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Getahun E Agga, John W Schmidt, Terrance M Arthur
: Concerns have been raised that in-feed chlortetracycline (CTC) may increase antimicrobial resistance (AMR), specifically tetracycline-resistant (TET(r)) Escherichia coli, and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GC(r)) E. coli We evaluated the impact of a 5-day in-feed CTC prophylaxis on animal health, TET(r) E. coli, and 3GC(r) E. coli A "control group" of cattle (n = 150) received no CTC, while a "CTC group" (n = 150) received in-feed CTC (10 mg/lb of body weight/day) from the 5th to the 9th day after feedlot arrival...
October 7, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Laetitia Duval, François-Charles Wolff, Martin McKee, Bayard Roberts
AIM: To investigate differences in vaccination coverage between Roma and otherwise comparable non-Roma children, including factors associated with the vaccination gap, health care access and discrimination faced by Roma. METHODS: We analyse data from the Roma Regional Survey 2011 implemented in twelve countries of Central and South-East Europe. Our sample comprises 8233 children aged up to 6 with 7072 Roma children and 1161 non-Roma children. Estimates of the Roma vaccination gap are estimated using Logit regressions...
October 7, 2016: Vaccine
Ylenia Pennacchi, Sho Shirakashi, Barbara F Nowak, Andrew R Bridle
Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, due to its high average price on the market is an economically valuable fish species. Infections by blood flukes from the genus Cardicola (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae) represent a growing concern for the cage culture of bluefin tuna in Japan, Australia and Southern Europe. The accumulation of numerous Cardicola eggs in the fish gills causes severe pathology that has been linked to mortality in PBT juveniles up to one year old. The only effective treatment used to mitigate the infection is the oral administration of the antihelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ) to the affected fish...
October 1, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yang Zhou, Zonglin Liu, Yuchen Chen, Li Hua Jin
Traditional medicinal plants are widely used as immunomodulatory medicines that help improve health. A total of 50 different plants used for the treatment of toxicity were screened for their in vivo protective effects. Flies were fed a standard cornmeal-yeast medium (control group) or the standard medium containing medicinal plant extracts (experimental groups). Assessment of the survival rate was performed by feeding flies with toxic compounds. Gut epithelial cells were analyzed for cell proliferation and death by green fluorescent protein antibodies and 7-aminoactinomycin D staining under the microscope...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Corinde E Wiers, Thomas E Gladwin, Vera U Ludwig, Sonja Gröpper, Heiner Stuke, Christiane K Gawron, Reinout W Wiers, Henrik Walter, Felix Bermpohl
AIMS: There is accumulating evidence that automatic processes play a large role in alcohol dependence, which may be related to alcohol craving and consumption. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cognitive biases in alcohol-dependent patients, and how these measures relate to drinking behavior. METHODS: Thirty alcohol-dependent patients and 15 healthy controls (matched for age, intelligence and education; all male) completed three cognitive bias tasks: the Implicit Association Test (IAT: alcohol-approach association), Approach Avoidance Task (AAT: alcohol approach bias) and Dot Probe Task (DPT: alcohol attentional bias)...
September 20, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Ari Shinojima, Ryusaburo Mori, Hiroyuki Nakashizuka, Hiroyuki Shimada
PURPOSE: To clarify differences between eyes showing hyperautofluorescent choroidal vessels in both nasal and temporal, or only the nasal, portions of the fundus using fundus autofluorescence. METHODS: Nineteen eyes with hyperautofluorescent vessels in both nasal and temporal portions (group 1) and 17 only the nasal portion (group 2) of the fundus were studied. Choroidal and retinal thicknesses (foveal, and nasal and temporal 3,000 µm from the fovea), axial length, and refraction were compared between the two groups...
September 10, 2016: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
L C Pérez-Cogollo, R I Rodríguez-Vivas, E Reyes-Novelo, H Delfín-González, D Muñoz-Rodríguez
Two bioassays were conducted in parallel to assess the effects of cattle treated with either 1% ivermectin (IVM) or 3.15% IVM (dosed at 0.2 and 0.63 mg kg-1, respectively) on reproduction and survival of Onthophagus landolti Harold. Adult beetles were exposed 10 days to faeces of treated cattle starting at: one day before treatment (controls), 3, 6, 14, 28 and 35 days post-treatment. Adult survival of O. landolti was not affected by either of the two treatments. Faecal residues of 1% IVM almost completely suppressed fecundity of beetles at 3, 6 and 14 days post-treatment (dPT), and reduced fecundity of O...
