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Biomarkers neurological damage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322259/csf-neurofilament-proteins-as-diagnostic-and-prognostic-biomarkers-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#1
Daniela Rossi, Paolo Volanti, Liliana Brambilla, Tiziana Colletti, Rossella Spataro, Vincenzo La Bella
Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Neurofilament Light (NF-L) and phosphorylated Heavy (pNF-H) chain levels have been found in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), with studies reporting a correlation of both neurofilaments (NFs) with the disease progression. Here, we measured NF-L and pNF-H concentrations in the CSF of ALS patients from a single tertiary Center and investigated their relationship with disease-related variables. A total of 190 ALS patients (Bulbar, 29.9%; Spinal, 70.1%; M/F = 1.53) and 130 controls with mixed neurological diseases were recruited...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307082/biomarkers-in-spinal-cord-injury-from-prognosis-to-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Leonardo Fonseca Rodrigues, Vivaldo Moura-Neto, Tania Cristina Leite de Sampaio E Spohr
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is considered an incurable condition, having a heterogenous recovery and uncertain prognosis. Therefore, a reliable prediction of the improvement in the acute phase could benefit patients. Physicians are unanimous in insisting that at the initial damage of the spinal cord (SC), the patient should be carefully evaluated in order to help selecting an appropriate neuroprotective treatment. However, currently, neurologic impairment after SCI is measured and classified by functional examination...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277966/role-of-inflammatory-biomarker-in-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#3
Heung Yong Jin, Tae Sun Park
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common chronic neurological complication of diabetes1 . Small and large peripheral nerve fibers may be involved in DPN. Large nerve fiber damage causes paresthesia, sensory loss, and muscle weakness and small nerve fiber damage is associated with pain, anesthesia, foot ulcer, and autonomic symptoms. However, the exact pathogenic mechanisms and diagnostic criteria for DPN are not firmly established currently. The present DPN prevention, diagnosis, and treatment strategies are incomplete and unsuccessful due to the various pathogenesis of systemic and cellular disturbance in glucose and lipid metabolism...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260012/time-courses-of-plasma-il-6-and-hmgb-1-reflect-initial-severity-of-clinical-presentation-but-do-not-predict-poor-neurologic-outcome-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#4
Heikki Kiiski, Jaakko Långsjö, Jyrki Tenhunen, Marika Ala-Peijari, Heini Huhtala, Mari Hämäläinen, Eeva Moilanen, Juha Öhman, Jukka Peltola
Objective: Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) experience high mortality and morbidity. Neuroinflammation causes brain damage expansion after aSAH. Due to the complexity of the inflammatory response multiple biomarkers are needed to evaluate its' progression. We studied inflammatory process after aSAH by measuring two inflammatory biomarkers, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) at simultaneous time-points after aSAH. Methods: In this prospective population-based study, IL-6 and HMGB1 were measured in aSAH patients (n = 47) for up to five days...
March 2017: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233794/relevance-of-4-f4t-neuroprostane-and-10-f4t-neuroprostane-to-neurological-diseases
#5
Cinzia Signorini, Claudio De Felice, Thierry Durand, Jean-Marie Galano, Camille Oger, Silvia Leoncini, Lucia Ciccoli, Marisa Carone, Monica Ulivelli, Caterina Manna, Alessio Cortelazzo, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee, Joussef Hayek
F4-neuroprostanes (F4-NeuroPs) are non-enzymatic oxidized products derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and are suggested to be oxidative damage biomarkers of neurological diseases. However, 128 isomers can be formed from DHA oxidation and among them, 4(RS)-4-F4t-NeuroP (4-F4t-NeuroP) and 10(RS)-10-F4t-NeuroP (10-F4t-NeuroP) are the most studied. Here, we report the identification and the clinical relevance of 4-F4t-NeuroP and 10-F4t-NeuroP in plasma of four different neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), autism spectrum disorders, (ASD) Rett syndrome (RTT), and Down syndrome (DS)...
