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Biomarkers neurological damage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735650/prognostic-utility-of-neuroinjury-biomarkers-in-post-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-ohca-patient-management
#1
S S Gul, K W Huesgen, K K Wang, K Mark, J A Tyndall
Despite aggressive intervention, patients who survive an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) generally have very poor prognoses, with nationwide survival rates of approximately 10-20%. Approximately 90% of survivors will have moderate to severe neurological injury ranging from moderate cognitive impairment to brain death. Currently, few early prognostic indicators are considered reliable enough to support patients' families and clinicians' in their decisions regarding medical futility. Blood biomarkers of neurological injury after OHCA may be of prognostic value in these cases...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718500/neurofilament-light-as-an-immune-target-for-pathogenic-antibodies
#2
Fabiola Puentes, Baukje J van der Star, Stephanie D Boomkamp, Markus Kipp, Louis Boon, Isabel Bosca, Joel Raffel, Sharmilee Gnanapavan, Paul van der Valk, Jodie Stephenson, Susan C Barnett, David Baker, Sandra Amor
Antibodies to neuronal antigens are associated with many neurological diseases including paraneoplastic neurological disorders, epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. Immunisation with neuronal antigens such as neurofilament light NF-L, a neuronal intermediate filament in axons, has been shown to induce neurological disease and spasticity in mice. Also, while antibodies to NF-L are widely used as surrogate biomarkers of axonal injury in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis, it remains to be elucidated if antibodies to NF-L contribute to neurodegeneration and neurological disease...
July 17, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694468/interactome-and-reciprocal-activation-of-pathways-in-topical-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-the-recipient-cerebral-cortex-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Ping K Lam, Kevin K W Wang, Anthony W I Lo, Cindy S W Tong, Don W C Ching, Kenneth Wong, Zhihui Yang, Themis Kong, Kin K Y Lo, Richard K W Choy, Paul B S Lai, George K C Wong, Wai S Poon
In this study, GFP-MSCs were topically applied to the surface of cerebral cortex within 1 hour of experimental TBI. No treatment was given to the control group. Three days after topical application, the MSCs homed to the injured parenchyma and improved the neurological function. Topical MSCs triggered earlier astrocytosis and reactive microglia. TBI penumbra and hippocampus had higher cellular proliferation. Apoptosis was suppressed at hippocampus at 1 week and reduced neuronal damaged was found in the penumbral at day 14 apoptosis...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660360/neuro-and-nephrotoxicity-of-subchronic-cadmium-chloride-exposure-and-the-potential-chemoprotective-effects-of-selenium-nanoparticles
#4
Kadry M Sadek, Mohamed A Lebda, Tarek K Abouzed, Sherif M Nasr, Moustafa Shoukry
Cadmium (Cd) exposure leads to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are associated with Cd-induced neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) have high bioavailability and antioxidant activities so it attracted wide spread attention. The present study examined the possible ameliorative effect of Se-NPs with diameters of 3-5 nm and 10-20 nm against cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced neuro- and nephrotoxicity in rats. Rats were treated with Se-NPs (0 or 0.5 mg/kg BW, s.c...
June 28, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627962/plasma-neurofilament-light-chain-levels-in-patients-with-ms-switching-from-injectable-therapies-to-fingolimod
#5
Fredrik Piehl, Ingrid Kockum, Mohsen Khademi, Kaj Blennow, Jan Lycke, Henrik Zetterberg, Tomas Olsson
BACKGROUND: Neurofilament light chain (NFL) is a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) marker of neuroaxonal damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation of NFL in CSF and serum/plasma, and in plasma after switching from injectable MS therapies to fingolimod. METHODS: A first cohort consisted of MS patients ( n = 39) and neurological disease controls ( n = 27) where CSF and plasma/serum had been collected for diagnostic purposes...
June 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606659/m2-monocyte-microparticles-are-increased-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#6
Kyle B Walsh, Begoña Campos, Kimberly Hart, Charuhas Thakar, Opeolu Adeoye
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a severe neurologic condition with no proven treatment. Recent evidence suggests that monocytes, a heterogenous group of cells with M1 and M2 phenotypes, contribute to secondary damage following ICH. Microparticles are vesicles .1-1 µm in size that are released from cells. We hypothesized that M1 and M2 monocyte microparticles (mMP) would be differentially expressed in ICH cases and controls. METHODS: In a single-center, prospective, observational study, consecutive ICH cases were enrolled within 12 hours of symptom onset...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598205/neurofilament-light-chain-protein-as-a-marker-of-neuronal-injury-review-of-its-use-in-hiv-1-infection-and-reference-values-for-hiv-negative-controls
#7
Aylin Yilmaz, Kaj Blennow, Lars Hagberg, Staffan Nilsson, Richard W Price, Judith Schouten, Serena Spudich, Jonathan Underwood, Henrik Zetterberg, Magnus Gisslén
Several CSF biomarkers of neuronal injury have been studied in people living with HIV. At this time, the most useful is the light subunit of the neurofilament protein (NFL). This major structural component of myelinated axons is essential to maintain axonal caliber and to facilitate effective nerve conduction. CSF concentrations of NFL provide a sensitive marker of CNS injury in a number of neurological diseases, including HIV-related neuronal injury. Areas Covered: In this review, the authors describe CSF NFL concentrations across the spectrum of HIV-infection, from its early acute phase to severe immunosuppression, with and without neurological conditions, and with and without antiretroviral treatment (n = 516)...
