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Transcranial random noise stimulation

Giulia Prete, Anita D'Anselmo, Luca Tommasi, Alfredo Brancucci
Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been increasingly adopted to modulate perceptual and cognitive functions, but the effects on auditory perception are still relatively uncharted. Starting from the evidence that a stronger right ear advantage effect (REA) in dichotic listening positively correlates with speech sound processing, the present study was aimed at modulating the REA by means of high-frequency transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (hf-tRNS). Stimulation was applied over the auditory cortex (AC) either unilaterally (Experiment 1, N = 50) or bilaterally (Experiment 2, N = 24) during a verbal dichotic listening task...
March 13, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Neil E O'Connell, Louise Marston, Sally Spencer, Lorraine H DeSouza, Benedict M Wand
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2010, Issue 9, and last updated in 2014, Issue 4. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques aim to induce an electrical stimulation of the brain in an attempt to reduce chronic pain by directly altering brain activity. They include repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and reduced impedance non-invasive cortical electrostimulation (RINCE)...
March 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gorana Pobric, Johan Hulleman, Michal Lavidor, Gail Silipo, Stephanie Rohrig, Elisa Dias, Daniel C Javitt
Schizophrenia (Sz) is a mental health disorder characterized by severe cognitive, emotional, social, and perceptual deficits. Visual deficits are found in tasks relying on the magnocellular/dorsal stream. In our first experiment we established deficits in global motion processing in Sz patients compared to healthy controls. We used a novel task in which background optic flow produces a distortion of the apparent trajectory of a moving stimulus, leading control participants to provide biased estimates of the true motion trajectory under conditions of global stimulation...
March 7, 2018: Brain Topography
Sarah C Tyler, Federica Contò, Lorella Battelli
This study explored the modulatory effects of high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) on visual sensitivity during a temporal attention task. We measured sensitivity to different onset asynchronies during a temporal order judgment task as a function of active stimulation relative to sham. While completing the task, participants were stimulated bilaterally for 20 min over either the TPJ or the human middle temporal area. We hypothesized that tRNS over the TPJ, which is critical to the temporal attention network, would selectively increase cortical excitability and induce cognitive training-like effects on performance, perhaps more so in the left visual field [Matthews, N...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Dilara Berkay, Hale Yapıcı Eser, Alexander T Sack, Yusuf Özgür Çakmak, Fuat Balcı
Many perceptual decisions are inevitably subject to the tradeoff between speed and accuracy of choices (SAT). Sequential sampling models attribute this ubiquitous relation to random noise in the sensory evidence accumulation process, and assume that SAT is adaptively modulated by altering the decision thresholds at which the level of integrated evidence should reach for making a choice. Although, neuroimaging studies have shown a relationship between right presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) activity and threshold setting, only a limited number of brain stimulation studies aimed at establishing the causal link, results of which were inconsistent...
December 20, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Carlo Cottone, Andrea Cancelli, Patrizio Pasqualetti, Camillo Porcaro, Carlo Salustri, Franca Tecchio
In this paper, we pose the following working hypothesis: in humans, transcranial electric stimulation (tES) with a time course that mimics the endogenous activity of its target is capable of altering the target's excitability. In our case, the target was the primary motor cortex (M1). We identified the endogenous neurodynamics of hand M1's subgroups of pyramidal neuronal pools in each of our subjects by applying Functional Source Separation (FSS) to their EEG recordings. We then tested whether the corticospinal excitability of the hand representation under the above described stimulation, which we named transcranial individual neurodynamics stimulation (tIDS), was higher than in the absence of stimulation (baseline)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mauro Mancuso, Laura Abbruzzese, Stefania Canova, Giulia Landi, Simone Rossi, Emiliano Santarnecchi
Background: The absence of efficient treatments capable to promote central nervous system recovery in patients in vegetative state (VS) due to a severe acquired brain injury highlights the need of exploring alternative neuromodulatory treatments that can lead to neurobehavioral gains. Some encouraging preliminary observations suggest that transcranial direct current stimulation could be effective in disorders of consciousness (DoC) patients, especially when applied on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with minimally conscious state (MCS) but not in those with VS...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Brita Fritsch, Anne-Kathrin Gellner, Janine Reis
Transcranial electrical brain stimulation can modulate cortical excitability and plasticity in humans and rodents. The most common form of stimulation in humans is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Less frequently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) or transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a specific form of tACS using an electrical current applied randomly within a pre-defined frequency range, is used. The increase of noninvasive electrical brain stimulation research in humans, both for experimental and clinical purposes, has yielded an increased need for basic, mechanistic, safety studies in animals...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Anthony T Cacace, Jiani Hu, Stephen Romero, Yang Xuan, Robert F Burkard, Richard S Tyler
Using a prospective randomized single-blinded sham-controlled cross-over design, we studied the efficacy of low frequency (1-Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over auditory cortex of the left temporal lobe as an experimental treatment modality for noise-induced tinnitus. Pre/post outcome measures for sham vs. active rTMS conditions included differential changes in tinnitus loudness, self-perceived changes in the Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire (THQ), and neurochemical changes of brain metabolite concentrations using single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) obtained from left and right auditory cortical areas...
