState brief computerised cognitive test battery at 3 months and at 15 months after surgery...
December 17, 2016: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924525/a-three-day-consecutive-fingolimod-administration-improves-neurological-functions-and-modulates-multiple-immune-responses-of-cci-mice
#10
Chuang Gao, Yu Qian, Jinhao Huang, Dong Wang, Wanqiang Su, Peng Wang, Linyue Guo, Wei Quan, Shuo An, Jianning Zhang, Rongcai Jiang
Excessive inflammation after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of secondary TBI. Though several inflammatory biomarkers have been postulated as the risk factors of TBI, there has not been any comprehensive description of them. Fingolimod, a new kind of immunomodulatory agent which can diminish various kinds of inflammatory responses, has shown additional therapeutic effects in the treatment of intracranial cerebral hematoma (ICH), ischemia, spinal cord injury (SCI), and many other CNS disorders...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920793/cognitive-decline-in-patients-with-chronic-hydrocephalus-and-normal-aging-growing-into-deficits
#11
Marlijn H de Beer, Philip Scheltens
BACKGROUND/AIM: To explore the theory of 'growing into deficits', a concept known from developmental neurology, in a series of cases with chronic hydrocephalus (CH). METHODS: Patients were selected from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort and underwent extensive dementia screening. RESULTS: Twelve patients with CH were selected, in whom Alzheimer's disease was considered unlikely, based on biomarker information and follow-up. Mean Mini-Mental State Examination score was 24 (range 7-30)...
September 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903281/improving-the-clinical-management-of-traumatic-brain-injury-through-the-pharmacokinetic-modeling-of-peripheral-blood-biomarkers
#12
Aaron Dadas, Jolewis Washington, Nicola Marchi, Damir Janigro
BACKGROUND: Blood biomarkers of neurovascular damage are used clinically to diagnose the presence severity or absence of neurological diseases, but data interpretation is confounded by a limited understanding of their dependence on variables other than the disease condition itself. These include half-life in blood, molecular weight, and marker-specific biophysical properties, as well as the effects of glomerular filtration, age, gender, and ethnicity. To study these factors, and to provide a method for markers' analyses, we developed a kinetic model that allows the integrated interpretation of these properties...
November 30, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889229/brown-propolis-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-induced-oxidative-damage-via-affecting-antioxidant-enzyme-system-in-mice
#13
Gholamreza Bazmandegan, Mohammad Taher Boroushaki, Ali Shamsizadeh, Fatemeh Ayoobi, Elham Hakimizadeh, Mohammad Allahtavakoli
Oxidative stress plays a critical role in ischemic brain injury. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) are the enzymes underlying the endogenous antioxidant mechanisms affected by stroke and are considered as oxidative stress biomarkers. Brown propolis (BP) is a bioactive natural product with a set of biological activities that in turn may differ depending on the area from which the substance is originated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of water-extracted brown propolis (WEBPs), from two regions of Iran, against cerebral ischemia-induced oxidative injury in a mouse model of stroke...
January 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888142/profiling-and-identification-of-new-proteins-involved-in-brain-ischemia-using-maldi-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#14
Víctor Llombart, Sebastián Alejandro Trejo, Sílvia Bronsoms, Anna Morancho, Ma Feifei, Júlia Faura, Teresa García-Berrocoso, Alba Simats, Anna Rosell, Francesc Canals, Mar Hernández-Guillamón, Joan Montaner
: The identification of proteins involved in brain ischemia might allow the discovery of putative biomarkers or therapeutic targets for ischemic stroke. Our aim is to study the distribution of proteins within mouse brain after an ischemic insult using MALDI imaging-mass-spectrometry and to identify relevant proteins involved in brain damage. We occluded the middle cerebral artery of C57BL/6J mice. Brain slices were analyzed by MALDI-TOF and infarct (IC) and contralateral (CL) regions were compared using ClinProTools...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821249/protein-carbonyl-content-a-novel-biomarker-for-aging-in-hiv-aids-patients
#15
Vaishali Kolgiri, Vinayak Wamanrao Patil
BACKGROUND: The major complications of "treated" Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are cardiovascular disease, malignancy, renal disease, liver disease, bone disease, and perhaps neurological complications, which are phenomena of the normal aging process occurring at an earlier age in the HIV-infected population. The present study is aimed to explore protein carbonyl content as a biomarker for detecting oxidative DNA damage induced ART toxicity and/or accelerated aging in HIV/AIDS patients...
