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Peter M Kreuzer, Veronika Vielsmeier, Timm B Poeppl, Berthold Langguth
BACKGROUND: The red ear syndrome represents a rare symptom complex consisting of auricular erythema associated with painful and burning sensations. It has been described in combination with tinnitus rarely. It has been hypothesized to be etiologically related to altered trigeminal afferent input, temporomandibular disorders, and thalamic dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: The initial objective of applying transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) in a case of red ear syndrome in combination with tinnitus was the alleviation of the phantom sounds...
January 2017: Pain Physician
Vikram S Shivakumar, Marc S Appelhans, Gabriel Johnson, Monica Carlsen, Elizabeth A Zimmer
The Clauseneae (Aurantioideae, Rutaceae) is a tribe in the Citrus family that, although economically important as it contains the culinary and medicinally-useful curry tree (Bergera koenigii), has been relatively understudied. Due to the recent significant taxonomic changes made to this tribe, a closer inspection of the genetic relationships among its genera has been warranted. Whole genome skimming was used to generate chloroplast genomes from six species, representing each of the four genera (Bergera, Clausena, Glycosmis, Micromelum) in the Clauseneae tribe plus one closely related outgroup (Merrillia), using the published plastome sequence of Citrus sinensis as a reference...
December 11, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Gianluca Campana, Rebecca Camilleri, Beatrice Moret, Filippo Ghin, Andrea Pavan
Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) is a recent neuro-modulation technique whose effects at both behavioural and neural level are still debated. Here we employed the well-known phenomenon of motion after-effect (MAE) in order to investigate the effects of high- vs. low-frequency tRNS on motion adaptation and recovery. Participants were asked to estimate the MAE duration following prolonged adaptation (20 s) to a complex moving pattern, while being stimulated with either sham or tRNS across different blocks...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nicola Mammarella, Alberto Di Domenico, Rocco Palumbo, Beth Fairfield
Activation of medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) has been typically found during reality monitoring tasks (i.e., distinguishing between internal self-generated vs external information). No study, however, has yet investigated whether transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) over the mPFC leads to a reduction in reality-monitoring misattributions in aging. In particular, stimulating mPFC should increase the number of cognitive operations engaged while encoding and this distinctive information may help older adults to discriminate between internal and external sources better...
November 15, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Yu-Wei Han, Dong Duan, Xiong-Feng Ma, Yun Jia, Zhan-Lin Liu, Gui-Fang Zhao, Zhong-Hu Li
Aceraceae is a large forest tree family that comprises many economically and ecologically important species. However, because interspecific and/or intraspecific morphological variations result from frequent interspecific hybridization and introgression, it is challenging for non-taxonomists to accurately recognize and identify the tree species in Aceraceae based on a traditional approach. DNA barcoding is a powerful tool that has been proposed to accurately distinguish between species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of three core standard markers (matK, rbcL and ITS) plus the chloroplast locus trnS-trnG as Aceraceae barcodes...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Shi-Chun Chen, Xiao-Qing Wang, Pin-Wu Li, Xiang Hu, Jin-Jun Wang, Ping Peng
There are numerous gene rearrangements and transfer RNA gene absences existing in mitochondrial (mt) genomes of Aleyrodidae species. To understand how mt genomes evolved in the family Aleyrodidae, we have sequenced the complete mt genome of Aleurocanthus camelliae and comparatively analyzed all reported whitefly mt genomes. The mt genome of A. camelliae is 15,188 bp long, and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 21 tRNA genes and a putative control region (GenBank: KU761949). The tRNA gene, trnI, has not been observed in this genome...
November 7, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Liuyu Wu, Xiao Xiong, Xuming Wang, Tianrong Xin, Jing Wang, Zhiwen Zou, Bin Xia
The bluish yellow lappet moth, Trabala vishnou guttata is an extraordinarily important pest in China. The complete mitochondrial genome is sequenced and determined firstly, which is based on traditional PCR amplification and primer walking methods with a length of 15,281 bp, including 13 protein-coding (PCG) genes, 22 transfer RNA (rRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (tRNA) genes, and an A + T-rich region. The gene order and orientation of the T. vishnou guttata mitogenome were identical to the other sequenced Lasiocampidae species...