August 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597208/subject-specific-regional-measures-of-water-diffusion-are-associated-with-impairment-in-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Ann S Choe, Cristina L Sadowsky, Seth A Smith, Peter C M van Zijl, James J Pekar, Visar Belegu
PURPOSE: We aimed to identify non-invasive imaging parameters that can serve as biomarkers for the integrity of the spinal cord, which is paramount to neurological function. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices are sensitive to axonal and myelin damage, and have strong potential to serve as such biomarkers. However, averaging DTI indices over large regions of interest (ROIs), a common approach to analyzing the images of injured spinal cord, leads to loss of subject-specific information...
June 8, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585890/hypoxic-conditioning-and-the-central-nervous-system-a-new-therapeutic-opportunity-for-brain-and-spinal-cord-injuries
#9
REVIEW
S Baillieul, S Chacaroun, S Doutreleau, O Detante, J L Pépin, S Verges
Central nervous system diseases are among the most disabling in the world. Neuroprotection and brain recovery from either acute or chronic neurodegeneration still represent a challenge in neurology and neurorehabilitation as pharmacology treatments are often insufficiently effective. Conditioning the central nervous system has been proposed as a potential non-pharmacological neuro-therapeutic. Conditioning refers to a procedure by which a potentially deleterious stimulus is applied near to but below the threshold of damage to the organism to increase resistance to the same or even different noxious stimuli given above the threshold of damage...
June 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463430/development-of-a-systems-based-in-situ-multiplex-biomarker-screening-approach-for-the-assessment-of-immunopathology-and-neural-tissue-plasticity-in-male-rats-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Tanya Bogoslovsky, Joshua D Bernstock, Greg Bull, Shawn Gouty, Brian M Cox, John M Hallenbeck, Dragan Maric
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) pose a massive burden of disease and continue to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. A major obstacle in developing effective treatments is the lack of comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms that mediate tissue damage and recovery after TBI. As such, our work aims to highlight the development of a novel experimental platform capable of fully characterizing the underlying pathobiology that unfolds after TBI. This platform encompasses an empirically optimized multiplex immunohistochemistry staining and imaging system customized to screen for a myriad of biomarkers required to comprehensively evaluate the extent of neuroinflammation, neural tissue damage, and repair in response to TBI...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450902/role-of-neural-barriers-in-the-pathogenesis-and-outcome-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-meningitis
#11
Ofer Prager, Alon Friedman, Yaffa Mizrachi Nebenzahl
Bacterial meningitis is an inflammatory disease of the meninges of the central nervous system (CNS). Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae are the major bacterial pathogens causing meningitis with S. pneumoniae being responsible for two thirds of meningitis cases in the developed world. To reach the CNS following nasopharyngeal colonization and bacteraemia, the bacteria traverse from the circulation across the blood brain barrier (BBB) and choroid plexus...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409389/curcumin-protects-dopaminergic-neurons-against-inflammation-mediated-damage-and-improves-motor-dysfunction-induced-by-single-intranigral-lipopolysaccharide-injection
#12
Neha Sharma, Sheetal Sharma, Bimla Nehru
Various studies have indicated a lower incidence and prevalence of neurological conditions in people consuming curcumin. The ability of curcumin to target multiple cascades, simultaneously, could be held responsible for its neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed to investigate the potential of curcumin in minimizing microglia-mediated damage in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced model of PD. Altered microglial functions and increased inflammatory profile of the CNS have severe behavioral consequences...
June 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394234/s100%C3%AE-is-associated-with-cognitive-impairment-in-childhood-onset-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients
#13
A T Lapa, M Postal, N A Sinicato, B S Bellini, P T Fernandes, R Marini, S Appenzeller
Objective To investigate serologic S100β protein levels in childhood-onset SLE patients (cSLE) and to elucidate their association with disease activity and neuropsychiatric (NP) manifestations. Methods We included 71 cSLE patients (67 females; median age 18 years; range 9-37 and 53 (47 females; median age of 20 years; range 6-29) age and sex matched healthy controls. Neurological manifestations were analysed according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. Cognitive evaluation was performed in all participants using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), according to age, and validated in Portuguese...