January 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794524/progressive-multiple-sclerosis-from-pathogenic-mechanisms-to-treatment
#16
Jorge Correale, María I Gaitán, María C Ysrraelit, Marcela P Fiol
During the past decades, better understanding of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis disease mechanisms have led to the development of several disease-modifying therapies, reducing relapse rates and severity, through immune system modulation or suppression. In contrast, current therapeutic options for progressive multiple sclerosis remain comparatively disappointing and challenging. One possible explanation is a lack of understanding of pathogenic mechanisms driving progressive multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, diagnosis is usually retrospective, based on history of gradual neurological worsening with or without occasional relapses, minor remissions or plateaus...
October 29, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793019/intravenous-administration-of-xenogenic-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-admsc-and-admsc-derived-exosomes-markedly-reduced-brain-infarct-volume-and-preserved-neurological-function-in-rat-after-acute-ischemic-stroke
#17
Kuan-Hung Chen, Chih-Hung Chen, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Chun-Man Yuen, Gour-Shenq Kao, Yi-Ling Chen, Pei-Lin Shao, Yung-Lung Chen, Han-Tan Chai, Kun-Chen Lin, Chu-Feng Liu, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Mel S Lee, Hon-Kan Yip
We tested the hypothesis that combined xenogenic (from mini-pig) adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) and ADMSC-derived exosome therapy could reduce brain-infarct zone (BIZ) and enhance neurological recovery in rat after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) induced by 50-min left middle cerebral artery occlusion. Adult-male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 60) were divided equally into group 1 (sham-control), group 2 (AIS), group 3 [AIS-ADMSC (1.2×106 cells)], group 4 [AIS-exosome (100μg)], and group 5 (AIS-exosome-ADMSC)...
October 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623176/micrornas-modulate-the-purinergic-signaling-network
#18
Davide Ferrari, Nicoletta Bianchi, Holger K Eltzschig, Roberto Gambari
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules capable of silencing mRNA targets. miRNA dysregulation has been linked to cancer development, cardiovascular and neurological diseases, lipid metabolism, and impaired immunity. Therefore, miRNAs are gaining interest as putative novel disease biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Recent studies have shown that purinergic surface receptors activated by extracellular nucleotides (ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP), and by nucleosides such as adenosine (ADO), are subject to miRNA regulation...
October 2016: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589522/combining-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-and-neuropsychological-assessment-a%C3%A2-simple-and-cost-effective-algorithm-to%C3%A2-predict-the-progression-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#19
Salvatore Mazzeo, Roberto Santangelo, Maria Paola Bernasconi, Giordano Cecchetti, Agnese Fiorino, Patrizia Pinto, Gabriella Passerini, Monica Falautano, Giancarlo Comi, Giuseppe Magnani
BACKGROUND: Correctly diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in prodromal phases would allow the adoption of experimental therapeutic strategies that could selectively interrupt the pathogenetic process before neuronal damage becomes irreversible. Therefore, great efforts have been aimed at finding early reliable disease markers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify a simple, cost effective, and reliable diagnostic algorithm to predict conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588567/lipid-peroxidation-and-tyrosine-nitration-in-traumatic-brain-injury-insights-into-secondary-injury-from-redox-proteomics
#20
REVIEW
D Allan Butterfield, Tanea T Reed
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a spontaneous event in which sudden trauma and secondary injury cause brain damage. Symptoms of TBI can range from mild to severe depending on extent of injury. The outcome can span from complete patient recovery to permanent memory loss and neurological decline. Currently, there is no known cure for TBI; however, immediate medical attention after injury is most beneficial for patient recovery. It is a well-established concept that imbalances in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and native antioxidant mechanisms have been shown to increase oxidative stress...
December 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
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