September 9, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Li Chen, Xiaozhen Du, Lin Zhang, Michelle Helena van Velthoven, Qiong Wu, Ruikan Yang, Ying Cao, Wei Wang, Lihui Xie, Xiuqin Rao, Yanfeng Zhang, Jeanne Catherine Koepsell
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an EPI smartphone application (EPI app) on improving vaccination coverage in rural Sichuan Province, China. METHODS: This matched-pair cluster randomized controlled study included 32 village doctors, matched in 16 pairs, and took place from 2013 to 2015. Village doctors in the intervention group used the EPI app and reminder text messages while village doctors in the control group used their usual procedures and text messages...
2016: BMC Public Health
Meyada Khaled, Ghania Belaaloui, Zhen-Zhou Jiang, Xiong Zhu, Lu-Yong Zhang
Recently, biologically active compounds isolated from plants used in herbal medicine have been the center of interest. Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT), structurally closely related to the lignan podophyllotoxin, was found to be a potent antitumor and antiproliferative agent, in several tumor cells, in vitro. However, DPT has not been used clinically yet because of the lack of in vivo studies. This study is the first report demonstrating the antitumor effect of DPT on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice...
October 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Han-Fang Wu, Po See Chen, Yi-Ju Chen, Chi-Wei Lee, I-Tuan Chen, Hui-Ching Lin
The amygdala plays crucial roles in socio-emotional behavior and cognition, both of which are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Valproic acid (VPA)-exposed rat offspring have demonstrated ASD phenotypes and amygdala excitatory/inhibitory imbalance. However, the role of glutamatergic synapses in this imbalance remains unclear. In this study, we used a VPA-induced ASD-like model to assess glutamatergic synapse-dependent long-term depression (LTD) and depotentiation (DPT) in the amygdala. We first confirmed that the VPA-exposed offspring exhibited sociability deficits, anxiety, depression-like behavior, and abnormal nociception thresholds...
August 30, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Laleh Haghverdi, Maren Büttner, F Alexander Wolf, Florian Buettner, Fabian J Theis
The temporal order of differentiating cells is intrinsically encoded in their single-cell expression profiles. We describe an efficient way to robustly estimate this order according to diffusion pseudotime (DPT), which measures transitions between cells using diffusion-like random walks. Our DPT software implementations make it possible to reconstruct the developmental progression of cells and identify transient or metastable states, branching decisions and differentiation endpoints.
October 2016: Nature Methods
Anca-Mirela Chiriac, Ticha Rerkpattanapipat, Philippe-Jean Bousquet, Nicolas Molinari, Pascal Demoly
BACKGROUND: Drug provocation tests (DPT) are commonly performed as part of ß-lactam allergy work-up, in case of negative skin tests, and in the absence of contraindications. The recommendations of learned societies have created a frame for DPT performance, but protocols vary widely between centres, generating various hypothesis-driven protocols (i.e., empirical dosing, driven by both safety concerns and practical aspects). METHODS: The primary objective of this retrospective analysis was to detect eliciting dose thresholds (reactive doses) during ß-lactam DPT, using the survival analysis method, in order to suggest optimal step doses...
August 29, 2016: Allergy
Christopher H Wise, Ronald J Schenk, Jill Black Lattanzi
BACKGROUND: Despite emerging evidence to support the use of high velocity thrust manipulation in the management of lumbar spinal conditions, utilization of thrust manipulation among clinicians remains relatively low. One reason for the underutilization of these procedures may be related to disparity in training in the performance of these techniques at the professional and post professional levels. PURPOSE: To assess the effect of using a new model of active learning on participant confidence in the performance of spinal thrust manipulation and the implications for its use in the professional and post-professional training of physical therapists...
July 2016: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
Yuichi Hirai, Takayuki Nakanishi, Yuichi Kitagawa, Koji Fushimi, Tomohiro Seki, Hajime Ito, Yasuchika Hasegawa
Novel Eu(III) coordination polymers [Eu(hfa)3 (dpt)]n (dpt: 2,5-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)thiophene) and [Eu(hfa)3 (dpedot)]n (dpedot: 2,5-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)ethylenedioxythiophene) with hydrogen-bonded zipper structures are reported. The coordination polymers are composed of Eu(III) ions, hexafluoroacetylacetonato ligands, and thiophene-based phosphine oxide bridges. The zig-zag orientation of single polymer chains induced the formation of densely packed coordination structures with multiple intermolecular interactions, resulting in thermal stability above 300 °C...
