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Stephen Meisenhelter, Barbara C Jobst
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Memory is one of the top concerns of epilepsy patients, but there are no known treatments to directly alleviate the memory deficits associated with epilepsy. Neurostimulation may provide new therapeutic tools to enhance memory in epilepsy patients. Here, we critically review recent investigations of memory enhancement using transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), chronic intracranial stimulation, and acute intracranial stimulation...
April 19, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Silke M Bieck, Christina Artemenko, Korbinian Moeller, Elise Klein
Transcranial electric stimulation such as transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been used to investigate structure-function relationships in numerical cognition. Recently, tRNS was suggested to be more effective than tDCS. However, so far there is no evidence on the differential impact of tDCS and tRNS on numerical cognition using the same experimental paradigm. In the present study, we used a two-digit addition paradigm for which significant-albeit small-effects of tDCS were observed previously to evaluate the impact of parietal and frontal tRNS on specific numerical effects...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Carys Evans, Michael J Banissy, Rebecca A Charlton
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether changes in brain microstructures associated with ageing and presence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) reduce the efficacy of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) improving mood in euthymic older adults. METHODS: Using excitatory high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) over bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the effect on mood was assessed in euthymic young adults (YA), older adults (HOA) and older adults with CVRF (OVR)...
March 31, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Neil E O'Connell, Louise Marston, Sally Spencer, Lorraine H DeSouza, Benedict M Wand
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2010, Issue 9, and last updated in 2014, Issue 4. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques aim to induce an electrical stimulation of the brain in an attempt to reduce chronic pain by directly altering brain activity. They include repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and reduced impedance non-invasive cortical electrostimulation (RINCE)...
April 13, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Anna-Katharine Brem, Jessamy Norton-Ford Almquist, Karen Mansfield, Franziska Plessow, Francesco Sella, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Umut Orhan, James McKanna, Misha Pavel, Santosh Mathan, Nick Yeung, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Roi Cohen Kadosh, On Behalf Of Honeywell Sharp Team Authors
It is debated whether cognitive training of specific executive functions leads to far transfer effects, such as improvements in fluid intelligence (Gf). Within this context, transcranial direct current stimulation and recently also novel protocols such as transcranial random noise and alternating current stimulation are being investigated with regards to their ability to enhance cognitive training outcomes. We compared the effects of four different transcranial electrical brain stimulation protocols in combination with nine daily computerized training sessions on Gf...
April 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Luxian Liu, Yuewen Wang, Peizi He, Pan Li, Joongku Lee, Douglas E Soltis, Chengxin Fu
BACKGROUND: Epilithic sister genera Oresitrophe and Mukdenia (Saxifragaceae) have an epilithic habitat (rocky slopes) and a parapatric distribution in East Asia, which makes them an ideal model for a more comprehensive understanding of the demographic and divergence history and the influence of climate changes in East Asia. However, the genetic background and resources for these two genera are scarce. RESULTS: The complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of two Oresitrophe rupifraga and one Mukdenia rossii individuals were reconstructed and comparative analyses were conducted to examine the evolutionary pattern of chloroplast genomes in Saxifragaceae...
April 4, 2018: BMC Genomics
V Manzanilla, A Kool, L Nguyen Nhat, H Nong Van, H Le Thi Thu, H J de Boer
BACKGROUND: The economic value of ginseng in the global medicinal plant trade is estimated to be in excess of US$2.1 billion. At the same time, the evolutionary placement of ginseng (Panax ginseng) and the complex evolutionary history of the genus is poorly understood despite several molecular phylogenetic studies. In this study, we use a full plastome phylogenomic framework to resolve relationships in Panax and to identify molecular markers for species discrimination. RESULTS: We used high-throughput sequencing of MBD2-Fc fractionated Panax DNA to supplement publicly available plastid genomes to create a phylogeny based on fully assembled and annotated plastid genomes from 60 accessions of 8 species...
April 3, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Seth A Ament, Jocelynn R Pearl, Jeffrey P Cantle, Robert M Bragg, Peter J Skene, Sydney R Coffey, Dani E Bergey, Vanessa C Wheeler, Marcy E MacDonald, Nitin S Baliga, Jim Rosinski, Leroy E Hood, Jeffrey B Carroll, Nathan D Price
Transcriptional changes occur presymptomatically and throughout Huntington's disease (HD), motivating the study of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) in HD We reconstructed a genome-scale model for the target genes of 718 transcription factors (TFs) in the mouse striatum by integrating a model of genomic binding sites with transcriptome profiling of striatal tissue from HD mouse models. We identified 48 differentially expressed TF-target gene modules associated with age- and CAG repeat length-dependent gene expression changes in Htt CAG knock-in mouse striatum and replicated many of these associations in independent transcriptomic and proteomic datasets...
March 26, 2018: Molecular Systems Biology
Holger Fehlauer, Adam L Nekimken, Anna A Kim, Beth L Pruitt, Miriam B Goodman, Michael Krieg
One central goal of mechanobiology is to understand the reciprocal effect of mechanical stress on proteins and cells. Despite its importance, the influence of mechanical stress on cellular function is still poorly understood. In part, this knowledge gap exists because few tools enable simultaneous deformation of tissue and cells, imaging of cellular activity in live animals, and efficient restriction of motility in otherwise highly mobile model organisms, such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The small size of C...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Giulia Prete, Anita D'Anselmo, Luca Tommasi, Alfredo Brancucci
Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been increasingly adopted to modulate perceptual and cognitive functions, but the effects on auditory perception are still relatively uncharted. Starting from the evidence that a stronger right ear advantage effect (REA) in dichotic listening positively correlates with speech sound processing, the present study was aimed at modulating the REA by means of high-frequency transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (hf-tRNS). Stimulation was applied over the auditory cortex (AC) either unilaterally (Experiment 1, N = 50) or bilaterally (Experiment 2, N = 24) during a verbal dichotic listening task...
