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Transcranial random noise stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142279/modifying-response-times-in-the-simon-task-with-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation
#1
James Robert McIntosh, Carsten Mehring
Perceptual decisions pervade our every-day lives, and can align or conflict with inbuilt biases. We investigated these conflicting biases by applying transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) while subjects took part in a visual Simon task - a paradigm where irrelevant spatial cues influence the response times of subjects to relevant colour cues. We found that tRNS reduces the response time of subjects independent of the congruence between spatial and colour cues, but dependent on the baseline response time, both between subjects and across conditions within subjects...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079475/high-definition-transcranial-pink-noise-stimulation-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-on-food-craving-an-explorative-study
#2
Sook Ling Leong, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste, Wayne Sutherland, Samantha Ross, Patrick Manning
Dysfunctional neural activity in the cortical reward system network has been implicated in food addiction. This is the first study exploring the potential therapeutic effects of high definition transcranial pink noise stimulation (HD-tPNS) targeted at the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on craving and brain activity in women with obesity who showed features of food addiction (Yale Food Addiction Scale score of ≥3). Sixteen eligible females participated in a randomized, double-blind, parallel group study. Participants received six 20-minute sessions of either 1 mA (n = 8) or sham (n = 8) stimulation with HD-tPNS over two weeks...
January 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061290/beyond-time-and-space-the-effect-of-a-lateralized-sustained-attention-task-and-brain-stimulation-on-spatial-and-selective-attention
#3
Nir Shalev, Linde De Wandel, Paul Dockree, Nele Demeyere, Magdalena Chechlacz
The Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) provides a mathematical formalisation of the "biased competition" account of visual attention. Applying this model to individual performance in a free recall task allows the estimation of 5 independent attentional parameters: visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity, speed of information processing, perceptual threshold of visual detection; attentional weights representing spatial distribution of attention (spatial bias), and the top-down selectivity index. While the TVA focuses on selection in space, complementary accounts of attention describe how attention is maintained over time, and how temporal processes interact with selection...
October 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921774/modulating-vicarious-tactile-perception-with-transcranial-electrical-current-stimulation
#4
Natalie C Bowling, Michael J Banissy
Our capacity to share the experiences of others is a critical part of social behaviour. One process thought to be important for this is vicarious perception. Passively viewing touch activates some of the same network of brain regions as the direct experience of touch. This vicarious experience is usually implicit, but for some people, viewing touch evokes conscious tactile sensations (mirror-touch synaesthesia). Recent work has attempted to induce conscious vicarious touch in those that do not normally experience these sensations, using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)...
October 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914605/a-causal-role-for-right-frontopolar-cortex-in-directed-but-not-random-exploration
#5
Wojciech K Zajkowski, Malgorzata Kossut, Robert C Wilson
The explore-exploit dilemma occurs anytime we must choose between exploring unknown options for information and exploiting known resources for reward. Previous work suggests that people use two different strategies to solve the explore-exploit dilemma: directed exploration, driven by information seeking, and random exploration, driven by decision noise. Here, we show that these two strategies rely on different neural systems. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation to inhibit the right frontopolar cortex, we were able to selectively inhibit directed exploration while leaving random exploration intact...
September 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912671/brownian-optogenetic-noise-photostimulation-on-the-brain-amplifies-somatosensory-evoked-field-potentials
#6
Nayeli Huidobro, Abraham Mendez-Fernandez, Ignacio Mendez-Balbuena, Ranier Gutierrez, Rumyana Kristeva, Elias Manjarrez
Stochastic resonance (SR) is an inherent and counter-intuitive mechanism of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) facilitation in biological systems associated with the application of an intermediate level of noise. As a first step to investigate in detail this phenomenon in the somatosensory system, here we examined whether the direct application of noisy light on pyramidal neurons from the mouse-barrel cortex expressing a light-gated channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) can produce facilitation in somatosensory evoked field potentials...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900180/emotion-perception-improvement-following-high-frequency-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-of-the-inferior-frontal-cortex
#7
Tegan Penton, Laura Dixon, Lauren Jayne Evans, Michael J Banissy
Facial emotion perception plays a key role in interpersonal communication and is a precursor for a variety of socio-cognitive abilities. One brain region thought to support emotion perception is the inferior frontal cortex (IFC). The current study aimed to examine whether modulating neural activity in the IFC using high frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) could enhance emotion perception abilities. In Experiment 1, participants received either tRNS to IFC or sham stimulation prior to completing facial emotion and identity perception tasks...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889119/sham-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-and-its-effects-on-corticospinal-excitability-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Thusharika D Dissanayaka, Maryam Zoghi, Michael Farrell, Gary F Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Sham stimulation is used in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the efficacy of active stimulation and placebo effects. It should mimic the characteristics of active stimulation to achieve blinding integrity. The present study was a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature to identify the effects of sham transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) - including anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS, c-tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) - on corticospinal excitability (CSE), compared to baseline in healthy individuals...
