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Transcranial alternating current stimulation

Sujita Kumar Kar, Siddharth Sarkar
Neuro-stimulation techniques have gradually evolved over the decades and have emerged potential therapeutic modalities for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, especially treatment refractory cases. The neuro-stimulation techniques involves modalities like electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and others. This review discusses the role of neuro-stimulation techniques in the treatment of anxiety disorders...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Antonino Naro, Antonino Leo, Antonio Buda, Alfredo Manuli, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Visual fixation (VF) of a target is a possible, although atypical, feature of the Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS). Whether VF may indicate residual awareness in these patients is debatable, since it may simply subtend a series of reflex processes. Objective tools should therefore be used to identify aware VF, which depends on the integrity of visuomotor networks encompassing frontal-parietal-occipital areas. The aim of our study was to detect residual visuomotor network functionality potentially sustaining aware VF...
October 20, 2016: Brain Research
Nathan D Nuzum, Ashlee M Hendy, Aaron P Russell, Wei-Peng Teo
Individual responses to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are varied and therefore potentially limit its application. There is evidence that this variability is related to the contributions of Indirect waves (I-waves) recruited in the cortex. The latency of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) can be measured through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), allowing an individual's responsiveness to tDCS to be determined. However, this single-pulse method requires several different orientations of the TMS coil, potentially affecting its reliability...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Aline Iannone, Antonio Pedro de Mello Cruz, Joaquim Pereira Brasil-Neto, Raphael Boechat-Barros
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has recently been investigated as a possible adjuvant treatment for many neuropsychiatric disorders, and has already been approved for the treatment of drug-resistant depression in the United States and in Brazil, among other countries. Although its use in other neuropsychiatric disorders is still largely experimental, many physicians have been using it as an off-label add-on therapy for various disorders. More recently, another technique, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), has also become available as a much cheaper and portable alternative to TMS, although its mechanisms of action are different from those of TMS...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
L Brandejsky, J-A Micoulaud Franchi, R Lopez, S Bioulac, D Da Fonseca, C Daudet, L Boyer, R Richieri, C Lançon
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to summarize the available data in the literature about the therapeutic applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: The scientific literature search of international articles was performed in February 2016 using the PubMed electronic database. The following MeSH terms were employed: "attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity" AND "transcranial magnetic stimulation", "attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity" AND "transcranial direct current stimulation"...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
R Abend, I Jalon, G Gurevitch, R Sar-El, T Shechner, D S Pine, T Hendler, Y Bar-Haim
Research associates processes of fear conditioning and extinction with treatment of anxiety and stress-related disorders. Manipulation of these processes may therefore be beneficial for such treatment. The current study examines the effects of electrical brain stimulation on fear extinction processes in healthy humans in order to assess its potential relevance for treatment enhancement. Forty-five participants underwent a 3-day fear conditioning and extinction paradigm. Electrical stimulation targeting the medial prefrontal cortex was applied during the extinction-learning phase (Day 2)...
October 11, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Irene Gonsalvez, Roey Baror, Peter Fried, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a looming public health crisis that currently lacks an effective treatment. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation (NBS), particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), offers a promising alternative approach to pharmacological interventions for an increasing number of neurological and psychiatric conditions. The aim of this review is summarize data from therapeutic trials of NBS in AD and other dementing illnesses. Despite the potential of NBS, there is limited theoretical framework and a lack of guidelines for its applications to AD...
September 30, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Thais Massetti, Tânia Brusque Crocetta, Talita Dias da Silva, Isabela Lopes Trevizan, Claudia Arab, Fátima Aparecida Caromano, Carlos Bandeira de Mello Monteiro
PURPOSE: To evaluate the methods and major outcomes of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with virtual reality (VR) therapy in randomized controlled trials. METHOD: A systematic review was performed following PRISMA guidelines using PubMed, PubMed Central, Web of Science and CAPES periodic databases, with no time restriction. The studies were screened for the following inclusion criteria: human subjects, combination of VR and tDCS methods, and randomized controlled study design...
September 27, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Ryosuke Tomio, Takenori Akiyama, Takayuki Ohira, Kazunari Yoshida
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine the most effective electrode montage to elicit lower-extremity transcranial motor evoked potentials (LE-tMEPs) using a minimum stimulation current. METHODS A realistic 3D head model was created from T1-weighted images. Finite element methods were used to visualize the electric field in the brain, which was generated by transcranial electrical stimulation via 4 electrode montage models. The stimulation threshold level of LE-tMEPs in 52 patients was also studied in a practical clinical setting to determine the effects of each electrode montage...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Rolandas Stonkus, Verena Braun, Jess R Kerlin, Gregor Volberg, Simon Hanslmayr
The phase of prestimulus oscillations at 7-10 Hz has been shown to modulate perception of briefly presented visual stimuli. Specifically, a recent combined EEG-fMRI study suggested that a prestimulus oscillation at around 7 Hz represents open and closed windows for perceptual integration by modulating connectivity between lower order occipital and higher order parietal brain regions. We here utilized brief event-related transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to specifically modulate this prestimulus 7 Hz oscillation, and the synchrony between parietal and occipital brain regions...