December 9, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214153/alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-discrepancy-between-clinical-neuroimaging-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-criteria-in-an-italian-cohort-of-geriatric-outpatients-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#6
Giulia A M Dolci, Sarah Damanti, Valeria Scortichini, Alessandro Galli, Paolo D Rossi, Carlo Abbate, Beatrice Arosio, Daniela Mari, Andrea Arighi, Giorgio G Fumagalli, Elio Scarpini, Silvia Inglese, Maura Marcucci
Background: The role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, and neuroimaging in the diagnostic process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not clear, in particular in the older patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical diagnosis of AD with CSF biomarkers and with cerebrovascular damage at neuroimaging in a cohort of geriatric patients. Methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records of ≥65-year-old patients with cognitive impairment referred to an Italian geriatric outpatient clinic, for whom the CSF concentration of amyloid-β (Aβ), total Tau (Tau), and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) was available...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133510/single-cell-immuno-laser-microdissection-coupled-to-label-free-proteomics-to-reveal-the-proteotypes-of-human-brain-cells-after-ischemia
#7
Teresa García-Berrocoso, Víctor Llombart, Laura Colàs-Campàs, Alexandre Hainard, Virginie Licker, Anna Penalba, Laura Ramiro, Alba Simats, Alejandro Bustamante, Elena Martínez-Saez, Francesc Canals, Jean-Charles Sanchez, Joan Montaner
Cerebral ischemia entails rapid tissue damage in the affected brain area causing devastating neurological dysfunction. How each component of the neurovascular unit contributes or responds to the ischemic insult in the context of the human brain has not been solved yet. Thus, the analysis of the proteome is a straightforward approach to unraveling these cell proteotypes.In this study, post-mortem brain slices from ischemic stroke patients were obtained corresponding to infarcted (IC) and contralateral (CL) areas...
November 13, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088951/update-on-critical-care-for-acute-spinal-cord-injury-in-the-setting-of-polytrauma
#8
John K Yue, Ethan A Winkler, Jonathan W Rick, Hansen Deng, Carlene P Partow, Pavan S Upadhyayula, Harjus S Birk, Andrew K Chan, Sanjay S Dhall
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) often occurs in patients with concurrent traumatic injuries in other body systems. These patients with polytrauma pose unique challenges to clinicians. The current review evaluates existing guidelines and updates the evidence for prehospital transport, immobilization, initial resuscitation, critical care, hemodynamic stability, diagnostic imaging, surgical techniques, and timing appropriate for the patient with SCI who has multisystem trauma. Initial management should be systematic, with focus on spinal immobilization, timely transport, and optimizing perfusion to the spinal cord...
November 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075360/turnover-of-histones-and-histone-variants-in-postnatal-rat-brain-effects-of-alcohol-exposure
#9
Nadia Rachdaoui, Ling Li, Belinda Willard, Takhar Kasumov, Stephen Previs, Dipak Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant public health problem and can result in a continuum of adverse outcomes to the fetus known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Subjects with FASD show significant neurological deficits, ranging from microencephaly, neurobehavioral, and mental health problems to poor social adjustment and stress tolerance. Neurons are particularly sensitive to alcohol exposure. The neurotoxic action of alcohol, i.e., through ROS production, induces DNA damage and neuronal cell death by apoptosis...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069985/neural-autoantibodies-in-patients-with-neurological-symptoms-and-histories-of-chemical-mold-exposures
#10
Mohamed Bahie Abou-Donia, Allan Lieberman, Luke Curtis
A number of studies have linked exposures to industrial and household chemicals and biological toxins to increased risk of autoimmunity in general and elevated levels of autoantibodies to neural antigens specifically. Elevated neural autoantibodies are biomarkers for many diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. Our study reports levels of six types of neural autoantibodies in a group of 24 toxicant-exposed patients. The patients were exposed to a variety of toxicants including contaminated drinking water (four patients), building water/mold damage (eight patients), pesticides (four patients), and other assorted toxic chemicals (eight patients)...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037121/predicting-injury-severity-and-neurologic-recovery-after-acute-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-a-comparison-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-biomarkers
