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Biomarkers neurological damage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924363/thrombospondin-1-gene-deficiency-worsens-the-neurological-outcomes-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#1
Chongjie Cheng, Zhanyang Yu, Song Zhao, Zhengbu Liao, Changhong Xing, Yinghua Jiang, Yong-Guang Yang, Michael J Whalen, Eng H Lo, Xiaochuan Sun, Xiaoying Wang
Background: Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is an extracellular matrix protein that plays multiple physiological and pathophysiological roles in the brain. Experimental reports suggest that TSP-1 may have an adverse role in neuronal function recovery under certain injury conditions. However, the roles of TSP-1 in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not been elucidated. In this study we for the first time investigated the roles of TSP-1 in a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of TBI in TSP-1 knockout (TSP-1 KO) and wild type (WT) mice...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901462/role-of-ghrelin-in-small-intestinal-motility-following-pediatric-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-mice
#2
Jieyu Zan, Lei Song, Jiejie Wang, Rong Zou, Fei Hong, Jinhua Zhao, Yijun Cheng, Ming Xu
Small intestinal motility (SIM) disorder is a common complication following pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), leading to a poor prognosis in patients. Previous studies have shown that ghrelin is involved in SIM in various diseases; however, the role of ghrelin in pediatric ICH‑induced SIM disorder remains to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the association between ghrelin and SIM post‑ICH, and to examine the effect of exogenous ghrelin administration on SIM in vivo...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876179/the-inhibitory-effects-of-dracocephalum-moldavica-l-dml-on-rat-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#3
Jian-Xin Jia, Yu Zhang, Zhan-Li Wang, Xu-Sheng Yan, Min Jin, Dong-Sheng Huo, He Wang, Zhan-Jun Yang
Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is closely associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Dracocephalum moldavica L. (DML), a Chinese herbal medicine is known to exert protective effects on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in rats by inhibiting oxidation damage and inflammatory reactions. However, the effectiveness of DML in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (CIRI) as a protective substance and the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. The aim of this study was thus to examine the influence of DML on CIRI using a rat model induced by 2-h transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) produced by intraluminal suture blockade followed by 22 h reperfusion...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835663/choroid-plexitis-and-ependymitis-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-are-biomarkers-of-neuronal-damage-and-inflammation-in-hiv-negative-cryptococcal-meningoencephalitis
#4
Dima A Hammoud, Eman Mahdi, Anil A Panackal, Paul Wakim, Virginia Sheikh, Irini Sereti, Bibi Bielakova, John E Bennett, Peter R Williamson
CNS cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in both HIV positive (HIV+) and HIV negative (HIV-) subjects is associated with high morbidity and mortality despite optimal antifungal therapy. We thus conducted a detailed analysis of the MR imaging findings in 45 HIV- and 11 HIV+ patients to identify imaging findings associated with refractory disease. Ventricular abnormalities, namely ependymitis and choroid plexitis were seen in HIV- but not in HIV+ subjects. We then correlated the imaging findings in a subset of HIV- subjects (n = 17) to CSF levels of neurofilament light chain (NFL), reflective of axonal damage and sCD27, known to best predict the presence of intrathecal T-cell mediated inflammation...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816001/plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-tau-and-neurofilament-concentrations-in-rapidly-progressive-neurological-syndromes-a-neuropathology-based-cohort
#5
G G Kovacs, U Andreasson, V Liman, G Regelsberger, M I Lutz, K Danics, E Keller, H Zetterberg, K Blennow
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau and neurofilament light chain (NF-L) proteins have proved to be reliable biomarkers for neuronal damage; however, there is a strong need for blood-based tests. METHODS: The present study included 132 autopsy cases with rapidly progressive neurological syndromes, including Alzheimer disease (AD) (21), sporadic (65) and genetic (21) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), 25 cases with vascular, neoplastic and inflammatory alterations, and additionally 18 healthy control individuals...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797606/plasma-creatine-kinase-b-correlates-with-injury-severity-and-symptoms-in-professional-boxers
#6
Joseph Kilianski, Sophie Peeters, Jeff Debad, Joseph Mohmed, Steven E Wolf, Joseph P Minei, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Joshua W Gatson
INTRODUCTION: Each year in the United States, approximately 1.7 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Of these TBI events, about 75 percent are characterized as being mild brain injuries. Immediately following TBI, a secondary brain damage persists for hours, days, and even months. Previously, detection of neuronal and glial biomarkers have proven to be useful to predict neurological outcomes. Here, we hypothesized that creatine kinase, brain (CKBB) is a sensitive biomarker for acute secondary brain injury in professional boxers...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775014/brain-heart-interaction-cardiac-complications-after-stroke
#7
REVIEW
Zhili Chen, Poornima Venkat, Don Seyfried, Michael Chopp, Tao Yan, Jieli Chen
Neurocardiology is an emerging specialty that addresses the interaction between the brain and the heart, that is, the effects of cardiac injury on the brain and the effects of brain injury on the heart. This review article focuses on cardiac dysfunction in the setting of stroke such as ischemic stroke, brain hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The majority of post-stroke deaths are attributed to neurological damage, and cardiovascular complications are the second leading cause of post-stroke mortality...
