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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607218/nutritional-ketosis-and-mitohormesis-potential-implications-for-mitochondrial-function-and-human-health
#1
REVIEW
Vincent J Miller, Frederick A Villamena, Jeff S Volek
Impaired mitochondrial function often results in excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is involved in the etiology of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. Moderate levels of mitochondrial ROS, however, can protect against chronic disease by inducing upregulation of mitochondrial capacity and endogenous antioxidant defense. This phenomenon, referred to as mitohormesis, is induced through increased reliance on mitochondrial respiration, which can occur through diet or exercise...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602453/sglt2-inhibitor-induced-euglycaemic-diabetic-ketoacidosis-may-be-due-to-abrupt-severe-and-transient-impaired-glucose-sensing-in-susceptible-individuals-with-a-hitherto-unrecognised-beta-cell-sglt-variant
#2
F M Finucane
Euglycaemic diabetic ketoacidosis (EDKA) is a rare complication of treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Uncertainty remains about its precise mechanistic basis, but the physiological derangement is acute and profound, yet reversible with cessation of the drug. It is reminiscent of other "non type 1" presentations with DKA such as ketosis prone diabetes, except that glucose levels are usually normal. Impaired beta cell glucose sensing that mimicked a state of hypoglycaemia could theoretically lead to abrupt and transient cessation of insulin secretion...
May 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600506/prediabetes-directly-deteriorates-into-diabetic-ketoacidosis-and-hyperosmolar-hyperglycemic-syndrome-triggered-by-acute-pancreatitis-a-case-report-illustrating-a-chicken-and-egg-paradigm-in-ketosis-prone-diabetes
#3
Runbo Song, Shanjin Cao
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic crises occur most often in patients with type 1 diabetes and occasionally in type 2 diabetes, especially under stressful conditions. However, a diabetic crisis occurring directly from prediabetes is an unusual phenomenon. CASE REPORT: A 45-year-old woman presented with postprandial left upper quadrant abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. She had a past medical history of prediabetes with impaired fasting glucose and HbA1c 6.4%. On admission, routine laboratory tests showed high anion gap metabolic acidosis (pH 6...
March 29, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573166/suboptimal-behaviour-and-knowledge-regarding-overnight-glycaemia-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-is-common
#4
Christina R Larsson, Andrzej S Januszewski, Rachel T McGrath, Johnny Ludvigsson, Anthony C Keech, Richard J MacIsaac, Glenn M Ward, David N O'Neal, Gregory R Fulcher, Alicia J Jenkins
BACKGROUND: In people with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) nocturnal hypoglycaemia (NH) can be slept through, and can cause seizures, arrhythmias and death. Hypoglycaemia avoidance can induce hyperglycaemia and ketosis. Patient behaviour impacts clinical outcomes and may be changed by education. AIM: To develop and utilise a survey to evaluate patient self-management of overnight glycaemia in adults with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Adults with T1D attending two Australian tertiary referral diabetes clinics completed a survey about their diabetes self-management and glycaemic control, including their responses to hypothetical pre-bed blood glucose (BG) levels (4-20mmol/L)...
March 23, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555548/working-party-approved-by-the-french-society-of-anaesthesia-and-intensive-care-medicine-sfar-and-the-french-society-for-the-study-of-diabetes-sfd
#5
Gaëlle Cheisson, Sophie Jacqueminet, Emmanuel Cosson, Carole Ichai, Anne-Marie Leguerrier, Bogdan Nicolescu-Catargi, Alexandre Ouattara, Igor Tauveron, Paul Valensi, Dan Benhamou
Follow on from continuous intravenous administration of insulin with an electronic syringe (IVES) is an important element in the postoperative management of a diabetic patient. The basal-bolus scheme is the most suitable taking into account the nutritional supply and variable needs for insulin, reproducing the physiology of a normal pancreas: (i) slow (long-acting) insulin (= basal) which should immediately take over from IVES insulin simulating basal secretion; (ii) ultra-rapid insulin to simulate prandial secretion (= bolus for the meal); and (iii) correction of possible hyperglycaemia with an additional ultra-rapid insulin bolus dose...