2016: Scientific Reports
Hisato Nakazono, Katsuya Ogata, Tsuyoshi Kuroda, Shozo Tobimatsu
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) can entrain ongoing brain oscillations and modulate the motor system in a frequency-dependent manner. Recent animal studies have demonstrated that the phase of a sinusoidal current also has an important role in modulation of neuronal activity. However, the phase effects of tACS on the human motor system are largely unknown. Here, we systematically investigated the effects of tACS phase and frequency on the primary motor cortex (M1) by using motor evoked potentials (MEPs) with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
2016: PloS One
Charlotte Brevet-Aeby, Jerome Brunelin, Sylvain Iceta, Catherine Padovan, Emmanuel Poulet
INTRODUCTION: Impulsivity has been reported in many psychiatric conditions and includes deficits in several cognitive functions such as attention, inhibitory control, risk taking, delay discounting and planning. Many studies have shown that noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques modulate the activity of the prefrontal cortex and the functions involved in impulsivity. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to review the literature on the effect of NIBS on impulsivity in healthy subjects aged 18-65 years old, and to highlight research avenues to develop therapeutic alternatives for such disorders...
August 30, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Nuray Yozbatiran, Zafer Keser, Matthew Davis, Argyrios Stampas, Marcia K O'Malley, Catherine Cooper-Hay, Joel Frontera, Felipe Fregni, Gerard E Francisco
BACKGROUND: After cervical spinal cord injury, current options for treatment of upper extremity motor functions have been limited to traditional approaches. However, there is a substantial need to explore more rigorous alternative treatments to facilitate motor recovery. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate whether anodal-primary motor cortex (M1) excitability enhancement (with cathodal-supra orbital area) (atDCS) combined with robot-assisted arm training (R-AAT) will provide greater improvement in contralateral arm and hand motor functions compared to sham stimulation (stDCS) and R-AAT in patients with chronic, incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (iCSCI)...
July 15, 2016: NeuroRehabilitation
Philip Tseng, Yu-Ting Chang, Chi-Fu Chang, Wei-Kuang Liang, Chi-Hung Juan
How does the brain enable us to remember two or more object representations in visual working memory (VWM) without confusing them? This "gluing" process, or feature binding, refers to the ability to join certain features together while keeping them segregated from others. Recent neuroimaging research has reported higher BOLD response in the left temporal and parietal cortex during a binding-VWM task. However, less is known about how the two regions work in synchrony to support such process. In this study, we applied transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) over the left temporal and parietal cortex in gamma and theta frequency, with a phase difference of either 0° (in-phase) or 180° (anti-phase) to account for the different ways through which neural synchronization may occur...
2016: Scientific Reports
Rachel L C Mitchell, Kleio Vidaki, Michal Lavidor
For complex linguistic strings such as idioms, making a decision as to the correct meaning may require complex top-down cognitive control such as the suppression of incorrect alternative meanings. In the study presented here, we used transcranial direct current stimulation to test the hypothesis that a domain general dorsolateral prefrontal cognitive control network is involved in constraining the complex processing involved. Specifically, we sought to test prominent theoretical stances on the division of labour across dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the left- and right-hemispheres of the brain, including the role of salience and fine vs...
August 20, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Paolo Maria Rossini, Riccardo Di Iorio, Giuseppe Granata, Francesca Miraglia, Fabrizio Vecchio
In a recent study, analyzing the modulation of γ-band oscillations, Naro and colleagues demonstrated that transcranial alternating current stimulation could drive the gamma rhythms in the human EEG in cognitive healthy elderly subjects but not in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) prodromal to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in early AD patients. Therefore, this method is proposed to intercept early in the disease course those MCI subjects who are in a pre-symptomatic stage of an already established AD. This prediction index may help the clinician to adopt a better prevention/follow-up strategy...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
B Brüggenjürgen, T Baker, R Bhogal, F Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Chronic migraine (CM) is a neurological disorder associated with substantial disability. Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) is an approved and effective preventive treatment option for adult patients with CM. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an alternative treatment device delivering a brief pre-set magnetic pulse used for self-administration by the patient at home. Despite being available in a risk share scheme TMS is perceived to be more costly in the UK. The objective of this study was to analyse the incremental costs of TMS compared to Botox in refractory CM patients both for a UK individual funding request setting as well as for an average UK specialist center setting...
2016: SpringerPlus
Loek Brinkman, Arjen Stolk, Tom R Marshall, Sophie Esterer, Poppy Sharp, H Chris Dijkerman, Floris P de Lange, Ivan Toni
UNLABELLED: To select a movement, specific neuronal populations controlling particular features of that movement need to be activated, whereas other populations are downregulated. The selective (dis)inhibition of cortical sensorimotor populations is governed by rhythmic neural activity in the alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-25 Hz) frequency range. However, it is unclear whether and how these rhythms contribute independently to motor behavior. Building on a recent dissociation of the sensorimotor alpha- and beta-band rhythms, we test the hypothesis that the beta-band rhythm governs the disinhibition of task-relevant neuronal populations, whereas the alpha-band rhythm suppresses neurons that may interfere with task performance...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Andrea Guerra, Alek Pogosyan, Magdalena Nowak, Huiling Tan, Florinda Ferreri, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro, Peter Brown
The human motor cortex has a tendency to resonant activity at about 20 Hz so stimulation should more readily entrain neuronal populations at this frequency. We investigated whether and how different interneuronal circuits contribute to such resonance by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) at motor (20 Hz) and a nonmotor resonance frequency (7 Hz). We tested different TMS interneuronal protocols and triggered TMS pulses at different tACS phases...
October 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Song Li, Jie Dong, Cheng Cheng, Weidong Le
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder caused by the selective and progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Although PD has been heavily researched, the precise etiology and pathogenesis for PD are still inconclusive. Consequently, current pharmacological treatments for PD are largely symptomatic rather than preventive and there is still no cure for this disease nowadays. Moreover, nonmotor symptoms caused by intrinsic PD pathology or side effects induced by currently used pharmacological interventions are gaining increasing attention and urgently need to be treated due to their influence on quality of life...
November 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
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