March 13, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Neil E O'Connell, Louise Marston, Sally Spencer, Lorraine H DeSouza, Benedict M Wand
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in 2010, Issue 9, and last updated in 2014, Issue 4. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques aim to induce an electrical stimulation of the brain in an attempt to reduce chronic pain by directly altering brain activity. They include repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and reduced impedance non-invasive cortical electrostimulation (RINCE)...
March 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Siddharthan Surveswaran, Vinita Gowda, Mei Sun
Spiranthes (∼ 36 species, Orchidaceae) is a small genus with a global distribution. It has a center of diversity in North America with only a few species occurring in Asia. This study focuses on the Asian Spiranthes with an emphasis on understanding their biogeographic relationships and species delimitations using molecular markers. Our phylogenetic trees based on nuclear (ITS) and chloroplast (trnL-trnLF, matK and trnS-G) sequences from samples across their range in Asia revealed the Asian Spiranthes are monophyletic...
March 1, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Jia-Yong Zhang, Le-Ping Zhang, Dan-Na Yu, Kenneth B Storey, Rong-Quan Zheng
BACKGROUND: Complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes have been used extensively to test hypotheses about microevolution and to study population structure, phylogeography, and phylogenetic relationships of Anura at various taxonomic levels. Large-scale mt genomic reorganizations have been observed among many fork-tongued frogs (family Dicroglossidae). The relationships among Dicroglossidae and validation of the genus Feirana are still problematic. Hence, we sequenced the complete mt genomes of Nanorana taihangnica (=F...
February 27, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Li Qian, Wang Xiaoxi, Chen Xuexin, Han Baoyu
The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the Ectropis obliqua (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) was sequenced and compared with other species of Geometridae. The mitochondrial genome of E. obliqua is 15,475 bp long and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and an A + T-rich region. Gene cluster trnI-trnQ-trnM rearranged to trnM-trnI-trnQ comparing with the ancestral mitogenome of insects. All tRNA genes have typical cloverleaf secondary structure except for trnS (AGN)...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sarah C Tyler, Federica Contò, Lorella Battelli
This study explored the modulatory effects of high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) on visual sensitivity during a temporal attention task. We measured sensitivity to different onset asynchronies during a temporal order judgment task as a function of active stimulation relative to sham. While completing the task, participants were stimulated bilaterally for 20 min over either the TPJ or the human middle temporal area. We hypothesized that tRNS over the TPJ, which is critical to the temporal attention network, would selectively increase cortical excitability and induce cognitive training-like effects on performance, perhaps more so in the left visual field [Matthews, N...
May 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Huaxuan Liu, Liyun Yan, Guofang Jiang
In this study, we reported the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Sinopodisma pieli by polymerase chain reaction method for the first time, the type species of the genus Sinopodisma. Its mitogenome was a circular DNA molecule of 15,625 bp in length, with 76.0% A+T, and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes and one A+T control region. The overall base composition of the S. pieli mitogenome was 42.8% for A, 33.2% for T, 13.5% for C, and 10.5% for G, respectively...
December 12, 2017: Zootaxa
Jigar S Desai, Ryan C Sartor, Lovely Mae Lawas, S V Krishna Jagadish, Colleen J Doherty
Organisms respond to changes in their environment through transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs). The regulatory hierarchy of these networks can be inferred from expression data. Computational approaches to identify TRNs can be applied in any species where quality RNA can be acquired, However, ChIP-Seq and similar validation methods are challenging to employ in non-model species. Improving the accuracy of computational inference methods can significantly reduce the cost and time of subsequent validation experiments...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Carlo Cottone, Andrea Cancelli, Patrizio Pasqualetti, Camillo Porcaro, Carlo Salustri, Franca Tecchio
In this paper, we pose the following working hypothesis: in humans, transcranial electric stimulation (tES) with a time course that mimics the endogenous activity of its target is capable of altering the target's excitability. In our case, the target was the primary motor cortex (M1). We identified the endogenous neurodynamics of hand M1's subgroups of pyramidal neuronal pools in each of our subjects by applying Functional Source Separation (FSS) to their EEG recordings. We then tested whether the corticospinal excitability of the hand representation under the above described stimulation, which we named transcranial individual neurodynamics stimulation (tIDS), was higher than in the absence of stimulation (baseline)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Fernando Faria Franco, Cecília Leiko Jojima, Manolo Fernandez Perez, Daniela Cristina Zappi, Nigel Taylor, Evandro Marsola Moraes
In order to investigate biogeographic influences on xeric biota in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (BAF), a biodiversity hotspot, we used a monophyletic group including three cactus taxa as a model to perform a phylogeographic study: Cereus fernambucensis subsp. fernambucensis , C. fernambucensis subsp. sericifer , and C. insularis . These cacti are allopatric and grow in xeric habitats along BAF, including isolated granite and gneiss rock outcrops (Inselbergs), sand dune vegetation (Restinga forest), and the rocky shore of an oceanic archipelago (islands of Fernando de Noronha)...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Parul Sood, Kausalya Murthy, Vinod Kumar, Michael L Nonet, Gautam I Menon, Sandhya P Koushika
Steady axonal cargo flow is central to the functioning of healthy neurons. However, a substantial fraction of cargo in axons remains stationary up to several minutes. We examine the transport of precursors of synaptic vesicles (pre-SVs), endosomes and mitochondria in Caenorhabditis elegans touch receptor neurons, showing that stationary cargo are predominantly present at actin-rich regions along the neuronal process. Stationary vesicles at actin-rich regions increase the propensity of moving vesicles to stall at the same location, resulting in traffic jams arising from physical crowding...
March 2018: Traffic
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