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anticholinergics in psychosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785919/pharmacotherapies-for-parkinson-s-disease-symptoms-related-to-cholinergic-degeneration
#1
Santiago Perez-Lloret, María Cecilia Peralta, Francisco J Barrantes
Dopamine depletion is one of the most important features of Parkinson's Disease (PD). However, insufficient response to dopaminergic replacement therapy suggests the involvement of other neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of PD. Cholinergic degeneration contributes to gait impairments, cognitive impairment, psychosis, and REM-sleep disturbances, among other symptoms. Areas covered: In this review, we explore the idea that enhancing cholinergic tone by pharmacological or neurosurgical procedures could be a first-line therapeutic strategy for the treatment of symptoms derived from cholinergic degeneration in PD...
November 7, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27076209/effects-of-acute-memantine-administration-on-matrics-consensus-cognitive-battery-performance-in-psychosis-testing-an-experimental-medicine-strategy
#2
Savita G Bhakta, Hsun-Hua Chou, Brinda Rana, Jo A Talledo, Bryan Balvaneda, Laura Gaddis, Gregory A Light, Neal R Swerdlow
RATIONALE: Pro-cognitive agents for chronic psychotic disorders (CPDs) might be detected via experimental medicine models, in which neural targets engaged by the drug predict sensitivity to the drug's pro-cognitive effects. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to use an experimental medicine model to test the hypothesis that "target engagement" predicts pro-cognitive effects of the NMDA antagonist, memantine (MEM), in CPDs. METHODS: MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) performance was assessed in CPD (n = 41) and healthy subjects (HS; n = 41) in a double-blind, randomized cross-over design of acute (single dose) MEM (placebo vs...
June 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27004670/antidepressants-in-parkinson-s-disease-recommendations-by-the-movement-disorder-study-group-of-the-neurological-association-of-madrid
#3
E Peña, M Mata, L López-Manzanares, M Kurtis, M Eimil, J C Martínez-Castrillo, I Navas, I J Posada, C Prieto, C Ruíz-Huete, L Vela, B Venegas
INTRODUCTION: Although antidepressants are widely used in Parkinson's disease (PD), few well-designed studies to support their efficacy have been conducted. DEVELOPMENT: These clinical guidelines are based on a review of the literature and the results of an AMN movement disorder study group survey. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence suggests that nortriptyline, venlafaxine, paroxetine, and citalopram may be useful in treating depression in PD, although studies on paroxetine and citalopram yield conflicting results...
March 19, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26506856/a-pharmacovigilance-study-in-first-episode-of-psychosis-psychopharmacological-interventions-and-safety-profiles-in-the-peps-project
#4
Miquel Bioque, Adrián Llerena, Bibiana Cabrera, Gisela Mezquida, Antonio Lobo, Ana González-Pinto, Covadonga M Díaz-Caneja, Iluminada Corripio, Eduardo J Aguilar, Antoni Bulbena, Josefina Castro-Fornieles, Eduard Vieta, Amàlia Lafuente, Sergi Mas, Mara Parellada, Jerónimo Saiz-Ruiz, Manuel J Cuesta, Miguel Bernardo
BACKGROUND: The characterization of the first episode of psychosis and how it should be treated are principal issues in actual research. Realistic, naturalistic studies are necessary to represent the entire population of first episode of psychosis attended in daily practice. METHODS: Sixteen participating centers from the PEPs project recruited 335 first episode of psychosis patients, aged 7 to 35 years. This article describes and discusses the psychopharmacological interventions and safety profiles at baseline and during a 60-day pharmacovigilance period...
April 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26494850/cognitive-neuropsychological-functioning-in-new-zealand-m%C3%A4-ori-diagnosed-with-schizophrenia
#5
Tai R Kake, Nicholas Garrett, Menetta Te Aonui
OBJECTIVE: Previous research suggests that New Zealand Māori may have an elevated rate of schizophrenia. However, there is limited evidence on important clinical features of the illness in this population. This study examined cognitive neuropsychological functioning in 54 adult Māori diagnosed with schizophrenia and 56 Māori controls. This study also examined associations between cognition, medication and symptoms of psychosis in the schizophrenia group. METHOD: The groups were matched on socio-demographic variables, handedness and premorbid cognitive ability...