April 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393423/are-midsagittal-tissue-bridges-predictive-of-outcome-after-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Eveline Huber, Patrice Lachappelle, Reto Sutter, Armin Curt, Patrick Freund
T2 -weighted scans provided data on the extent and dynamics of neuronal tissue damage and midsagittal tissue bridges at the epicenter of traumatic cervical spinal cord lesions in 24 subacute tetraplegic patients. At 1 month postinjury, smaller lesion area and midsagittal tissue bridges identified those patients with lower extremity evoked potentials and better clinical recovery. Wider midsagittal tissue bridges and smaller lesions at 1 month post-injury were associated with neurological and functional recovery at 1-year follow-up...
May 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392472/nf-l-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-serum-is-a-biomarker-of-neuronal-damage-in-an-inducible-mouse-model-of-neurodegeneration
#15
Anthony Brureau, Véronique Blanchard-Bregeon, Catherine Pech, Stéphanie Hamon, Pascal Chaillou, Jean-Claude Guillemot, Pascal Barneoud, Philippe Bertrand, Laurent Pradier, Thomas Rooney, Nathalie Schussler
Accumulation of neurofilaments (NFs), the major constituents of the neuronal cytoskeleton, is a distinctive feature of neurological diseases and several studies have shown that soluble NFs can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Here we have used an inducible transgenic mouse model of neurodegeneration, CamKII-TetOp25 mice, to evaluate whether NF-L levels in CSF or blood can be used as a biochemical biomarker of neurodegeneration...
April 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392117/biomarkers-of-functional-outcome-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage-interplay-between-clinical-metrics-cd163-and-ferritin
#16
Andrew L A Garton, Vivek P Gupta, Brandon R Christophe, E Sander Connolly
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with neurological decline and poor prognosis. Although many etiologic models have been explored, secondary damage caused by continued inflammation and iron exposure from red blood cell lysis may explain poor outcomes at distant follow-up. Examining serum samples of patients with ICH for biomarkers of iron physiology may yield relationships between iron exposure and functional outcomes. METHODS: The following study retrospectively evaluated 41 patient serum samples obtained 1 day and 7 days post-ictus for CD163, ferritin, and hepcidin concentrations...
August 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386837/effect-of-delayed-onset-prostacyclin-on-markers-of-endothelial-function-and-damage-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#17
Mikkel Gybel-Brask, Rune Rasmussen, Jakob Stensballe, Pär I Johansson, Sisse R Ostrowski
BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a neurological emergency. Delayed ischemic neurological deficit is one of the main causes of poor outcome after SAH and is probably caused, at least in part, by cerebral vasospasm. The pathophysiology of this is multifaceted, but endothelial damage and activation as well as glycocalyx damage have been implicated. Prostacyclin has been shown to protect damaged and activated endothelium and to facilitate glycocalyx repair. We investigated biomarkers of endothelial activation and damage in patients with SAH randomized to 5 days prostacyclin infusion or placebo...
June 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385184/cerebrospinal-fluid-markers-of-neuronal-and-glial-cell-damage-in-patients-with-autoimmune-neurologic-syndromes-with-and-without-underlying-malignancies
#18
Radu Constantinescu, David Krýsl, Kerstin Andrén, Fredrik Asztély, Filip Bergquist, Henrik Zetterberg, Ulf Andreasson, Markus Axelsson, Elinor Ben Menachem, Daniel Jons, Ubah Mahamud, Clas Malmeström, Lars Rosengren, Kaj Blennow
Autoimmune neurologic syndromes can be paraneoplastic (associated with malignancies and/or onconeural antibodies), or non-paraneoplastic. Their clinical presentation is often similar. As prognosis is related to malignancy treatment, better biomarkers are needed to identify patients with malignancy. We investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of neuronal (neurofilament light chain, NFL and total tau protein, T-tau) and glial (glial fibrillary acidic protein) damage. CSF-NFL and T-tau were increased in both paraneoplastic and non-paraneoplastic autoimmune syndromes...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385127/retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-and-neuropsychiatric-manifestations-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#19
S Shulman, R Shorer, J Wollman, G Dotan, D Paran
Background Cognitive impairment is frequent in systemic lupus erythematosus. Atrophy of the corpus callosum and hippocampus have been reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, and diffusion tensor imaging studies have shown impaired white matter integrity, suggesting that white matter damage in systemic lupus erythematosus may underlie the cognitive impairment as well as other neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, as assessed by optical coherence tomography, has been suggested as a biomarker for white matter damage in neurologic disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268486/identifying-stereotypic-evolving-micro-scale-seizures-sems-in-the-hypoxic-ischemic-eeg-of-the-pre-term-fetal-sheep-with-a-wavelet-type-ii-fuzzy-classifier
#20
Hamid Abbasi, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn, Charles P Unsworth
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) around the time of birth due to lack of oxygen can lead to debilitating neurological conditions such as epilepsy and cerebral palsy. Experimental data have shown that brain injury evolves over time, but during the first 6-8 hours after HIE the brain has recovered oxidative metabolism in a latent phase, and brain injury is reversible. Treatments such as therapeutic cerebral hypothermia (brain cooling) are effective when started during the latent phase, and continued for several days...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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