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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986552/phylogeny-historical-biogeography-and-characters-evolution-of-the-drought-resistant-fern-pyrrosia-mirbel-polypodiaceae-inferred-from-plastid-and-nuclear-markers
#1
Xueping Wei, Yaodong Qi, Xianchun Zhang, Li Luo, Hui Shang, Ran Wei, Haitao Liu, Bengang Zhang
Pyrrosia s.l. comprises ca. 60 species with a disjunct Africa/Asia and Australia distribution. The infrageneric classification of Pyrrosia s.l. is controversial based on the phylogenetic analyses of chloroplast markers and morphology. Based on the expanded taxon sampling of Pyrrosia s.l. (51 species), we investigated its phylogeny, biogeography, character evolution and environmental adaptation by employing five chloroplastid markers (rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH, and rps4 + rps4-trnS) and one single (low)-copy nuclear gene, LEAFY...
October 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921774/modulating-vicarious-tactile-perception-with-transcranial-electrical-current-stimulation
#2
Natalie C Bowling, Michael J Banissy
Our capacity to share the experiences of others is a critical part of social behaviour. One process thought to be important for this is vicarious perception. Passively viewing touch activates some of the same network of brain regions as the direct experience of touch. This vicarious experience is usually implicit, but for some people, viewing touch evokes conscious tactile sensations (mirror-touch synaesthesia). Recent work has attempted to induce conscious vicarious touch in those that do not normally experience these sensations, using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)...
October 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912671/brownian-optogenetic-noise-photostimulation-on-the-brain-amplifies-somatosensory-evoked-field-potentials
#3
Nayeli Huidobro, Abraham Mendez-Fernandez, Ignacio Mendez-Balbuena, Ranier Gutierrez, Rumyana Kristeva, Elias Manjarrez
Stochastic resonance (SR) is an inherent and counter-intuitive mechanism of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) facilitation in biological systems associated with the application of an intermediate level of noise. As a first step to investigate in detail this phenomenon in the somatosensory system, here we examined whether the direct application of noisy light on pyramidal neurons from the mouse-barrel cortex expressing a light-gated channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) can produce facilitation in somatosensory evoked field potentials...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900180/emotion-perception-improvement-following-high-frequency-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-of-the-inferior-frontal-cortex
#4
Tegan Penton, Laura Dixon, Lauren Jayne Evans, Michael J Banissy
Facial emotion perception plays a key role in interpersonal communication and is a precursor for a variety of socio-cognitive abilities. One brain region thought to support emotion perception is the inferior frontal cortex (IFC). The current study aimed to examine whether modulating neural activity in the IFC using high frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) could enhance emotion perception abilities. In Experiment 1, participants received either tRNS to IFC or sham stimulation prior to completing facial emotion and identity perception tasks...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889119/sham-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-and-its-effects-on-corticospinal-excitability-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Thusharika D Dissanayaka, Maryam Zoghi, Michael Farrell, Gary F Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Sham stimulation is used in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the efficacy of active stimulation and placebo effects. It should mimic the characteristics of active stimulation to achieve blinding integrity. The present study was a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature to identify the effects of sham transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) - including anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS, c-tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) - on corticospinal excitability (CSE), compared to baseline in healthy individuals...
September 11, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874552/global-transcriptional-regulatory-network-for-escherichia-coli-robustly-connects-gene-expression-to-transcription-factor-activities
#6
Xin Fang, Anand Sastry, Nathan Mih, Donghyuk Kim, Justin Tan, James T Yurkovich, Colton J Lloyd, Ye Gao, Laurence Yang, Bernhard O Palsson
Transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) have been studied intensely for >25 y. Yet, even for the Escherichia coli TRN-probably the best characterized TRN-several questions remain. Here, we address three questions: (i) How complete is our knowledge of the E. coli TRN; (ii) how well can we predict gene expression using this TRN; and (iii) how robust is our understanding of the TRN? First, we reconstructed a high-confidence TRN (hiTRN) consisting of 147 transcription factors (TFs) regulating 1,538 transcription units (TUs) encoding 1,764 genes...