June 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26216560/injecting-eye-drops-a-mini-review-on-the-non-clinical-use-of-tropicamide
#6
REVIEW
Francesco Saverio Bersani, Claudio Imperatori, Mariya Prilutskaya, Ramiz Kuliev, Ornella Corazza
OBJECTIVES: The intravenous (IV) injection of tropicamide for non-clinical purposes is a new and widespread drug trend. The aim of this study is to provide the first literature review on the topic. METHODS: Relevant literature was identified through a search of MEDLINE, Psycinfo, Google Scholar, conference proceedings and select citations. RESULTS: Cases of tropicamide (IV) injection have been reported in Russia, Italy, Turkey and Kazakhstan...
July 2015: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25609320/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-once-daily-quetiapine-extended-release-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-switched-from-other-antipsychotics-an-open-label-study-in-chinese-population
#7
Pei-Yin Pan, Meei-Shyuan Lee, Chin-Bin Yeh
BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenic patients is common and associated with symptom relapse and poorer long-term outcomes. The risk factors for treatment non-adherence include dosing frequency and complexity. Besides, slower dose titration in an acute schizophrenic episode may lead to attenuated efficacy. Therefore, the convenient dosage regimen and rapid initiation scheme of quetiapine extended release (XR) were expected to provide better effectiveness and promote adherence in patients with schizophrenia...
January 22, 2015: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25601624/-the-incubus-phenomenon-a-sleep-related-condition-not-to-be-confused-with-psychosis
#8
REVIEW
J D Blom, H Eker
BACKGROUND: The incubus phenomenon is a paroxysmal condition characterised by sleep paralysis coinciding with a sensed presence and the frightening sensation that something or somebody is exerting pressure on the thorax. AIM: To present an overview of the literature on the incubus phenomenon and to provide practical advice regarding diagnosis and treatment. METHOD: To obtain information for our paper we carried out a search in PubMed and the historical literature...
2015: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25456826/viewpoint-challenges-in-our-understanding-of-neuroleptic-induced-parkinsonism
#9
Joseph H Friedman
Parkinsonism remains a common and often overlooked adverse effect of almost all neuroleptic drugs, including the "atypical," or "second generation" antipsychotics. While neuroleptic induced parkinsonism (NIP) is often thought to be well understood in terms of its clinical course, pathophysiology, and treatment, this is clearly not the case, and almost all our current beliefs are based on data published decades ago of dubious merit, and recent studies which are confounded by design conflicts. This article attempts to highlight gaps in our knowledge...
December 2014: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25177834/flupenthixol-versus-low-potency-first-generation-antipsychotic-drugs-for-schizophrenia
#10
REVIEW
Magdolna Tardy, Markus Dold, Rolf R Engel, Stefan Leucht
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic drugs are the core treatment for schizophrenia. Treatment guidelines state that there is no difference in efficacy between antipsychotic drugs, however, low-potency antipsychotic drugs are sometimes perceived as less efficacious than high-potency compounds by clinicians, and they also seem to differ in their side effects. OBJECTIVES: To review the effects in clinical response of flupenthixol and low-potency antipsychotics for people with schizophrenia...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24943229/novel-use-of-dexmedetomidine-for-the-treatment-of-anticholinergic-toxidrome
#11
Ashley Walker, Andrew Delle Donne, Elizabeth Douglas, Kristine Spicer, Thomas Pluim
INTRODUCTION: We report the case of an adolescent with anticholinergic toxidrome from diphenhydramine overdose, whose symptoms were treated with a novel application of dexmedetomidine. CASE REPORT: A 13-year-old female developed an anticholinergic toxidrome after intentionally ingesting 9.5 mg/kg of diphenhydramine. Despite routine supportive therapies, to include appropriate doses of lorazepam, she continued to have significant agitation, psychosis, and hallucinations...
December 2014: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24756517/pharmacological-treatment-of-parkinson-disease-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Barbara S Connolly, Anthony E Lang
IMPORTANCE: Parkinson disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide. Although no available therapies alter the underlying neurodegenerative process, symptomatic therapies can improve patient quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To provide an evidence-based review of the initial pharmacological management of the classic motor symptoms of Parkinson disease; describe management of medication-related motor complications (such as motor fluctuations and dyskinesia), and other medication adverse effects (nausea, psychosis, and impulse control disorders and related behaviors); and discuss the management of selected nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson disease, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, cognitive impairment, depression, orthostatic hypotension, and sialorrhea...
