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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635569/stratification-model-based-on-early-postprostatectomy-prostate-specific-antigen-kinetics-may-help-to-reduce-the-risk-of-overtreatment-in-candidates-for-adjuvant-radiotherapy
#1
Stepan Vesely, Ladislav Jarolim, Marek Schmidt, Joana Do Carmo Silva, Katerina Duskova, Marko Babjuk
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to construct a stratification model based on early postoperative kinetics of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to select the most suitable high-risk patients for early intervention after radical prostatectomy (RP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study evaluated 205 men who had undergone RP without any adjuvant treatment. All of the patients had positive surgical margins, extracapsular extension and/or seminal vesicle invasion. The patients underwent multiple ultrasensitive PSA measurements on days 14, 30, 60 and 90 after RP, and subsequently at 3 month intervals...
February 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635506/an-individualised-acoustically-transparent-earpiece-for-hearing-devices
#2
Florian Denk, Marko Hiipakka, Birger Kollmeier, Stephan M A Ernst
OBJECTIVE: An important and often still unresolved problem of hearing devices such as assistive listening devices and hearing aids is limited user acceptance - a primary reason is poor conservation quality of the acoustic environment. Approaching a possible solution to this problem, an earpiece prototype is presented and evaluated. The prototype is individually and automatically calibrated in situ to provide acoustical transparency, i.e., achieving an audio perception alike to the open ear...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634768/futile-treatment-a-review
#3
Lenko Šarić, Ivana Prkić, Marko Jukić
The main goal of intensive care medicine is helping patients survive acute threats to their lives, while preserving and restoring life quality. Because of medical advancements, it is now possible to sustain life to an extent that would previously have been difficult to imagine. However, the goals of medicine are not to preserve organ function or physiological activity but to treat and improve the health of a person as a whole. When dealing with medical futilities, physicians and other members of the care team should be aware of some ethical principles...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626828/contribution-of-risk-factors-to-excess-mortality-in-isolated-and-lonely-individuals-an-analysis-of-data-from-the-uk-biobank-cohort-study
#4
Marko Elovainio, Christian Hakulinen, Laura Pulkki-Råback, Marianna Virtanen, Kim Josefsson, Markus Jokela, Jussi Vahtera, Mika Kivimäki
BACKGROUND: The associations of social isolation and loneliness with premature mortality are well known, but the risk factors linking them remain unclear. We sought to identify risk factors that might explain the increased mortality in socially isolated and lonely individuals. METHODS: We used prospective follow-up data from the UK Biobank cohort study to assess self-reported isolation (a three-item scale) and loneliness (two questions). The main outcomes were all-cause and cause-specific mortality...
June 2017: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621824/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-novel-tyrosine-based-dna-gyrase-b-inhibitors
#5
Andrej E Cotman, Marko Trampuž, Matjaž Brvar, Danijel Kikelj, Janez Ilaš, Lucija Peterlin-Mašič, Sofia Montalvão, Päivi Tammela, Rok Frlan
The discovery and synthesis of new tyrosine-based inhibitors of DNA gyrase B (GyrB), which target its ATPase subunit, is reported. Twenty-four compounds were synthesized and evaluated for activity against DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV. The antibacterial properties of selected GyrB inhibitors were demonstrated by their activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis in the low micromolar range. The most promising compounds, 8a and 13e, inhibited Escherichia coli and S. aureus GyrB with IC50 values of 40 and 30 µM...
June 16, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620838/modelling-fus-mislocalisation-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-innervated-human-muscle
#6
Sonja Prpar Mihevc, Mojca Pavlin, Simona Darovic, Marko Živin, Matej Podbregar, Boris Rogelj, Tomaz Mars
Degeneration of distal axons and neuromuscular junctions is an early feature in the pathology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which culminates in motor neuron loss due to axon retraction and muscle atrophy. The complex interactions in the pathogenesis of ALS between motor neurons, muscle cells and accompanying glia require an appropriate experimental model. Here, we have defined a co-culture model based on human myotubes innervated by neurons from embryonic rat spinal cord explants to investigate the pathology and treatment of ALS...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618488/torque-and-buckling-in-stretched-intertwined-double-helix-dnas
#7
Sumitabha Brahmachari, John F Marko
We present a statistical-mechanical model for the behavior of intertwined DNAs, with a focus on their torque and extension as a function of their catenation (linking) number and applied force, as studied in magnetic tweezers experiments. Our model produces results in good agreement with available experimental data and predicts a catenation-dependent effective twist modulus distinct from what is observed for twisted individual double-helix DNAs. We find that buckling occurs near the point where experiments have observed a kink in the extension versus linking number, and that the subsequent "supercoiled braid" state corresponds to a proliferation of multiple small plectoneme structures...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616982/destabilization-of-titania-nanosheet-suspensions-by-inorganic-salts-hofmeister-series-and-schulze-hardy-rule
#8
Paul Rouster, Marko Pavlovic, István Szilágyi
Ion specific effects on colloidal stability of titania nanosheets (TNS) were investigated in aqueous suspensions. The charge of the particles was varied by the pH of the solutions, therefore, the influence of mono and multivalent anions on the charging and aggregation behavior could be studied, when they were present either as counter or coions in the systems. The aggregation processes in the presence of inorganic salts were mainly driven by interparticle forces of electrostatic origin, however, chemical interactions between more complex ions and the surface led to additional attractive forces...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614279/reoperation-rates-following-instrumented-lumbar-spine-fusion
#9
Tero Matti Irmola, Arja Häkkinen, Salme Järvenpää, Ilkka Marttinen, Kimmo Vihtonen, Marko Neva
STUDY DESIGN: OBJECTIVE.: This study evaluated the cumulativereoperation rate and indications for reoperation following instrumented lumbar spine fusion (LSF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: LSF reduces disability and improves health-related quality of life for patients with several spinal disorders. The rate of instrumented LSF has drastically increased over the last few decades.The increased incidence of LSF, however, has led to increased reoperation rates. METHODS: The data are based on the prospective LSF database of Tampere University Hospital that includes all elective indications for LSF surgery...