September 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804492/population-genetic-differentiation-and-taxonomy-of-three-closely-related-species-of-saxifraga-saxifragaceae-from-southern-tibet-and-the-hengduan-mountains
#7
Qing-Bo Gao, Yan Li, Zhuo-Ma Gengji, Richard J Gornall, Jiu-Li Wang, Hai-Rui Liu, Liu-Kun Jia, Shi-Long Chen
The effects of rapid, recent uplift of the Hengduan Mountains on evolution and diversification of young floristic lineages still remain unclear. Here, we investigate diversification of three closely related Saxifraga species with a distribution restricted to the Hengduan Mountains (HM) and southern Tibet, and comment on their taxonomy based on molecular evidence. Three chloroplast DNA fragments (rbcL, trnL-F, trnS-G) and the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) were employed to study genetic structure across 104 individuals from 12 populations of Saxifraga umbellulata, S...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709880/low-intensity-transcranial-electric-stimulation-safety-ethical-legal-regulatory-and-application-guidelines
#8
REVIEW
A Antal, I Alekseichuk, M Bikson, J Brockmöller, A R Brunoni, R Chen, L G Cohen, G Dowthwaite, J Ellrich, A Flöel, F Fregni, M S George, R Hamilton, J Haueisen, C S Herrmann, F C Hummel, J P Lefaucheur, D Liebetanz, C K Loo, C D McCaig, C Miniussi, P C Miranda, V Moliadze, M A Nitsche, R Nowak, F Padberg, A Pascual-Leone, W Poppendieck, A Priori, S Rossi, P M Rossini, J Rothwell, M A Rueger, G Ruffini, K Schellhorn, H R Siebner, Y Ugawa, A Wexler, U Ziemann, M Hallett, W Paulus
Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears to be safe. No serious adverse events (SAEs) have been reported so far in over 18,000 sessions administered to healthy subjects, neurological and psychiatric patients, as summarized here. Moderate adverse events (AEs), as defined by the necessity to intervene, are rare, and include skin burns with tDCS due to suboptimal electrode-skin contact...
September 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699187/does-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-enhance-corticospinal-excitability-of-the-motor-cortex-in-healthy-individuals-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Thusharika Dissanayaka, Maryam Zoghi, Michael Farrell, Gary F Egan, Shapour Jaberzadeh
Numerous studies have explored the effects of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) - including anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS), cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (c-tDCS), transcranial alternative current stimulation (tACS), transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS) - on corticospinal excitability (CSE) in healthy populations. However, the efficacy of these techniques and their optimal parameters for producing robust results has not been studied...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681715/motor-cortex-trns-improves-pain-affective-and-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-fibromyalgia-preliminary-results-of-a-randomised-sham-controlled-trial
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Massimiliano Curatolo, Giuseppe La Bianca, Giuseppe Cosentino, Roberta Baschi, Giuseppe Salemi, Rossella Talotta, Marcello Romano, Giovanni Triolo, Marina De Tommaso, Brigida Fierro, Filippo Brighina
OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinical syndrome characterised by widespread musculoskeletal pain, chronic fatigue, cognitive deficits, and sleep and mood disorders. The effectiveness of most pharmacological treatments is limited, and there is a need for new, effective and well-tolerated therapies. It has recently been shown that transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) of the motor cortex reduces pain, and that tDCS of the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) improves anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment in FM patients...
May 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680099/transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-and-cognitive-training-to-improve-learning-and-cognition-of-the-atypically-developing-brain-a-pilot-study
#11
Chung Yen Looi, Jenny Lim, Francesco Sella, Simon Lolliot, Mihaela Duta, Alexander Alexandrovich Avramenko, Roi Cohen Kadosh
Learning disabilities that affect about 10% of human population are linked to atypical neurodevelopment, but predominantly treated by behavioural interventions. Behavioural interventions alone have shown little efficacy, indicating limited success in modulating neuroplasticity, especially in brains with neural atypicalities. Even in healthy adults, weeks of cognitive training alone led to inconsistent generalisable training gains, or "transfer effects" to non-trained materials. Meanwhile, transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a painless and more direct neuromodulation method was shown to further promote cognitive training and transfer effects in healthy adults without harmful effects...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676740/modulation-of-illusory-auditory-perception-by-transcranial-electrical-stimulation
#12
Giulia Prete, Anita D'Anselmo, Luca Tommasi, Alfredo Brancucci
The aim of the present study was to test whether transcranial electrical stimulation can modulate illusory perception in the auditory domain. In two separate experiments we applied transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (anodal/cathodal tDCS, 2 mA; N = 60) and high-frequency transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (hf-tRNS, 1.5 mA, offset 0; N = 45) on the temporal cortex during the presentation of the stimuli eliciting the Deutsch's illusion. The illusion arises when two sine tones spaced one octave apart (400 and 800 Hz) are presented dichotically in alternation, one in the left and the other in the right ear, so that when the right ear receives the high tone, the left ear receives the low tone, and vice versa...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642686/transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-trns-shapes-the-processing-of-rapidly-changing-auditory-information
#13
Katharina S Rufener, Philipp Ruhnau, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Tino Zaehle
Neural oscillations in the gamma range are the dominant rhythmic activation pattern in the human auditory cortex. These gamma oscillations are functionally relevant for the processing of rapidly changing acoustic information in both speech and non-speech sounds. Accordingly, there is a tight link between the temporal resolution ability of the auditory system and inherent neural gamma oscillations. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) has been demonstrated to specifically increase gamma oscillation in the human auditory cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625658/enhancing-anger-perception-in-older-adults-by-stimulating-inferior-frontal-cortex-with-high-frequency-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation
#14
Tao Yang, Michael J Banissy
Extensive behavioural evidence has shown that older people have declined ability in facial emotion perception. Recent work has begun to examine the neural mechanism that contribute to this, and potential tools to support emotion perception during aging. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high frequency tRNS applied to the inferior frontal cortex would enhance facial expression perception in older adults. Healthy aged adults (60+ years) were randomly assigned to receive active high-frequency or sham tRNS targeted at bilateral inferior frontal cortices...