March 16, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513157/use-of-lispro-insulin-for-treatment-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-cats
#6
Eleonora Malerba, Michela Mazzarino, Francesca Del Baldo, Sara Corradini, Gaia Carotenuto, Massimo Giunti, Federico Fracassi
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lispro insulin for the treatment of feline diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Times to resolution of hyperglycaemia, ketosis and acidosis were compared between cats treated with continuous rate infusion (CRI) of lispro insulin and cats treated with CRI of regular insulin. Methods Client-owned cats with naturally occurring DKA, newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) or already receiving treatment for DM, were included. Diagnosis of DKA involved the presence of at least two clinical signs consistent with DKA (eg, polyuria/polydipsia, anorexia, severe lethargy, vomiting and dehydration), blood glucose (BG) concentration >13...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510081/vildagliptin-pioglitazone-combination-improved-the-overall-glycemic-control-in-type-i-diabetic-rats
#7
Amir M Abdelhamid, Rania Ramadan Abdelaziz, Hatem A Salem
Type I diabetes (TID) is generally assumed to be caused by an immune associated, if not directly immune-mediated, destruction of pancreatic β-cells. In patients with long-term diabetes, the pancreas lacks insulin-producing cells and the residual β-cells are unable to regenerate. Patients with TID are subjected to a lifelong insulin therapy which shows risks of hypoglycemia, suboptimal control and ketosis. In this study, we investigated the potential role of Vildagliptin (Vilda) alone or in combination with Pioglitazone (Pio), as treatment regimens for TID using Streptozotocin (STZ) induced TID model in rats...
March 6, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505160/management-of-type-1-diabetes-should-be-different-from-type-2-diabetes-at-hospital-admission
#8
H K Akturk
Breuker et al. [1] highlighted that patients with Type 1 diabetes have an approximately twofold higher risk of medication errors at hospital admission compared with those with Type 2 diabetes. There are certain differences in the pathophysiology of the two types of diabetes that need to be considered during diabetes care at hospitals. Patients with Type 1 diabetes have higher glucose variability than those with Type 2 diabetes during the hospital stay [2]. Inpatient mortality is higher in patients with Type 1 diabetes [3]...
March 5, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490106/arginine-metabolism-and-a-%C3%AE-ketosis-prone-diabetes
#9
Michael S Boyne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490093/arginine-metabolism-is-altered-in-adults-with-a-%C3%AE-ketosis-prone-diabetes
#10
Surya N Mulukutla, Jean W Hsu, Ruchi Gaba, Kurt M Bohren, Anu Guthikonda, Dinakar Iyer, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Christiane S Hampe, Nalini Ram, Farook Jahoor, Ashok Balasubramanyam
Background: A-β + ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is a subset of type 2 diabetes in which patients have severe but reversible β cell dysfunction of unknown etiology. Plasma metabolomic analysis indicates that abnormal arginine metabolism may be involved. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the relation between gut microbiome and arginine metabolism and the relation between arginine availability and β cell function in KPD patients compared with control participants...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483894/clinical-characteristics-of-wolfram-syndrome-in-chinese-population-and-a-novel-frameshift-mutation-in-wfs1
#11
Lian Duan, Qian Li, An-Li Tong, Jiang-Feng Mao, Miao Yu, Tao Yuan, Xiao-Feng Chai, Feng Gu
Objective: Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare, degenerative, and hereditary disorder characterized by ear diabetes mellitus (DM) and optic atrophy (OA). We aim to characterize clinical features in Chinese patients who had been poorly studied until now. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients with WS seen in the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2002 to 2017. Data including demographic data, clinical presentations, examination results, family history, and genetic analysis were described...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483798/electrocardiographic-changes-in-children-with-diabetic-ketoacidosis-and-ketosis
#12
Deniz Aygün, Fatih Aygün, Kemal Nişli, Firdevs Baş, Agop Çıtak
Aim: We aimed to study electrocardiographic changes in children with diabetic ketoacidosis and ketosis and to evaluate the relation of the changes with serum electrolyte levels and ketosis. Material and Methods: This study was performed in Istanbul Medical Faculty, Pediatric Emergency and Intensive Care Department between May 2008 and May 2009. The electrocardiographic parameters and QT length of children with diabetic ketoacidosis and ketosis were evaluated at diagnosis and after the treatment...
December 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438473/in-uncontrolled-diabetes-hyperglucagonemia-and-ketosis-result-from-deficient-leptin-action-in-the-parabrachial-nucleus
#13
Thomas H Meek, Miles E Matsen, Chelsea L Faber, Colby L Samstag, Vincent Damian, Hong T Nguyen, Jarrad M Scarlett, Jonathan N Flak, Martin G Myers, Gregory J Morton
Growing evidence implicates neurons that project from the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) to the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMN) in a neurocircuit that drives counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia, including increased glucagon secretion. Among LPBN neurons in this circuit is a subset that expresses cholecystokinin (LPBNCCK neurons) and is tonically inhibited by leptin. Since uncontrolled diabetes is associated with both leptin deficiency and hyperglucagonemia, and since intracerebroventricular (icv) leptin administration reverses both hyperglycemia and hyperglucagonemia in this setting, we hypothesized that deficient leptin inhibition of LPBNCCK neurons drives activation of this LPBN→VMN circuit and thereby results in hyperglucagonemia...