#11
Turker Dalkilic, Nader Fallah, Vanessa K Noonan, Sanam Salimi Elizei, Kevin Dong, Lise M Belanger, Leanna Ritchie, Angela Tsang, Etienne Bourassa-Moreau, Manraj K S Heran, Scott J Paquette, Tamir Ailon, Nicolas Dea, John Street, Charles G Fisher, Marcel F Dvorak, Brian K Kwon
Biomarkers of acute human spinal cord injury (SCI) could provide a more objective measure of spinal cord damage and a better predictor of neurologic outcome than the current functional neurologic assessments. There has been growing interest in establishing neurochemical biomarkers using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and also imaging biomarkers using measurable features on MRI. In this study, we took the opportunity to compare CSF biomarkers and MRI biomarkers in a cohort of acute cervical SCI patients who had undergone both CSF sampling and pre-operative MRI scanning...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034496/clinical-impact-of-the-microembolic-signal-burden-during-catheter-ablation-for-atrial-fibrillation-just-a-lot-of-noise
#12
Christian von Bary, Thomas Deneke, Thomas Arentz, Anja Schade, Heiko Lehrmann, Susanne Schwab-Malek, Sabine Fredersdorf, Dobri Baldaranov, Lars Maier, Felix Schlachetzki
OBJECTIVES: Microembolic signal detection by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography may be considered a surrogate for cerebral events during invasive cardiac procedures. However, the impact of the microembolic signal count during pulmonary vein isolation on the clinical outcome is not well evaluated. We investigated the effect of the microembolic signal count on the occurrence of new silent cerebral embolism measured by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), changes in neuropsychological testing, and the occurrence of clinical events during long-term follow-up after pulmonary vein isolation...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987401/pm2-5-exposure-stimulates-cox-2-mediated-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-via-ros-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#13
Ben Li, Lin Guo, Tingting Ku, Minjun Chen, Guangke Li, Nan Sang
Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been reported to be closely associated with the neuroinflammation and synaptic dysfunction, but the mechanisms underlying the process remain unclear. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key player in neuroinflammation, and has been also implicated in the glutamatergic excitotoxicity and synaptic plasticity. Thus, we hypothesized that COX-2 was involved in PM2.5-promoted neuroinflammation and synaptic dysfunction. Our results revealed that PM2.5 elevated COX-2 expression in primary cultured hippocampal neurons and increased the amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in hippocampal brain slices...
September 21, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982330/potential-biomarkers-with-plasma-cortisol-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-nitrites-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#14
S Casas, A F Perez, M Mattiazzi, J Lopez, A Folgueira, G M Gargiulo-Monachelli, M C Gonzalez Deniselle, A F De Nicola
BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) represents an economic challenge for health systems all over the globe. Changes of neuroactive steroids have been found in different neurological diseases. We have previously demonstrated that old patients with AIS show changes of plasma cortisol and estradiol concentrations, in that increased steroid levels are associated with a deterioration of neurological status and a worse cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed in patients with AIS if changes of behavior, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nitrites (NO-2) bear a relationship with the degree of hypercortisolism...
October 5, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950909/systemic-impact-on-secondary-brain-aggravation-due-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-post-cardiac-arrest-syndrome-a-prospective-observational-study-using-high-mobility-group-box-1-protein
#15
Atsunori Sugita, Kosaku Kinoshita, Atsushi Sakurai, Nobutaka Chiba, Junko Yamaguchi, Tsukasa Kuwana, Nami Sawada, Satoshi Hori
BACKGROUND: Ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) is an important pathophysiology of post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) against multiple organ dysfunction and mortality. The inflammatory response in PCAS causes systemic I/R. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the pathophysiology of systemic I/R for secondary brain damage using the biomarkers high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). METHODS: This study was designed as a single-institution prospective observational study...
