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Biomarkers neurological damage

Stefano Magni, François Gagné, Chantale André, Camilla Della Torre, Joëlle Auclair, Houda Hanana, Camilla Carla Parenti, Francesco Bonasoro, Andrea Binelli
Microplastics (MPs), plastic debris smaller than 5mm, are widely found in both marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, few studies regarding their hazardous effects on inland water organisms, have been conducted. For this reason, the aim of our research was the evaluation of uptake and chronic toxicity of two mixtures (MIXs) of virgin polystyrene microbeads (PMs) of 10μm and 1μm in size (MIX 1, with 5×105 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 5×105 of 10μmsizePMs/L, and MIX 2 with 2×106 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 2×106 of 10μmsizePMs/L) on freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia) during 6 exposure days...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Walaa M El-Hady, Azza A A Galal
The neurological effects of manganese (Mn) exposure on adults consuming contaminated water remain unclear. Accordingly, the current experiment was planned to explore the neurotoxic consequences of subchronic Mn exposure via contaminated water and to examine whether ebselen (Ebs) improved these outcomes. Rats exposed to oral MnCl2 (50 mg/kg body weight) for 30 successive days exhibited reduced rearing and ambulation. Furthermore, Mn administration increased brain Mn concentrations and induced superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione depletion...
March 7, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Lisbeth Evered, Brendan Silbert, David A Scott, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow
Importance: Anesthesia and surgery are believed to act on the central nervous system by a fully reversible mechanism innocuous to nerve cells. Evidence that neurological sequelae may follow would challenge this belief and would thereby suggest a need to reassess theories of the mechanism of anesthetic action or the response of the central nervous system to surgery. Objective: To measure 2 biomarkers of neurological injury (neurofilament light and tau) in plasma in a series of timed collections before and after anesthesia and surgery...
February 19, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Z F Xu, J S Sun, X H Zhang, Y Y Feng, A Z Pan, M Y Gao, H Zhao
AIM: To evaluate microstructural visual pathway damage in patients with primary glaucoma (PG) by using 3 T diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was approved by the ethics committee, and all participants provided written informed consent. Ten patients with PG were examined. Twenty healthy individuals served as control subjects. DKI was performed with a GE Silent 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unit. Mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean kurtosis (MK) maps were automatically created...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Damiana Pieragostino, Ilaria Cicalini, Paola Lanuti, Eva Ercolino, Maria di Ioia, Mirco Zucchelli, Romina Zappacosta, Sebastiano Miscia, Marco Marchisio, Paolo Sacchetta, Marco Onofrj, Piero Del Boccio
Multiple Sclerosis (MuS) is a complex multifactorial neuropathology, resulting in heterogeneous clinical presentation. A very active MuS research field concerns the discovery of biomarkers helpful to make an early and definite diagnosis. The sphingomyelin pathway has emerged as a molecular mechanism involved in MuS, since high levels of ceramides in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were related to axonal damage and neuronal dysfunction. Ceramides are the hydrolysis products of sphingomyelins through a reaction catalyzed by a family of enzymes named sphingomyelinases, which were recently related to myelin repair in MuS...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jaime Ramos-Cejudo, Thomas Wisniewski, Charles Marmar, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Mony J de Leon, Silvia Fossati
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are devastating neurological disorders, whose complex relationship is not completely understood. Cerebrovascular pathology, a key element in both conditions, could represent a mechanistic link between Aβ/tau deposition after TBI and the development of post concussive syndrome, dementia and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). In addition to debilitating acute effects, TBI-induced neurovascular injuries accelerate amyloid β (Aβ) production and perivascular accumulation, arterial stiffness, tau hyperphosphorylation and tau/Aβ-induced blood brain barrier damage, giving rise to a deleterious feed-forward loop...
January 30, 2018: EBioMedicine
Mohamed Al-Khaled
The search for serum markers to detect acute and chronic cerebral damage has become of vital importance in the clinical diagnosis and the monitoring of neurological diseases. In the past few years many studies have found an elevated Neurofilmant Light Chain (sNfL) level in the cerebrospinal fluid among patients with chronic neurodegenerative diseases,[1-3] the concentration of the aforementioned marker in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid has been found to be associated with acute nerve damage, particularly in the central nervous system...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Kevin Lee, Sara Bohnert, Ying Wu, Cory Vair, John Mikler, G Campbell Teskey, Jeff F Dunn
Nerve agents (NAs) are potent organophosphorus (OP) compounds with applications in chemical warfare. OP compounds act by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Soman (O-pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is one of the most potent NAs. It is well known that small doses of NAs can be lethal, and that even non-lethal exposure leads to long-term mental debilitation/neurological damage. However, the neuropathology following exposure to sub-lethal nerve agents is not well understood. In this study we examined changes in tissue oxygenation (pO2) in the cortex and hippocampus after a sub-lethal dose of soman [80-90 μg/kg; subcutaneous]...
