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Transcranial random noise stimulation

Wing Ting To, Jan Ost, John Hart, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste
Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of a corresponding external sound source. Research has suggested that functional abnormalities in tinnitus patients involve auditory as well as non-auditory brain areas. Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) to the auditory cortex, has demonstrated modulation of brain activity to transiently suppress tinnitus symptoms...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Jana Wörsching, Frank Padberg, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Ulrike Kumpf, Beatrice Kirsch, Daniel Keeser
Transcranial current stimulation approaches include neurophysiologically distinct non-invasive brain stimulation techniques widely applied in basic, translational and clinical research: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation (otDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS). Prefrontal tDCS seems to be an especially promising tool for clinical practice. In order to effectively modulate relevant neural circuits, systematic research on prefrontal tDCS is needed that uses neuroimaging and neurophysiology measures to specifically target and adjust this method to physiological requirements...
October 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Rebecca Camilleri, Andrea Pavan, Gianluca Campana
It has recently been demonstrated how perceptual learning, that is an improvement in a sensory/perceptual task upon practice, can be boosted by concurrent high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS). It has also been shown that perceptual learning can generalize and produce an improvement of visual functions in participants with mild refractive defects. By using three different groups of participants (single-blind study), we tested the efficacy of a short training (8 sessions) using a single Gabor contrast-detection task with concurrent hf-tRNS in comparison with the same training with sham stimulation or hf-tRNS with no concurrent training, in improving visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) of individuals with uncorrected mild myopia...
August 2016: Neuropsychologia
Joni Holmes, Elizabeth M Byrne, Susan E Gathercole, Michael P Ewbank
Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a noninvasive brain stimulation technique, enhances the generalization and sustainability of gains following mathematical training. Here it is combined for the first time with working memory training in a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Adults completed 10 sessions of Cogmed Working Memory Training with either active tRNS or sham stimulation applied bilaterally to dorsolateral pFC. Training was associated with gains on both the training tasks and on untrained tests of working memory that shared overlapping processes with the training tasks, but not with improvements on working memory tasks with distinct processing demands or tests of other cognitive abilities (e...
October 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Andrea Antal, Christoph S Herrmann
Background. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a relatively recent method suited to noninvasively modulate brain oscillations. Technically the method is similar but not identical to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). While decades of research in animals and humans has revealed the main physiological mechanisms of tDCS, less is known about the physiological mechanisms of tACS. Method. Here, we review recent interdisciplinary research that has furthered our understanding of how tACS affects brain oscillations and by what means transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) that is a special form of tACS can modulate cortical functions...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Achille Pasqualotto
Although arithmetic skills are crucial cognitive abilities, numeric competence impairments affect a significant portion of the young population. These problems produce a high socio-economic cost by negatively affecting scholastic and work performance. The parietal cortex is the brain area that is classically associated with numeric processing, but it is still debated whether other cortical areas are involved, and only a few studies tried to directly assess the causal link between brain and this cognitive function by using transcranial random noise stimulation, tRNS...
September 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Onno van der Groen, Nicole Wenderoth
UNLABELLED: Random noise enhances the detectability of weak signals in nonlinear systems, a phenomenon known as stochastic resonance (SR). Though counterintuitive at first, SR has been demonstrated in a variety of naturally occurring processes, including human perception, where it has been shown that adding noise directly to weak visual, tactile, or auditory stimuli enhances detection performance. These results indicate that random noise can push subthreshold receptor potentials across the transfer threshold, causing action potentials in an otherwise silent afference...
May 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Kirstin-Friederike Heise, Nick Kortzorg, Guilherme Bicalho Saturnino, Hakuei Fujiyama, Koen Cuypers, Axel Thielscher, Stephan P Swinnen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a modified electrode montage with respect to its effect on tACS-dependent modulation of corticospinal excitability and discomfort caused by neurosensory side effects accompanying stimulation. METHODS: In a double-blind cross-over design, the classical electrode montage for primary motor cortex (M1) stimulation (two patch electrodes over M1 and contralateral supraorbital area) was compared with an M1 centre-ring montage. Corticospinal excitability was evaluated before, during, immediately after and 15 minutes after tACS (10 min...
September 2016: Brain Stimulation
D Hämmerer, J Bonaiuto, M Klein-Flügge, M Bikson, S Bestmann
During value-based decision making, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is thought to support choices by tracking the expected gain from different outcomes via a competition-based process. Using a computational neurostimulation approach we asked how perturbing this region might alter this competition and resulting value decisions. We simulated a perturbation of neural dynamics in a biophysically informed model of decision-making through in silico depolarization at the level of neuronal ensembles. Simulated depolarization increased baseline firing rates of pyramidal neurons, which altered their susceptibility to background noise, and thereby increased choice stochasticity...
2016: Scientific Reports
Martijn G van Koningsbruggen, Stefania C Ficarella, Lorella Battelli, Clayton Hickey
Reward feedback following visual search causes the visual characteristics of targets to become salient and attention-drawing, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this value-driven capture effect. Here, we use transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) to demonstrate that such reward potentiation involves induced plasticity in visual cortex. Human participants completed a feature-search reward-learning task involving the selection of a red or green colored target presented among distractors of various color...