September 11, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709880/low-intensity-transcranial-electric-stimulation-safety-ethical-legal-regulatory-and-application-guidelines
#9
REVIEW
A Antal, I Alekseichuk, M Bikson, J Brockmöller, A R Brunoni, R Chen, L G Cohen, G Dowthwaite, J Ellrich, A Flöel, F Fregni, M S George, R Hamilton, J Haueisen, C S Herrmann, F C Hummel, J P Lefaucheur, D Liebetanz, C K Loo, C D McCaig, C Miniussi, P C Miranda, V Moliadze, M A Nitsche, R Nowak, F Padberg, A Pascual-Leone, W Poppendieck, A Priori, S Rossi, P M Rossini, J Rothwell, M A Rueger, G Ruffini, K Schellhorn, H R Siebner, Y Ugawa, A Wexler, U Ziemann, M Hallett, W Paulus
Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears to be safe. No serious adverse events (SAEs) have been reported so far in over 18,000 sessions administered to healthy subjects, neurological and psychiatric patients, as summarized here. Moderate adverse events (AEs), as defined by the necessity to intervene, are rare, and include skin burns with tDCS due to suboptimal electrode-skin contact...
September 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699187/does-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-enhance-corticospinal-excitability-of-the-motor-cortex-in-healthy-individuals-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Thusharika Dissanayaka, Maryam Zoghi, Michael Farrell, Gary F Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Numerous studies have explored the effects of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) - including anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS), cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (c-tDCS), transcranial alternative current stimulation (tACS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) - on corticospinal excitability (CSE) in healthy populations. However, the efficacy of these techniques and their optimal parameters for producing robust results has not been studied...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699028/the-occipital-face-area-is-causally-involved-in-the-formation-of-identity-specific-face-representations
#11
Géza Gergely Ambrus, Maria Dotzer, Stefan R Schweinberger, Gyula Kovács
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and neuroimaging studies suggest a role of the right occipital face area (rOFA) in early facial feature processing. However, the degree to which rOFA is necessary for the encoding of facial identity has been less clear. Here we used a state-dependent TMS paradigm, where stimulation preferentially facilitates attributes encoded by less active neural populations, to investigate the role of the rOFA in face perception and specifically in image-independent identity processing...
July 11, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681715/motor-cortex-trns-improves-pain-affective-and-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-fibromyalgia-preliminary-results-of-a-randomised-sham-controlled-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Massimiliano Curatolo, Giuseppe La Bianca, Giuseppe Cosentino, Roberta Baschi, Giuseppe Salemi, Rossella Talotta, Marcello Romano, Giovanni Triolo, Marina De Tommaso, Brigida Fierro, Filippo Brighina
OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinical syndrome characterised by widespread musculoskeletal pain, chronic fatigue, cognitive deficits, and sleep and mood disorders. The effectiveness of most pharmacological treatments is limited, and there is a need for new, effective and well-tolerated therapies. It has recently been shown that transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) of the motor cortex reduces pain, and that tDCS of the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) improves anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment in FM patients...