September 26, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933368/biomarkers-and-imaging-findings-of-anderson-fabry-disease-what-we-know-now
#16
REVIEW
Idalina Beirão, Ana Cabrita, Márcia Torres, Fernando Silva, Patrício Aguiar, Francisco Laranjeira, Ana Marta Gomes
Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, caused by deficiency or absence of the alpha-galactosidase A activity, with a consequent glycosphingolipid accumulation. Biomarkers and imaging findings may be useful for diagnosis, identification of an organ involvement, therapy monitoring and prognosis. The aim of this article is to review the current available literature on biomarkers and imaging findings of AFD patients. An extensive bibliographic review from PubMed, Medline and Clinical Key databases was performed by a group of experts from nephrology, neurology, genetics, cardiology and internal medicine, aiming for consensus...
June 11, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931617/normobaric-hyperoxia-reduces-blood-occludin-fragments-in-rats-and-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke
#17
Shuhai Shi, Zhifeng Qi, Qingfeng Ma, Rong Pan, Graham S Timmins, Yongmei Zhao, Wenjuan Shi, Yunzhou Zhang, Xunming Ji, Ke Jian Liu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Damage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) increases the incidence of neurovascular complications, especially for cerebral hemorrhage after tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator) therapy. Currently, there is no effective method to evaluate the extent of BBB damage to guide tPA use. Herein, we investigated whether blood levels of tight junction proteins could serve as biomarker of BBB damages in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in both rats and patients. We examined whether this biomarker could reflect the extent of BBB permeability during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and the effects of normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) on BBB damage...
October 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924363/thrombospondin-1-gene-deficiency-worsens-the-neurological-outcomes-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#18
Chongjie Cheng, Zhanyang Yu, Song Zhao, Zhengbu Liao, Changhong Xing, Yinghua Jiang, Yong-Guang Yang, Michael J Whalen, Eng H Lo, Xiaochuan Sun, Xiaoying Wang
Background: Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is an extracellular matrix protein that plays multiple physiological and pathophysiological roles in the brain. Experimental reports suggest that TSP-1 may have an adverse role in neuronal function recovery under certain injury conditions. However, the roles of TSP-1 in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not been elucidated. In this study we for the first time investigated the roles of TSP-1 in a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of TBI in TSP-1 knockout (TSP-1 KO) and wild type (WT) mice...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901462/role-of-ghrelin-in-small-intestinal-motility-following-pediatric-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-mice
#19
Jieyu Zan, Lei Song, Jiejie Wang, Rong Zou, Fei Hong, Jinhua Zhao, Yijun Cheng, Ming Xu
Small intestinal motility (SIM) disorder is a common complication following pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), leading to a poor prognosis in patients. Previous studies have shown that ghrelin is involved in SIM in various diseases; however, the role of ghrelin in pediatric ICH‑induced SIM disorder remains to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the association between ghrelin and SIM post‑ICH, and to examine the effect of exogenous ghrelin administration on SIM in vivo...
November 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876179/the-inhibitory-effects-of-dracocephalum-moldavica-l-dml-on-rat-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#20
Jian-Xin Jia, Yu Zhang, Zhan-Li Wang, Xu-Sheng Yan, Min Jin, Dong-Sheng Huo, He Wang, Zhan-Jun Yang
Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is closely associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Dracocephalum moldavica L. (DML), a Chinese herbal medicine is known to exert protective effects on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in rats by inhibiting oxidation damage and inflammatory reactions. However, the effectiveness of DML in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (CIRI) as a protective substance and the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. The aim of this study was thus to examine the influence of DML on CIRI using a rat model induced by 2-h transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) produced by intraluminal suture blockade followed by 22 h reperfusion...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
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