February 8, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431405/hyperosmolar-hyperglycemic-state
#14
Gregg D Stoner
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is a life-threatening emergency manifested by marked elevation of blood glucose and hyperosmolarity with little or no ketosis. Although there are multiple precipitating causes, underlying infections are the most common. Other causes include certain medications, nonadherence to therapy, undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, substance abuse, and coexisting disease. In children and adolescents, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is often present when type 2 diabetes is diagnosed. Physical findings include profound dehydration and neurologic symptoms ranging from lethargy to coma...
December 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424410/-diabetes-mellitus-caused-by-a-mutation-of-glucokinase-gene-report-of-an-affected-family
#15
Felipe Pollak C, Marcela Lagos L, José L Santos M, Helena Poggi, Abraham Urzúa C, Hana Rumié C
Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) refers to a heterogeneous group of monogenic diabetes. Unlike other types of MODY characterized by genetic defects in transcription factors, MODY 2 is triggered by metabolic alterations caused by mutations of glucokinase (GCK), the first enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. We report a three-generation Chilean family with multiple cases affected with this disease. The index case is a patient who presented severe neonatal hyperglycemia (831 mg/dl, without ketosis) requiring continuous infusion of insulin, which was suspended after 48 hours with normalization of blood glucose...
September 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417495/effectiveness-and-safety-of-a-novel-care-model-for-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes-at-1%C3%A2-year-an-open-label-non-randomized-controlled-study
#16
Sarah J Hallberg, Amy L McKenzie, Paul T Williams, Nasir H Bhanpuri, Anne L Peters, Wayne W Campbell, Tamara L Hazbun, Brittanie M Volk, James P McCarter, Stephen D Phinney, Jeff S Volek
INTRODUCTION: Carbohydrate restriction markedly improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) but necessitates prompt medication changes. Therefore, we assessed the effectiveness and safety of a novel care model providing continuous remote care with medication management based on biometric feedback combined with the metabolic approach of nutritional ketosis for T2D management. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, non-randomized, controlled, before-and-after 1-year study of this continuous care intervention (CCI) and usual care (UC)...
February 7, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390915/real-time-detection-of-infusion-site-failures-in-a-closed-loop-artificial-pancreas
#17
Daniel P Howsmon, Nihat Baysal, Bruce A Buckingham, Gregory P Forlenza, Trang T Ly, David M Maahs, Tatiana Marcal, Lindsey Towers, Eric Mauritzen, Sunil Deshpande, Lauren M Huyett, Jordan E Pinsker, Ravi Gondhalekar, Francis J Doyle, Eyal Dassau, Juergen Hahn, B Wayne Bequette
BACKGROUND: As evidence emerges that artificial pancreas systems improve clinical outcomes for patients with type 1 diabetes, the burden of this disease will hopefully begin to be alleviated for many patients and caregivers. However, reliance on automated insulin delivery potentially means patients will be slower to act when devices stop functioning appropriately. One such scenario involves an insulin infusion site failure, where the insulin that is recorded as delivered fails to affect the patient's glucose as expected...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225978/coexistence-of-gh-producing-pituitary-macroadenoma-and-meningioma-in-a-patient-with-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-1-with-hyperglycemia-and-ketosis-as-first-clinical-sign
#18
A Herrero-Ruiz, H S Villanueva-Alvarado, J J Corrales-Hernández, C Higueruela-Mínguez, J Feito-Pérez, J M Recio-Cordova
We present the clinical case of a patient who was admitted with an onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) with associated ketosis and whose clinical, hormonal, and radiological evolution revealed the presence of primary hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, and GH-producing pituitary macroadenoma in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). DM is relatively common in cases of acromegaly, but it is not generally associated with ketosis. Simultaneously, the patient presented a meningioma, which is associated with pituitary macroadenoma only in extremely rare cases...
2017: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175806/the-distribution-of-different-types-of-diabetes-in-childhood-a-single-center-experience
#19
Belma Haliloğlu, Saygın Abali, Fuat Buğrul, Enes Çelik, Serpil Baş, Zeynep Atay, Tülay Güran, Serap Turan, Abdullah Bereket
OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the most common cause of diabetes in childhood but type 2 diabetes (T2D) and maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) are emerging and noteworthy causes of diabetes in youths. The aim of the study is to determine the distribution, trends and clinical features of the different types of diabetes in childhood in a tertiary single-center. METHODS: Children and adolescents aged 0-18 years who were diagnosed "diabetes/persistent hyperglycemia" between January 1999 and December 2016, were reviewed...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175121/elevated-unmethylated-and-methylated-insulin-dna-are-unique-markers-of-a-%C3%AE-ketosis-prone-diabetes
#20
Surya N Mulukutla, Sarah A Tersey, Christiane S Hampe, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Ashok Balasubramanyam
A+β+ ketosis prone diabetes (KPD) is associated with slowly progressive autoimmune beta cell destruction. Plasma unmethylated and methylated insulin DNA (biomarkers of ongoing beta cell damage and systemic inflammation, respectively) were elevated in A+β+ KPD compared to all other KPD subgroups.
February 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
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