December 2016: Genetica
Wing Ting To, Jan Ost, John Hart, Dirk De Ridder, Sven Vanneste
Tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of a corresponding external sound source. Research has suggested that functional abnormalities in tinnitus patients involve auditory as well as non-auditory brain areas. Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) to the auditory cortex, has demonstrated modulation of brain activity to transiently suppress tinnitus symptoms...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Fan-Hong Wang, Jin-Mei Lu, Jun Wen, Atsushi Ebihara, De-Zhu Li
DNA barcoding is a fast-developing technique to identify species by using short and standard DNA sequences. Universal selection of DNA barcodes in ferns remains unresolved. In this study, five plastid regions (rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA, trnL-F and rps4-trnS) and eight nuclear regions (ITS, pgiC, gapC, LEAFY, ITS2, IBR3_2, DET1, and SQD1_1) were screened and evaluated in the fern genus Adiantum from China and neighboring areas. Due to low primer universality (matK) and/or the existence of multiple copies (ITS), the commonly used barcodes matK and ITS were not appropriate for Adiantum...
2016: PloS One
Miguel A Campos-Vazquez, Francisco J Toscano-Bendala, José Carlos Mora-Ferrera, Luis Suarez-Arrones
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of accumulated internal training load during the preseason (4 weeks) on changes in the intermittent performance, in a professional soccer team. Twelve professionals soccer players (Mean±SD age 27.7±4.3 years; height: 177.1±6.2 cm; body mass: 73.1±5.2 kg; % body fat (Faulkner): 10.2±1.2) belonging to a Spanish second division team (2013-2014) participated in this study. The 30-15 intermittent fitness test was performed before and after the preseason, and the speed for the last period completed by each player was recorded (VIFT)...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jana Wörsching, Frank Padberg, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Ulrike Kumpf, Beatrice Kirsch, Daniel Keeser
Transcranial current stimulation approaches include neurophysiologically distinct non-invasive brain stimulation techniques widely applied in basic, translational and clinical research: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation (otDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS). Prefrontal tDCS seems to be an especially promising tool for clinical practice. In order to effectively modulate relevant neural circuits, systematic research on prefrontal tDCS is needed that uses neuroimaging and neurophysiology measures to specifically target and adjust this method to physiological requirements...
October 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Warita Alves de Melo, Matheus S Lima-Ribeiro, Levi Carina Terribile, Rosane G Collevatti
Studies based on contemporary plant occurrences and pollen fossil records have proposed that the current disjunct distribution of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) across South America is the result of fragmentation of a formerly widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the arid climatic conditions associated with the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which is known as the modern-day dry forest refugia hypothesis. We studied the demographic history of Tabebuia rosealba (Bignoniaceae) to understand the disjunct geographic distribution of South American SDTFs based on statistical phylogeography and ecological niche modeling (ENM)...
2016: PloS One
Yan Wang, Qing Chen, Tao Chen, Haoru Tang, Lin Liu, Xiaorong Wang
Rubus L. is a large and taxonomically complex genus, species of which exhibit apomixis, polyploidy, and frequent hybridization. Most of Chinese Rubus are assigned in two major sections, Idaeobatus and Malachobatus. To explore the phylogenetic relationships within Chinese Rubus, inferences upon three chloroplast DNA (rbcL, rpl20-rps12, and trnG-trnS), nuclear ribosomal ITS, and two low-copy nuclear markers (GBSSI-2 and PEPC) were deduced in 142 Rubus taxa from 17 subsections in 6 sections. nrITS and GBSSI-2 were the most informative among the six DNA regions assessed...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Qian-Chun Luo, You-Jin Hao, Fengxia Meng, Ting-Jing Li, Yi-Ran Ding, Ya-Qiong Hua, Bin Chen
BACKGROUND: Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex pipiens pallens are the major vectors of the Japanese encephalitis virus and Wuchereria bancrofti, the causative agent of filariasis. The knowledge of mitochondrial genomes has been widely useful for the studies on molecular evolution, phylogenetics and population genetics. METHODS: In this study, we sequenced and annotated the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. p. pallens, and performed a comparative analysis including four known mt genomes of species of the subgenus Culex (Culex)...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Ping Wang, Xianzhi Zhang, Nan Tang, Jianjun Liu, Langran Xu, Kai Wang
In Northwest China, aridification and desert expansion play significant roles in promoting desert plant diversification and speciation. However, to date, little is known about the effects of the desert barrier on the population structure of montane, non-desert species in the area. In this study, we sequenced chloroplast DNA regions (trnL-trnF and trnS-trnG) and a nuclear gene (rpb2) to investigate the population differentiation and phylogeographical history of Libanotis buchtormensis, a perennial montane species possessing a disjunct distribution at the periphery of the central desert...