January 26, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Jian-Liang Li, Kai Li, Yuan Guo, Zheng Zhao, Li-Na Chen, Xiao-Hui Jiang, Yu-Jie Li, Ya Tu, Xiao-Jun Zheng
Cerebral malaria (CM), a severe neurological syndrome caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection, is a serious life-threatening disease with a high mortality. Survivors' persistent brain injury is manifested as long-term neurocognitive disorders. The main neuropathological feature of CM is the sequestration of parasited red blood cells (pRBCs) in cerebral microvessels. Other neuropathological features of CM include petechial hemorrhage in the brain parenchyma, annular hemorrhage, extensive brain endothelial cell activation, and focal endothelial cell injury and necrosis...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Daniela Rossi, Paolo Volanti, Liliana Brambilla, Tiziana Colletti, Rossella Spataro, Vincenzo La Bella
Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Neurofilament Light (NF-L) and phosphorylated Heavy (pNF-H) chain levels have been found in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), with studies reporting a correlation of both neurofilaments (NFs) with the disease progression. Here, we measured NF-L and pNF-H concentrations in the CSF of ALS patients from a single tertiary Center and investigated their relationship with disease-related variables. A total of 190 ALS patients (Bulbar, 29.9%; Spinal, 70.1%; M/F = 1.53) and 130 controls with mixed neurological diseases were recruited...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Leonardo Fonseca Rodrigues, Vivaldo Moura-Neto, Tania Cristina Leite de Sampaio E Spohr
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is considered an incurable condition, having a heterogenous recovery and uncertain prognosis. Therefore, a reliable prediction of the improvement in the acute phase could benefit patients. Physicians are unanimous in insisting that at the initial damage of the spinal cord (SC), the patient should be carefully evaluated in order to help selecting an appropriate neuroprotective treatment. However, currently, neurologic impairment after SCI is measured and classified by functional examination...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Heung Yong Jin, Tae Sun Park
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common chronic neurological complication of diabetes1 . Small and large peripheral nerve fibers may be involved in DPN. Large nerve fiber damage causes paresthesia, sensory loss, and muscle weakness and small nerve fiber damage is associated with pain, anesthesia, foot ulcer, and autonomic symptoms. However, the exact pathogenic mechanisms and diagnostic criteria for DPN are not firmly established currently. The present DPN prevention, diagnosis, and treatment strategies are incomplete and unsuccessful due to the various pathogenesis of systemic and cellular disturbance in glucose and lipid metabolism...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Heikki Kiiski, Jaakko Långsjö, Jyrki Tenhunen, Marika Ala-Peijari, Heini Huhtala, Mari Hämäläinen, Eeva Moilanen, Juha Öhman, Jukka Peltola
Objective: Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) experience high mortality and morbidity. Neuroinflammation causes brain damage expansion after aSAH. Due to the complexity of the inflammatory response multiple biomarkers are needed to evaluate its' progression. We studied inflammatory process after aSAH by measuring two inflammatory biomarkers, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) at simultaneous time-points after aSAH. Methods: In this prospective population-based study, IL-6 and HMGB1 were measured in aSAH patients (n = 47) for up to five days...
March 2017: ENeurologicalSci
Cinzia Signorini, Claudio De Felice, Thierry Durand, Jean-Marie Galano, Camille Oger, Silvia Leoncini, Lucia Ciccoli, Marisa Carone, Monica Ulivelli, Caterina Manna, Alessio Cortelazzo, Jetty Chung-Yung Lee, Joussef Hayek
F4-neuroprostanes (F4-NeuroPs) are non-enzymatic oxidized products derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and are suggested to be oxidative damage biomarkers of neurological diseases. However, 128 isomers can be formed from DHA oxidation and among them, 4(RS)-4-F4t-NeuroP (4-F4t-NeuroP) and 10(RS)-10-F4t-NeuroP (10-F4t-NeuroP) are the most studied. Here, we report the identification and the clinical relevance of 4-F4t-NeuroP and 10-F4t-NeuroP in plasma of four different neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), autism spectrum disorders, (ASD) Rett syndrome (RTT), and Down syndrome (DS)...