September 19, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Wiparat Manuyakorn, Prapasiri Singvijarn, Suwat Benjaponpitak, Wasu Kamchaisatian, Ticha Rerkpattanapipat, Cherapat Sasisakulporn, Wanlapa Jotikasthira
OBJECTIVE: Skin testing with penicilloyl-polylysine (PPL) and a minor determinant mixture (MDM) were previously recommended for evaluating β-lactam hypersensitivity. However, PPL and MDM have not been commercially available. This study was to determine the negative predictive value (NPV) of skin testing with β-lactam antibiotics for the diagnosis of β-lactam hypersensitivity. METHOD: Patients age 1-18 years old with a history of β-lactam hypersensitivity were evaluated by skin tests (a skin prick test, an intradermal test) with penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and the suspect βlactam...
September 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Anurag Verma, Shefali S Verma, Sarah A Pendergrass, Dana C Crawford, David R Crosslin, Helena Kuivaniemi, William S Bush, Yuki Bradford, Iftikhar Kullo, Suzette J Bielinski, Rongling Li, Joshua C Denny, Peggy Peissig, Scott Hebbring, Mariza De Andrade, Marylyn D Ritchie, Gerard Tromp
BACKGROUND: We explored premature stop-gain variants to test the hypothesis that variants, which are likely to have a consequence on protein structure and function, will reveal important insights with respect to the phenotypes associated with them. We performed a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) exploring the association between a selected list of functional stop-gain genetic variants (variation resulting in truncated proteins or in nonsense-mediated decay) and an extensive group of diagnoses to identify novel associations and uncover potential pleiotropy...
2016: BMC Medical Genomics
Kohei Yamada, Yukiko Karuo, Yuichi Tsukada, Munetaka Kunishima
An extremely mild method for amide-cleavage by using the triazine-based benzylating reagent 4-(4,6-diphenoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-benzylmorpholinium trifluoromethanesulfonate (DPT-BM), which spontaneously releases benzyl cation species when being dissolved at room temperature, has been developed. O-Benzylation of the amide with DPT-BM and the subsequent hydrolysis of the resulting intermediate benzyl imidate salt afford the corresponding amine and benzyl ester, which can be converted by hydrogenolysis into a carboxylic acid under neutral conditions...
September 19, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Cemile Sönmez, Nilay Çöplü, Ayşegül Gözalan, Ülkü Yılmaz, Selen Bilekli, Nilgün Yılmaz Demirci, Çiğdem Biber, Yurdanur Erdoğan, Berrin Esen, Lütfi Çöplü
Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable disease that is transmitted from infected to susceptible individuals by respiratory route. Bordetella pertussis infection may occur at any age as neither vaccine nor natural infection induced immunity lasts life-long. This study was planned to demonstrate the serological evidence of infection among adults, to raise awareness among clinicians and to provide data for the development of strategies to protect vulnerable infants. A total of 538 patients (345 female, 193 male) ages between 18-87 years who had a complain of prolonged cough for more than two weeks were included in the study...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
R B Amansakhedov, I V Limarova, A V Perfiliev, R Yu Abdullaev, A T Sigaev, A E Ergeshov
OBJECTIVE: to improve the differential diagnosis of disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis (DPT) and exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA) via comparative investigation of their computed tomography (CT) semiotics and identification of the most informative diagnostic criteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 70 patients, including 40 patients with DPT in a phase of infiltration and 30 patients with acute EAA, were studied using a Somatom Emotion 16 multi-slice spiral CT scanner (Siemens)...
March 2016: Vestnik Rentgenologii i Radiologii
C Alves, A M Romeira, C Abreu, P Carreiro-Martins, E Gomes, P Leiria-Pinto
INTRODUCTION: There are rather few publications about hypersensitivity reactions to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) in the paediatric age. In this study, we aimed to assess the frequency of confirmed NSAID hypersensitivity in children with a previous reported reaction to NSAID in order to investigate the role of the drug provocation test (DPT) in the diagnostic workup and to explore the factors associated with confirmed NSAID hypersensitivity. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the clinical files from every patient under 18 years old who attended two Portuguese paediatric allergy outpatient clinics, from January 2009 to August 2014, due to a suspected NSAID hypersensitivity...
July 27, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
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