June 13, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611621/whole-body-awareness-for-controlling-a-robotic-transfemoral-prosthesis
#10
Andrea Parri, Elena Martini, Joost Geeroms, Louis Flynn, Guido Pasquini, Simona Crea, Raffaele Molino Lova, Dirk Lefeber, Roman Kamnik, Marko Munih, Nicola Vitiello
Restoring locomotion functionality of transfemoral amputees is essential for early rehabilitation treatment and for preserving mobility and independence in daily life. Research in wearable robotics fostered the development of innovative active mechatronic lower-limb prostheses designed with the goal to reduce the cognitive and physical effort of lower-limb amputees in rehabilitation and daily life activities. To ensure benefits to the users, active mechatronic prostheses are expected to be aware of the user intention and properly interact in a closed human-in-the-loop paradigm...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608230/acknowledging-crossing-avoidance-heuristic-violations-when-solving-the-euclidean-travelling-salesperson-problem
#11
Markos Kyritsis, Stephen R Gulliver, Eva Feredoes
If a salesperson aims to visit a number of cities only once before returning home, which route should they take to minimise the total distance/cost? This combinatorial optimization problem is called the travelling salesperson problem (TSP) and has a rapid growth in the number of possible solutions as the number of cities increases. Despite its complexity, when cities and routes are represented in 2D Euclidean space (ETSP), humans solve the problem with relative ease, by applying simple visual heuristics. One of the most important heuristics appears to be the avoidance of path crossings, which will always result in more optimal solutions than tours that contain crossings...
June 12, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604793/senior-citizens-as-rescuers-is-reduced-knowledge-the-reason-for-omitted-lay-resuscitation-attempts-results-from-a-representative-survey-with-2004-interviews
#12
Peter Brinkrolf, Andreas Bohn, Roman-Patrik Lukas, Marko Heyse, Thomas Dierschke, Hugo Karel Van Aken, Klaus Hahnenkamp
OBJECTIVE: Resuscitation (CPR) provided by a bystander prior to the arrival of the emergency services is a beneficial factor for surviving a cardiac arrest (CA). Our registry-based data show, that older patients receive bystander-CPR less frequently. Little is known on possible reasons for this finding. We sought to investigate the hypothesis that awareness of CPR measures is lower in older laypersons being a possible reason for less CPR-attempts in senior citizens. METHODS: 1206 datasets on bystander resuscitations actually carried out were analyzed for age-dependent differences...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603551/mental-distress-and-associated-factors-among-undergraduate-students-at-the-university-of-hargeisa-somaliland-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Liban Hersi, Kenfe Tesfay, Hailay Gesesew, Wolfgang Krahl, Deria Ereg, Markos Tesfaye
BACKGROUND: Mental distress is a common finding among University students. Empirical research has confirmed that the University student population has a higher prevalence of mental disorder than the general population. However, no previous study has examined the mental health conditions of students in Somaliland. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 570 undergraduate students at the University of Hargeisa in October, 2013...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602977/brm-smarca2-promotes-the-proliferation-and-chemoresistance-of-pancreatic-cancer-cells-by-targeting-jak2-stat3-signaling
#14
Zhengkui Zhang, Feng Wang, Chong Du, Huahu Guo, Ling Ma, Xiaoran Liu, Marko Kornmann, Xiaodong Tian, Yinmo Yang
BACKGROUND: BRM is one of two evolutionarily conserved catalytic ATPase subunits of SWI/SNF complexes and plays important role in cell proliferation, linage specification and development, cell adhesion, cytokine responses and DNA repair. BRM is often inactivated in various types of cancer indicating its indispensable roles in oncogenesis but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. METHODS: BRM expression in clinical pancreatic cancer samples was examined by immunohistochemistry and the correlation with patient survival was analyzed...