August 4, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770113/potential-roles-of-exosomal-micrornas-as-diagnostic-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-application-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Jian-Jiao Chen, Bin Zhao, Jie Zhao, Shao Li
Exosomes are bilipid layer-enclosed vesicles derived from endosomes and are released from neural cells. They contain a diversity of proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs) that are delivered to neighboring cells and/or are transported to distant sites. miRNAs released from exosomes appear to be associated with multiple neurodegenerative conditions linking to Alzheimer's disease (AD) which is marked by hyperphosphorylated tau proteins and accumulation of Aβ plaques. Exciting findings reveal that miRNAs released from exosomes modulate the expression and function of amyloid precursor proteins (APP) and tau proteins...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770109/ocular-adverse-effects-of-intravitreal-bevacizumab-are-potentiated-by-intermittent-hypoxia-in-a-rat-model-of-oxygen-induced-retinopathy
#9
Jeffrey J Tan, Charles L Cai, Eric M Shrier, Lois McNally, Douglas R Lazzaro, Jacob V Aranda, Kay D Beharry
Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) use in preterm infants with retinopathy of prematurity is associated with severe neurological disabilities, suggesting vascular leakage. We examined the hypothesis that intermittent hypoxia (IH) potentiates intravitreal Avastin leakage. Neonatal rats at birth were exposed to IH from birth (P0)-P14. At P14, the time of eye opening in rats, a single dose of Avastin (0.125 mg) was injected intravitreally into the left eye. Animals were placed in room air (RA) until P23 or P45 for recovery (IHR)...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735650/prognostic-utility-of-neuroinjury-biomarkers-in-post-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-ohca-patient-management
#10
S S Gul, K W Huesgen, K K Wang, K Mark, J A Tyndall
Despite aggressive intervention, patients who survive an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) generally have very poor prognoses, with nationwide survival rates of approximately 10-20%. Approximately 90% of survivors will have moderate to severe neurological injury ranging from moderate cognitive impairment to brain death. Currently, few early prognostic indicators are considered reliable enough to support patients' families and clinicians' in their decisions regarding medical futility. Blood biomarkers of neurological injury after OHCA may be of prognostic value in these cases...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718500/neurofilament-light-as-an-immune-target-for-pathogenic-antibodies
#11
Fabiola Puentes, Baukje J van der Star, Stephanie D Boomkamp, Markus Kipp, Louis Boon, Isabel Bosca, Joel Raffel, Sharmilee Gnanapavan, Paul van der Valk, Jodie Stephenson, Susan C Barnett, David Baker, Sandra Amor
Antibodies to neuronal antigens are associated with many neurological diseases including paraneoplastic neurological disorders, epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. Immunization with neuronal antigens such as neurofilament light (NF-L), a neuronal intermediate filament in axons, has been shown to induce neurological disease and spasticity in mice. Also, although antibodies to NF-L are widely used as surrogate biomarkers of axonal injury in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis, it remains to be elucidated if antibodies to NF-L contribute to neurodegeneration and neurological disease...
July 17, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694468/interactome-and-reciprocal-activation-of-pathways-in-topical-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-the-recipient-cerebral-cortex-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Ping K Lam, Kevin K W Wang, Anthony W I Lo, Cindy S W Tong, Don W C Ching, Kenneth Wong, Zhihui Yang, Themis Kong, Kin K Y Lo, Richard K W Choy, Paul B S Lai, George K C Wong, Wai S Poon
In this study, GFP-MSCs were topically applied to the surface of cerebral cortex within 1 hour of experimental TBI. No treatment was given to the control group. Three days after topical application, the MSCs homed to the injured parenchyma and improved the neurological function. Topical MSCs triggered earlier astrocytosis and reactive microglia. TBI penumbra and hippocampus had higher cellular proliferation. Apoptosis was suppressed at hippocampus at 1 week and reduced neuronal damaged was found in the penumbral at day 14 apoptosis...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660360/neuro-and-nephrotoxicity-of-subchronic-cadmium-chloride-exposure-and-the-potential-chemoprotective-effects-of-selenium-nanoparticles
#13
Kadry M Sadek, Mohamed A Lebda, Tarek K Abouzed, Sherif M Nasr, Moustafa Shoukry
Cadmium (Cd) exposure leads to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are associated with Cd-induced neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) have high bioavailability and antioxidant activities so it attracted wide spread attention. The present study examined the possible ameliorative effect of Se-NPs with diameters of 3-5 nm and 10-20 nm against cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced neuro- and nephrotoxicity in rats. Rats were treated with Se-NPs (0 or 0.5 mg/kg BW, s.c...