May 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680099/transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-and-cognitive-training-to-improve-learning-and-cognition-of-the-atypically-developing-brain-a-pilot-study
#13
Chung Yen Looi, Jenny Lim, Francesco Sella, Simon Lolliot, Mihaela Duta, Alexander Alexandrovich Avramenko, Roi Cohen Kadosh
Learning disabilities that affect about 10% of human population are linked to atypical neurodevelopment, but predominantly treated by behavioural interventions. Behavioural interventions alone have shown little efficacy, indicating limited success in modulating neuroplasticity, especially in brains with neural atypicalities. Even in healthy adults, weeks of cognitive training alone led to inconsistent generalisable training gains, or "transfer effects" to non-trained materials. Meanwhile, transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a painless and more direct neuromodulation method was shown to further promote cognitive training and transfer effects in healthy adults without harmful effects...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676740/modulation-of-illusory-auditory-perception-by-transcranial-electrical-stimulation
#14
Giulia Prete, Anita D'Anselmo, Luca Tommasi, Alfredo Brancucci
The aim of the present study was to test whether transcranial electrical stimulation can modulate illusory perception in the auditory domain. In two separate experiments we applied transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (anodal/cathodal tDCS, 2 mA; N = 60) and high-frequency transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (hf-tRNS, 1.5 mA, offset 0; N = 45) on the temporal cortex during the presentation of the stimuli eliciting the Deutsch's illusion. The illusion arises when two sine tones spaced one octave apart (400 and 800 Hz) are presented dichotically in alternation, one in the left and the other in the right ear, so that when the right ear receives the high tone, the left ear receives the low tone, and vice versa...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642686/transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-trns-shapes-the-processing-of-rapidly-changing-auditory-information
#15
Katharina S Rufener, Philipp Ruhnau, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Tino Zaehle
Neural oscillations in the gamma range are the dominant rhythmic activation pattern in the human auditory cortex. These gamma oscillations are functionally relevant for the processing of rapidly changing acoustic information in both speech and non-speech sounds. Accordingly, there is a tight link between the temporal resolution ability of the auditory system and inherent neural gamma oscillations. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) has been demonstrated to specifically increase gamma oscillation in the human auditory cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625658/enhancing-anger-perception-in-older-adults-by-stimulating-inferior-frontal-cortex-with-high-frequency-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation
#16
Tao Yang, Michael J Banissy
Extensive behavioural evidence has shown that older people have declined ability in facial emotion perception. Recent work has begun to examine the neural mechanism that contribute to this, and potential tools to support emotion perception during aging. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high frequency tRNS applied to the inferior frontal cortex would enhance facial expression perception in older adults. Healthy aged adults (60+ years) were randomly assigned to receive active high-frequency or sham tRNS targeted at bilateral inferior frontal cortices...
June 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558789/repetitive-reaching-training-combined-with-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-in-stroke-survivors-with-chronic-and-severe-arm-paresis-is-feasible-a-pilot-triple-blind-randomised-case-series
#17
Kathryn S Hayward, Sandra G Brauer, Kathy L Ruddy, David Lloyd, Richard G Carson
BACKGROUND: Therapy that combines repetitive training with non-invasive brain stimulation is a potential avenue to enhance upper limb recovery after stroke. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS), timed to coincide with the generation of voluntary motor commands, during reaching training. METHODS: A triple-blind pilot RCT was completed. Four stroke survivors with chronic (6-months to 5-years) and severe arm paresis, not taking any medications that had the potential to alter cortical excitability, and no contraindications to tRNS or MRI were recruited...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487047/anodal-and-cathodal-electrical-stimulation-over-v5-improves-motion-perception-by-signal-enhancement-and-noise-reduction
#18
Luca Battaglini, Stefano Noventa, Clara Casco
BACKGROUND: The effect that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has on discrimination of coherent motion (CM) signals in a field of randomly moving dots (noise) can be accounted for by both noise reduction and signal enhancement. OBJECTIVE: To distinguish between noise reduction and signal enhancement, we monitored the discrimination of the correct CM direction as a function of the coherence level (using the psychophysical method of constant stimuli)...
July 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384347/the-impact-of-early-visual-cortex-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-visual-working-memory-precision-and-guess-rate
#19
Rosanne L Rademaker, Vincent G van de Ven, Frank Tong, Alexander T Sack
Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that activity patterns in early visual areas predict stimulus properties actively maintained in visual working memory. Yet, the mechanisms by which such information is represented remain largely unknown. In this study, observers remembered the orientations of 4 briefly presented gratings, one in each quadrant of the visual field. A 10Hz Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) triplet was applied directly at stimulus offset, or midway through a 2-second delay, targeting early visual cortex corresponding retinotopically to a sample item in the lower hemifield...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072813/a-case-report-on-red-ear-syndrome-with-tinnitus-successfully-treated-with-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation
#20
Peter M Kreuzer, Veronika Vielsmeier, Timm B Poeppl, Berthold Langguth
BACKGROUND: The red ear syndrome represents a rare symptom complex consisting of auricular erythema associated with painful and burning sensations. It has been described in combination with tinnitus rarely. It has been hypothesized to be etiologically related to altered trigeminal afferent input, temporomandibular disorders, and thalamic dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: The initial objective of applying transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) in a case of red ear syndrome in combination with tinnitus was the alleviation of the phantom sounds...
January 2017: Pain Physician
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