June 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582433/travelling-to-the-south-phylogeographic-spatial-diffusion-model-in-monttea-aphylla-plantaginaceae-an-endemic-plant-of-the-monte-desert
#15
Matias C Baranzelli, Andrea Cosacov, Gabriela Ferreiro, Leigh A Johnson, Alicia N Sérsic
Effects of Pleistocene climatic oscillations on plant phylogeographic patterns are relatively well studied in forest, savanna and grassland biomes, but such impacts remain less explored on desert regions of the world, especially in South America. Here, we performed a phylogeographical study of Monttea aphylla, an endemic species of the Monte Desert, to understand the evolutionary history of vegetation communities inhabiting the South American Arid Diagonal. We obtained sequences of three chloroplast (trnS-trnfM, trnH-psbA and trnQ-rps16) and one nuclear (ITS) intergenic spacers from 272 individuals of 34 localities throughout the range of the species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579999/development-of-chloroplast-and-nuclear-dna-markers-for-chinese-oaks-quercus-subgenus-quercus-and-assessment-of-their-utility-as-dna-barcodes
#16
Jia Yang, Lucía Vázquez, Xiaodan Chen, Huimin Li, Hao Zhang, Zhanlin Liu, Guifang Zhao
Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) is frequently used for species demography, evolution, and species discrimination of plants. However, the lack of efficient and universal markers often brings particular challenges for genetic studies across different plant groups. In this study, chloroplast genomes from two closely related species (Quercus rubra and Castanea mollissima) in Fagaceae were compared to explore universal cpDNA markers for the Chinese oak species in Quercus subgenus Quercus, a diverse species group without sufficient molecular differentiation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558789/repetitive-reaching-training-combined-with-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-in-stroke-survivors-with-chronic-and-severe-arm-paresis-is-feasible-a-pilot-triple-blind-randomised-case-series
#17
Kathryn S Hayward, Sandra G Brauer, Kathy L Ruddy, David Lloyd, Richard G Carson
BACKGROUND: Therapy that combines repetitive training with non-invasive brain stimulation is a potential avenue to enhance upper limb recovery after stroke. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS), timed to coincide with the generation of voluntary motor commands, during reaching training. METHODS: A triple-blind pilot RCT was completed. Four stroke survivors with chronic (6-months to 5-years) and severe arm paresis, not taking any medications that had the potential to alter cortical excitability, and no contraindications to tRNS or MRI were recruited...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538295/relationship-between-internal-load-indicators-and-changes-on-intermittent-performance-after-the-preseason-in-professional-soccer-players
#18
Miguel A Campos-Vazquez, Francisco J Toscano-Bendala, José C Mora-Ferrera, Luis J Suarez-Arrones
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of accumulated internal training load (ITL) during the preseason (4 weeks) on changes in the intermittent performance, in a professional soccer team. Twelve professionals soccer players (Mean ± SD age: 27.7 ± 4.3 years; height: 177.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 73.1 ± 5.2 kg; % body fat [Faulkner]: 10.2 ± 1.2) belonging to a Spanish second division team (2013-2014) participated in this study. The 30-15 intermittent fitness test was performed before and after the preseason, and the speed for the last period completed by each player was recorded (VIFT)...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515737/the-complete-plastome-sequences-of-four-orchid-species-insights-into-the-evolution-of-the-orchidaceae-and-the-utility-of-plastomic-mutational-hotspots
#19
Zhitao Niu, Qingyun Xue, Shuying Zhu, Jing Sun, Wei Liu, Xiaoyu Ding
Orchidaceae (orchids) is the largest family in the monocots, including about 25,000 species in 880 genera and five subfamilies. Many orchids are highly valued for their beautiful and long-lasting flowers. However, the phylogenetic relationships among the five orchid subfamilies remain unresolved. The major dispute centers on whether the three one-stamened subfamilies, Epidendroideae, Orchidoideae, and Vanilloideae, are monophyletic or paraphyletic. Moreover, structural changes in the plastid genome (plastome) and the effective genetic loci at the species-level phylogenetics of orchids have rarely been documented...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510199/taxonomic-placement-of-paphiopedilum-rungsuriyanum-cypripedioideae-orchidaceae-based-on-morphological-cytological-and-molecular-analyses
#20
Yung-I Lee, Mei-Chu Chung, Kongmany Sydara, Onevilay Souliya, Sulivong Luang Aphay
BACKGROUND: Paphiopedilum rungsuriyanum from Northern Laos was discovered and described in 2014. It is characterized by having miniature tessellated leaves, a flower having a helmet shaped lip with a V-shaped neckline, and a semi-lunate, 3-dentate staminode with an umbo. These morphological features distinguish P. rungsuriyanum from the other known sections/subgenera of Paphiopedilum, making it difficult to group with existing infrageneric units. RESULTS: Paphiopedilum rungsuriyanum has chromosome number of 2n = 26...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
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