June 28, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627962/plasma-neurofilament-light-chain-levels-in-patients-with-ms-switching-from-injectable-therapies-to-fingolimod
#14
Fredrik Piehl, Ingrid Kockum, Mohsen Khademi, Kaj Blennow, Jan Lycke, Henrik Zetterberg, Tomas Olsson
BACKGROUND: Neurofilament light chain (NFL) is a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) marker of neuroaxonal damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation of NFL in CSF and serum/plasma, and in plasma after switching from injectable MS therapies to fingolimod. METHODS: A first cohort consisted of MS patients ( n = 39) and neurological disease controls ( n = 27) where CSF and plasma/serum had been collected for diagnostic purposes...
June 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606659/m2-monocyte-microparticles-are-increased-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#15
Kyle B Walsh, Begoña Campos, Kimberly Hart, Charuhas Thakar, Opeolu Adeoye
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a severe neurologic condition with no proven treatment. Recent evidence suggests that monocytes, a heterogenous group of cells with M1 and M2 phenotypes, contribute to secondary damage following ICH. Microparticles are vesicles .1-1 µm in size that are released from cells. We hypothesized that M1 and M2 monocyte microparticles (mMP) would be differentially expressed in ICH cases and controls. METHODS: In a single-center, prospective, observational study, consecutive ICH cases were enrolled within 12 hours of symptom onset...
October 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598205/neurofilament-light-chain-protein-as-a-marker-of-neuronal-injury-review-of-its-use-in-hiv-1-infection-and-reference-values-for-hiv-negative-controls
#16
Aylin Yilmaz, Kaj Blennow, Lars Hagberg, Staffan Nilsson, Richard W Price, Judith Schouten, Serena Spudich, Jonathan Underwood, Henrik Zetterberg, Magnus Gisslén
Several CSF biomarkers of neuronal injury have been studied in people living with HIV. At this time, the most useful is the light subunit of the neurofilament protein (NFL). This major structural component of myelinated axons is essential to maintain axonal caliber and to facilitate effective nerve conduction. CSF concentrations of NFL provide a sensitive marker of CNS injury in a number of neurological diseases, including HIV-related neuronal injury. Areas Covered: In this review, the authors describe CSF NFL concentrations across the spectrum of HIV-infection, from its early acute phase to severe immunosuppression, with and without neurological conditions, and with and without antiretroviral treatment (n = 516)...
August 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597208/subject-specific-regional-measures-of-water-diffusion-are-associated-with-impairment-in-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Ann S Choe, Cristina L Sadowsky, Seth A Smith, Peter C M van Zijl, James J Pekar, Visar Belegu
PURPOSE: We aimed to identify non-invasive imaging parameters that can serve as biomarkers for the integrity of the spinal cord, which is paramount to neurological function. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices are sensitive to axonal and myelin damage, and have strong potential to serve as such biomarkers. However, averaging DTI indices over large regions of interest (ROIs), a common approach to analyzing the images of injured spinal cord, leads to loss of subject-specific information...
August 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585890/hypoxic-conditioning-and-the-central-nervous-system-a-new-therapeutic-opportunity-for-brain-and-spinal-cord-injuries
#18
REVIEW
S Baillieul, S Chacaroun, S Doutreleau, O Detante, J L Pépin, S Verges
Central nervous system diseases are among the most disabling in the world. Neuroprotection and brain recovery from either acute or chronic neurodegeneration still represent a challenge in neurology and neurorehabilitation as pharmacology treatments are often insufficiently effective. Conditioning the central nervous system has been proposed as a potential non-pharmacological neuro-therapeutic. Conditioning refers to a procedure by which a potentially deleterious stimulus is applied near to but below the threshold of damage to the organism to increase resistance to the same or even different noxious stimuli given above the threshold of damage...
June 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463430/development-of-a-systems-based-in-situ-multiplex-biomarker-screening-approach-for-the-assessment-of-immunopathology-and-neural-tissue-plasticity-in-male-rats-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Tanya Bogoslovsky, Joshua D Bernstock, Greg Bull, Shawn Gouty, Brian M Cox, John M Hallenbeck, Dragan Maric
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) pose a massive burden of disease and continue to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. A major obstacle in developing effective treatments is the lack of comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms that mediate tissue damage and recovery after TBI. As such, our work aims to highlight the development of a novel experimental platform capable of fully characterizing the underlying pathobiology that unfolds after TBI. This platform encompasses an empirically optimized multiplex immunohistochemistry staining and imaging system customized to screen for a myriad of biomarkers required to comprehensively evaluate the extent of neuroinflammation, neural tissue damage, and repair in response to TBI...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450902/role-of-neural-barriers-in-the-pathogenesis-and-outcome-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-meningitis
#20
Ofer Prager, Alon Friedman, Yaffa Mizrachi Nebenzahl
Bacterial meningitis is an inflammatory disease of the meninges of the central nervous system (CNS). Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae are the major bacterial pathogens causing meningitis with S. pneumoniae being responsible for two thirds of meningitis cases in the developed world. To reach the CNS following nasopharyngeal colonization and bacteraemia, the bacteria traverse from the circulation across the blood brain barrier (BBB) and choroid plexus...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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