November 14, 2017: Hearing Research
James Robert McIntosh, Carsten Mehring
Perceptual decisions pervade our every-day lives, and can align or conflict with inbuilt biases. We investigated these conflicting biases by applying transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) while subjects took part in a visual Simon task - a paradigm where irrelevant spatial cues influence the response times of subjects to relevant colour cues. We found that tRNS reduces the response time of subjects independent of the congruence between spatial and colour cues, but dependent on the baseline response time, both between subjects and across conditions within subjects...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sook Ling Leong, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste, Wayne Sutherland, Samantha Ross, Patrick Manning
Dysfunctional neural activity in the cortical reward system network has been implicated in food addiction. This is the first study exploring the potential therapeutic effects of high definition transcranial pink noise stimulation (HD-tPNS) targeted at the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on craving and brain activity in women with obesity who showed features of food addiction (Yale Food Addiction Scale score of ≥3). Sixteen eligible females participated in a randomized, double-blind, parallel group study. Participants received six 20-minute sessions of either 1 mA (n = 8) or sham (n = 8) stimulation with HD-tPNS over two weeks...
January 1, 2018: Appetite
Nir Shalev, Linde De Wandel, Paul Dockree, Nele Demeyere, Magdalena Chechlacz
The Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) provides a mathematical formalisation of the "biased competition" account of visual attention. Applying this model to individual performance in a free recall task allows the estimation of 5 independent attentional parameters: visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity, speed of information processing, perceptual threshold of visual detection; attentional weights representing spatial distribution of attention (spatial bias), and the top-down selectivity index. While the TVA focuses on selection in space, complementary accounts of attention describe how attention is maintained over time, and how temporal processes interact with selection...
October 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Natalie C Bowling, Michael J Banissy
Our capacity to share the experiences of others is a critical part of social behaviour. One process thought to be important for this is vicarious perception. Passively viewing touch activates some of the same network of brain regions as the direct experience of touch. This vicarious experience is usually implicit, but for some people, viewing touch evokes conscious tactile sensations (mirror-touch synaesthesia). Recent work has attempted to induce conscious vicarious touch in those that do not normally experience these sensations, using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)...
October 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Wojciech K Zajkowski, Malgorzata Kossut, Robert C Wilson
The explore-exploit dilemma occurs anytime we must choose between exploring unknown options for information and exploiting known resources for reward. Previous work suggests that people use two different strategies to solve the explore-exploit dilemma: directed exploration, driven by information seeking, and random exploration, driven by decision noise. Here, we show that these two strategies rely on different neural systems. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation to inhibit the right frontopolar cortex, we were able to selectively inhibit directed exploration while leaving random exploration intact...
September 15, 2017: ELife
Nayeli Huidobro, Abraham Mendez-Fernandez, Ignacio Mendez-Balbuena, Ranier Gutierrez, Rumyana Kristeva, Elias Manjarrez
Stochastic resonance (SR) is an inherent and counter-intuitive mechanism of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) facilitation in biological systems associated with the application of an intermediate level of noise. As a first step to investigate in detail this phenomenon in the somatosensory system, here we examined whether the direct application of noisy light on pyramidal neurons from the mouse-barrel cortex expressing a light-gated channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) can produce facilitation in somatosensory evoked field potentials...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Tegan Penton, Laura Dixon, Lauren Jayne Evans, Michael J Banissy
Facial emotion perception plays a key role in interpersonal communication and is a precursor for a variety of socio-cognitive abilities. One brain region thought to support emotion perception is the inferior frontal cortex (IFC). The current study aimed to examine whether modulating neural activity in the IFC using high frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) could enhance emotion perception abilities. In Experiment 1, participants received either tRNS to IFC or sham stimulation prior to completing facial emotion and identity perception tasks...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Thusharika D Dissanayaka, Maryam Zoghi, Michael Farrell, Gary F Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Sham stimulation is used in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the efficacy of active stimulation and placebo effects. It should mimic the characteristics of active stimulation to achieve blinding integrity. The present study was a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature to identify the effects of sham transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) - including anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS, c-tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) - on corticospinal excitability (CSE), compared to baseline in healthy individuals...
September 11, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
A Antal, I Alekseichuk, M Bikson, J Brockmöller, A R Brunoni, R Chen, L G Cohen, G Dowthwaite, J Ellrich, A Flöel, F Fregni, M S George, R Hamilton, J Haueisen, C S Herrmann, F C Hummel, J P Lefaucheur, D Liebetanz, C K Loo, C D McCaig, C Miniussi, P C Miranda, V Moliadze, M A Nitsche, R Nowak, F Padberg, A Pascual-Leone, W Poppendieck, A Priori, S Rossi, P M Rossini, J Rothwell, M A Rueger, G Ruffini, K Schellhorn, H R Siebner, Y Ugawa, A Wexler, U Ziemann, M Hallett, W Paulus
Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears to be safe. No serious adverse events (SAEs) have been reported so far in over 18,000 sessions administered to healthy subjects, neurological and psychiatric patients, as summarized here. Moderate adverse events (AEs), as defined by the necessity to intervene, are rare, and include skin burns with tDCS due to suboptimal electrode-skin contact...
September 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Thusharika Dissanayaka, Maryam Zoghi, Michael Farrell, Gary F Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Numerous studies have explored the effects of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) - including anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS), cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (c-tDCS), transcranial alternative current stimulation (tACS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) - on corticospinal excitability (CSE) in healthy populations. However, the efficacy of these techniques and their optimal parameters for producing robust results has not been studied...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Géza Gergely Ambrus, Maria Dotzer, Stefan R Schweinberger, Gyula Kovács
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and neuroimaging studies suggest a role of the right occipital face area (rOFA) in early facial feature processing. However, the degree to which rOFA is necessary for the encoding of facial identity has been less clear. Here we used a state-dependent TMS paradigm, where stimulation preferentially facilitates attributes encoded by less active neural populations, to investigate the role of the rOFA in face perception and specifically in image-independent identity processing...
July 11, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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