December 9, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Giulia A M Dolci, Sarah Damanti, Valeria Scortichini, Alessandro Galli, Paolo D Rossi, Carlo Abbate, Beatrice Arosio, Daniela Mari, Andrea Arighi, Giorgio G Fumagalli, Elio Scarpini, Silvia Inglese, Maura Marcucci
Background: The role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, and neuroimaging in the diagnostic process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not clear, in particular in the older patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical diagnosis of AD with CSF biomarkers and with cerebrovascular damage at neuroimaging in a cohort of geriatric patients. Methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records of ≥65-year-old patients with cognitive impairment referred to an Italian geriatric outpatient clinic, for whom the CSF concentration of amyloid-β (Aβ), total Tau (Tau), and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) was available...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
Teresa García-Berrocoso, Víctor Llombart, Laura Colàs-Campàs, Alexandre Hainard, Virginie Licker, Anna Penalba, Laura Ramiro, Alba Simats, Alejandro Bustamante, Elena Martínez-Saez, Francesc Canals, Jean-Charles Sanchez, Joan Montaner
Cerebral ischemia entails rapid tissue damage in the affected brain area causing devastating neurological dysfunction. How each component of the neurovascular unit contributes or responds to the ischemic insult in the context of the human brain has not been solved yet. Thus, the analysis of the proteome is a straightforward approach to unraveling these cell proteotypes.In this study, post-mortem brain slices from ischemic stroke patients were obtained corresponding to infarcted (IC) and contralateral (CL) areas...
November 13, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
John K Yue, Ethan A Winkler, Jonathan W Rick, Hansen Deng, Carlene P Partow, Pavan S Upadhyayula, Harjus S Birk, Andrew K Chan, Sanjay S Dhall
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) often occurs in patients with concurrent traumatic injuries in other body systems. These patients with polytrauma pose unique challenges to clinicians. The current review evaluates existing guidelines and updates the evidence for prehospital transport, immobilization, initial resuscitation, critical care, hemodynamic stability, diagnostic imaging, surgical techniques, and timing appropriate for the patient with SCI who has multisystem trauma. Initial management should be systematic, with focus on spinal immobilization, timely transport, and optimizing perfusion to the spinal cord...
November 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
Nadia Rachdaoui, Ling Li, Belinda Willard, Takhar Kasumov, Stephen Previs, Dipak Sarkar
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant public health problem and can result in a continuum of adverse outcomes to the fetus known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Subjects with FASD show significant neurological deficits, ranging from microencephaly, neurobehavioral, and mental health problems to poor social adjustment and stress tolerance. Neurons are particularly sensitive to alcohol exposure. The neurotoxic action of alcohol, i.e., through ROS production, induces DNA damage and neuronal cell death by apoptosis...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
Mohamed Bahie Abou-Donia, Allan Lieberman, Luke Curtis
A number of studies have linked exposures to industrial and household chemicals and biological toxins to increased risk of autoimmunity in general and elevated levels of autoantibodies to neural antigens specifically. Elevated neural autoantibodies are biomarkers for many diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. Our study reports levels of six types of neural autoantibodies in a group of 24 toxicant-exposed patients. The patients were exposed to a variety of toxicants including contaminated drinking water (four patients), building water/mold damage (eight patients), pesticides (four patients), and other assorted toxic chemicals (eight patients)...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Turker Dalkilic, Nader Fallah, Vanessa K Noonan, Sanam Salimi Elizei, Kevin Dong, Lise M Belanger, Leanna Ritchie, Angela Tsang, Etienne Bourassa-Moreau, Manraj K S Heran, Scott J Paquette, Tamir Ailon, Nicolas Dea, John Street, Charles G Fisher, Marcel F Dvorak, Brian K Kwon
Biomarkers of acute human spinal cord injury (SCI) could provide a more objective measure of spinal cord damage and a better predictor of neurologic outcome than the current functional neurologic assessments. There has been growing interest in establishing neurochemical biomarkers using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and also imaging biomarkers using measurable features on MRI. In this study, we took the opportunity to compare CSF biomarkers and MRI biomarkers in a cohort of acute cervical SCI patients who had undergone both CSF sampling and pre-operative MRI scanning...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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