June 7, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602731/energy-conservation-and-maximal-entropy-production-in-enzyme-reactions
#15
Andrej Dobovišek, Marko Vitas, Milan Brumen, Aleš Fajmut
A procedure for maximization of the density of entropy production in a single stationary two-step enzyme reaction is developed. Under the constraints of mass conservation, fixed equilibrium constant of a reaction and fixed products of forward and backward enzyme rate constants the existence of maximum in the density of entropy production is demonstrated. In the state with maximal density of entropy production the optimal enzyme rate constants, the stationary concentrations of the substrate and the product, the stationary product yield as well as the stationary reaction flux are calculated...
June 7, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601427/games-of-corruption-in-preventing-the-overuse-of-common-pool-resources
#16
Joung-Hun Lee, Marko Jusup, Yoh Iwasa
Maintaining human cooperation in the context of common-pool resource management is extremely important because otherwise we risk overuse and corruption. To analyse the interplay between economic and ecological factors leading to corruption, we couple the resource dynamics and the evolutionary dynamics of strategic decision making into a powerful analytical framework. The traits of this framework are: (i) an arbitrary number of harvesters share the responsibility to sustainably exploit a specific part of an ecosystem, (ii) harvesters face three strategic choices for exploiting the resource, (iii) a delegated enforcement system is available if called upon, (iv) enforcers are either honest or corrupt, and (v) the resource abundance reflects the choice of harvesting strategies...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599879/uncommon-toxic-microbial-metabolite-patterns-in-traditionally-home-processed-maize-dish-fufu-consumed-in-rural-cameroon
#17
Wilfred A Abia, Benedikt Warth, Chibundu N Ezekiel, Bojan Sarkanj, Paul C Turner, Doris Marko, Rudolf Krska, Michael Sulyok
Toxins of microbial origin frequently contaminate foodstuffs worldwide and pose a serious hazard to humans. This study reports on LCMS/MS quantification of multiple fungal and bacterial toxins, from household sampling of 50 traditionally prepared maize-fufu samples from Bamunka village, western highlands of Cameroon. Seventy-four metabolites including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (12/50: mean 0.9, range n.d-1.8 μg kg(-1)), cereulide (50/50: mean 37; range 1-236 μg kg(-1)), deoxynivalenol (DON) (50/50: mean 23, range 14-55 μg kg(-1)), fumonisin B1 (FB1) (50/50: mean: 151, range 48-709 μg kg(-1)), nivalenol (NIV) (50/50; mean 268, range 116-372 μg kg(-1)), patulin (PAT) (15/50:mean 105, range 12-890 μg kg(-1)) and zearalenone (ZEN) (50/50: mean 49, range 5-150) were detected; and of note every sample contained at least 27 toxic compounds...
June 6, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598642/twist-bend-coupling-and-the-torsional-response-of-double-stranded-dna
#18
Stefanos K Nomidis, Franziska Kriegel, Willem Vanderlinden, Jan Lipfert, Enrico Carlon
Recent magnetic tweezers experiments have reported systematic deviations of the twist response of double-stranded DNA from the predictions of the twistable wormlike chain model. Here we show, by means of analytical results and computer simulations, that these discrepancies can be resolved if a coupling between twist and bend is introduced. We obtain an estimate of 40±10  nm for the twist-bend coupling constant. Our simulations are in good agreement with high-resolution, magnetic-tweezers torque data. Although the existence of twist-bend coupling was predicted long ago [J...
May 26, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596933/lung-organoids-and-their-use-to-study-cell-cell-interaction
#19
REVIEW
Marko Z Nikolić, Emma L Rawlins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The lung research field has pioneered the use of organoids for the study of cell-cell interactions. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of organoids for airway basal cells is routine. However, the development of organoids for the other regions of the lung is still in its infancy. Such cultures usually rely on cell-cell interactions between the stem cells and a putative niche cell for their growth and differentiation. SUMMARY: The use of co-culture organoid systems has facilitated the in vitro cultivation of previously inaccessible stem cell populations, providing a novel method for dissecting the molecular requirements of these cell-cell interactions...
2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595422/dna-elasticity-from-coarse-grained-simulations-the-effect-of-groove-asymmetry
#20
Enrico Skoruppa, Michiel Laleman, Stefanos K Nomidis, Enrico Carlon
It is well established that many physical properties of DNA at sufficiently long length scales can be understood by means of simple polymer models. One of the most widely used elasticity models for DNA is the twistable worm-like chain (TWLC), which describes the double helix as a continuous elastic rod with bending and torsional stiffness. An extension of the TWLC, which has recently received some attention, is the model by Marko and Siggia, who introduced an additional twist-bend coupling, expected to arise from the groove asymmetry...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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