September 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Valérie Dormal, Amir-Homayoun Javadi, Mauro Pesenti, Vincent Walsh, Marinella Cappelletti
Numerosity and duration are thought to share common magnitude-based mechanisms in brain regions including the right parietal and frontal cortices like the supplementary motor area, SMA. Numerosity and duration are, however, also different in several intrinsic features. For instance, in a quantification context, numerosity is known for being more automatically accessed than temporal events, and durations are by definition sequential whereas numerosity can be both sequential and simultaneous. Moreover, numerosity and duration processing diverge in terms of their neuronal correlates...
May 2016: Neuropsychologia
Tuukka Kotilainen, Soili M Lehto
Methods of brain stimulation based on a weak electric current are non-invasive neuromodulation techniques. They include transcranial direct current, alternating current and random noise stimulation. These methods modify the membrane potential of neurons without triggering the action potential, and have been successfully utilized to influence cognition and regulation of emotions in healthy experimental subjects. In clinical studies, indications of the efficacy of these techniques have been obtained in the treatment of depression, schizophrenia, memory disorders and pain as well as in stroke rehabilitation...
2016: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
Kai Heimrath, Marina Fiene, Katharina S Rufener, Tino Zaehle
Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has become a valuable research tool for the investigation of neurophysiological processes underlying human action and cognition. In recent years, striking evidence for the neuromodulatory effects of transcranial direct current stimulation, transcranial alternating current stimulation, and transcranial random noise stimulation has emerged. While the wealth of knowledge has been gained about tES in the motor domain and, to a lesser extent, about its ability to modulate human cognition, surprisingly little is known about its impact on perceptual processing, particularly in the auditory domain...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Amar Sarkar, Roi Cohen Kadosh
The effects of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) have been documented for a variety of mental functions, including numerical cognition. This article first reviews 2 prominent forms of tES, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS). This is followed by an assessment of the applications of this technology in the enhancement of aspects of numerical cognition, including numerosity, magnitude representation, and more complex arithmetic operations. The review concludes with discussions of directions for future research...
March 2016: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
Ulrich Palm, Moussa A Chalah, Frank Padberg, Tarik Al-Ani, Mohamed Abdellaoui, Marc Sorel, Dalia Dimitri, Alain Créange, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Samar S Ayache
PURPOSE: Pain and cognitive impairment are frequent symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Neglecting experimental pain and paying attention to demanding tasks is reported to decrease the pain intensity. Little is known about the interaction between chronic neuropathic pain and attention disorders in MS. Recently, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was used to modulate various cognitive and motor symptoms in MS. We aimed to study the effects of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a form of transcranial electric stimulation, over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on attention and neuropathic pain in MS patients...
2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Marco Curado, Brita Fritsch, Janine Reis
Non-invasive electrical brain stimulation (NEBS) is used to modulate brain function and behavior, both for research and clinical purposes. In particular, NEBS can be applied transcranially either as direct current stimulation (tDCS) or alternating current stimulation (tACS). These stimulation types exert time-, dose- and in the case of tDCS polarity-specific effects on motor function and skill learning in healthy subjects. Lately, tDCS has been used to augment the therapy of motor disabilities in patients with stroke or movement disorders...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
E Santarnecchi, T Muller, S Rossi, A Sarkar, N R Polizzotto, A Rossi, R Cohen Kadosh
Emerging evidence suggests that transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is an effective, frequency-specific modulator of endogenous brain oscillations, with the potential to alter cognitive performance. Here, we show that reduction in response latencies to solve complex logic problem indexing fluid intelligence is obtained through 40 Hz-tACS (gamma band) applied to the prefrontal cortex. This improvement in human performance depends on individual ability, with slower performers at baseline receiving greater benefits...
February 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Heidi M Schambra, R Todd Ogden, Isis E Martínez-Hernández, Xuejing Lin, Y Brenda Chang, Asif Rahman, Dylan J Edwards, John W Krakauer
The reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures in healthy older adults and stroke patients has been insufficiently characterized. We determined whether common TMS measures could reliably evaluate change in individuals and in groups using the smallest detectable change (SDC), or could tell subjects apart using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We used a single-rater test-retest design in older healthy, subacute stroke, and chronic stroke subjects. At twice daily sessions on two consecutive days, we recorded resting motor threshold, test stimulus intensity, recruitment curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition, and facilitation, and long-interval intracortical inhibition...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Sarah Tyler, Federica Contò, Lorella Battelli
INTRODUCTION: Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) is a noninvasive neurostimulation technique in which random current levels applied to scalp electrodes elicit temporary changes in cortical excitability (Terney et al., 2008). This experiment explores modulatory effects of high-frequency tRNS on neural plasticity during a temporal perceptual learning task. We measured sensitivity to onset asynchronies (SOAs) during a temporal order judgment task as a function of both practice and active stimulation...
2015: Journal of Vision
Florian Herpich, Michael Melnick, Krystel Huxlin, Duje Tadin, Sara Agosta, Lorella Battelli
Recent psychophysical studies have demonstrated that visuo-perceptual functions can improve over multiple training sessions, both in healthy adults (Sagi, 2011) and in hemianopic stroke patients (Das et al., 2014). To date, rehabilitative therapies for hemianopic patients have shown significant improvements only after many weeks of daily training. Recent studies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have shown enhancement of visual performance in normal subjects. Notably, when current is applied in a random noise mode (tRNS), effects are seen earlier and are longer lasting...
2015: Journal of Vision
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