2016: PloS One
Jing Yang, Qianli Ren, Yuan Huang
The complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of Velarifictorus hemelytrus, Loxoblemmus equestris and Teleogryllus emma are 16123 bp, 16314 bp and 15697 bp, in size, respectively. All three mitogenomes possess the same gene order of the inversion of the gene cluster trnE-trnS<sup>(AGN)</sup>-trnN compared with the ancestral gene order of Orthoptera. The atypical initiation codon for the cox1 gene in three crickets is TTA. Pronounced A skew and T skew have been found in Grylloidea comparing with Gryllotalpoidea and Tettigonioidea...
March 17, 2016: Zootaxa
Rebecca Camilleri, Andrea Pavan, Gianluca Campana
It has recently been demonstrated how perceptual learning, that is an improvement in a sensory/perceptual task upon practice, can be boosted by concurrent high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS). It has also been shown that perceptual learning can generalize and produce an improvement of visual functions in participants with mild refractive defects. By using three different groups of participants (single-blind study), we tested the efficacy of a short training (8 sessions) using a single Gabor contrast-detection task with concurrent hf-tRNS in comparison with the same training with sham stimulation or hf-tRNS with no concurrent training, in improving visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) of individuals with uncorrected mild myopia...
August 2016: Neuropsychologia
Joni Holmes, Elizabeth M Byrne, Susan E Gathercole, Michael P Ewbank
Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a noninvasive brain stimulation technique, enhances the generalization and sustainability of gains following mathematical training. Here it is combined for the first time with working memory training in a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Adults completed 10 sessions of Cogmed Working Memory Training with either active tRNS or sham stimulation applied bilaterally to dorsolateral pFC. Training was associated with gains on both the training tasks and on untrained tests of working memory that shared overlapping processes with the training tasks, but not with improvements on working memory tasks with distinct processing demands or tests of other cognitive abilities (e...
October 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Santiago Martín-Bravo, Thomas F Daniel
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Barleria is a large, pantropical genus of ca. 265 species mainly distributed in the Old World with only one species, B. oenotheroides, extending to the neotropics. This amphi-Atlantic disjunction, frequently displayed by pantropical taxa, has been traditionally explained with vicariance or geodispersal hypotheses and increasingly with long-distance dispersal. The native status of this species in the New World is controversial. METHODS: A molecular phylogeographic study based on the nuclear ribosomal ITS region and plastid trnL-F, rps16, and trnS-G sequences was done to clarify the origin of this tropical intercontinental disjunction...
June 2016: American Journal of Botany
Zheng-Liang Wang, Chao Li, Wen-Yuan Fang, Xiao-Ping Yu
The complete mitogenomes of two orb-weaving spiders Neoscona doenitzi and Neoscona nautica were determined and a comparative mitogenomic analysis was performed to depict evolutionary trends of spider mitogenomes. The circular mitogenomes are 14,161bp with A+T content of 74.6% in N. doenitzi and 14,049bp with A+T content of 78.8% in N. nautica, respectively. Both mitogenomes contain a standard set of 37 genes typically presented in metazoans. Gene content and orientation are identical to all previously sequenced spider mitogenomes, while gene order is rearranged by tRNAs translocation when compared with the putative ancestral gene arrangement pattern presented by Limulus polyphemus...
September 30, 2016: Gene
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