April 23, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24501734/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-a-targeted-review-of-clinical-presentation-diagnosis-and-approaches-to-psychopharmacologic-management
#13
REVIEW
Jennifer L Kruse, Jessica K Jeffrey, Michael C Davis, Joanna Dearlove, Waguih W IsHak, John O Brooks
BACKGROUND: Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis was formally described in 2007 and includes a range of psychiatric and neurologic symptoms. Most patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis initially present to psychiatrists for diagnosis and treatment. However, there is limited literature summarizing treatment strategies for psychiatric symptoms. In an effort to improve identification and treatment, this review article provides an overview of anti-NMDAR encephalitis, with a focus on psychopharmacologic treatment strategies...
May 2014: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24183853/comparison-of-the-clinical-profile-of-parkinson-s-disease-between-spanish-and-cameroonian-cohorts
#14
MULTICENTER STUDY
Esther Cubo, Jacques Doumbe, Pablo Martinez-Martin, Carmen Rodriguez-Blazquez, Callixte Kuate, Natividad Mariscal, Irene Lopez, Gustave Noubissi, Yacouba Njankouo Mapoure, Jean Louis Jon, Salomon Mbahe, Benjamin Tchaleu, Maria-Jose Catalan
BACKGROUND: There are limited data in terms of the clinical profile of Parkinson's disease in sub-Saharan African patients. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical profile and access to standard antiparkinsonian therapies of a Cameroonian cohort of patients with an age, sex, and disease duration-matched Spanish cohort (Longitudinal Study of Parkinson's disease, ELEP). METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional design. Demographic data were collected and the following ELEP assessments were applied: Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease (SCOPA) Motor, Autonomic, Cognition, Sleep and Psychosocial; Hoehn and Yahr staging; modified Parkinson Psychosis Rating Scale; Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-Geriatrics; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; pain and fatigue visual analog scales; Zarit, and EuroQoL...
January 15, 2014: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24102938/benefits-and-limits-of-anticholinergic-use-in-schizophrenia-focusing-on-its-effect-on-cognitive-function
#15
REVIEW
Shin Ogino, Seiya Miyamoto, Nobumi Miyake, Noboru Yamaguchi
All currently available antipsychotic drugs are the dopamine D2 receptor antagonists and are capable of producing extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS). Anticholinergic drugs are primarily used to treat EPS or prevent EPS induced by antipsychotics in the treatment of psychosis and schizophrenia. However, they can cause a variety of distressing peripheral side-effects (e.g. dry mouth, urinary disturbances, and constipation) and central adverse effects (e.g. cognitive impairment, worsening of tardive dyskinesia, and delirium)...
January 2014: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24049046/benzodiazepines-for-psychosis-induced-aggression-or-agitation
#16
Donna Gillies, Stephanie Sampson, Alison Beck, John Rathbone
BACKGROUND: Acute psychotic illness, especially when associated with agitated or violent behaviour, can require urgent pharmacological tranquillisation or sedation. In several countries, clinicians often use benzodiazepines (either alone or in combination with antipsychotics) for this outcome. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effects of benzodiazepines, alone or in combination with antipsychotics, when compared with placebo or antipsychotics, alone or in combination with antihistamines, to control disturbed behaviour and reduce psychotic symptoms...
September 18, 2013: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23906840/bad-trip-due-to-anticholinergic-effect-of-cannabis
#17
Ajish G Mangot
Cannabis in its various forms has been known since time immemorial, the use of which has been rising steadily in India. 'Bad trips' have been documented after cannabis use, manifestations ranging from vague anxiety and fear to profoundly disturbing states of terror and psychosis. Cannabis is known to affect various neurotransmitters, but 'bad trip' due to its anticholinergic effect has never been described in literature to the best of author's knowledge. Hereby, the author describes a case of a young adult male experiencing profound anticholinergic effects after being exposed for the first time in his life to bhang, a local oral preparation of cannabis...
November 2013: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23633309/benzodiazepines-for-psychosis-induced-aggression-or-agitation
#18
REVIEW
Donna Gillies, Stephanie Sampson, Alison Beck, John Rathbone
BACKGROUND: Acute psychotic illness, especially when associated with agitated or violent behaviour, can require urgent pharmacological tranquillisation or sedation. In several countries, clinicians often use benzodiazepines (either alone or in combination with antipsychotics) for this outcome. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effects of benzodiazepines, alone or in combination with antipsychotics, when compared with placebo or antipsychotics, alone or in combination with antihistamines, to control disturbed behaviour and reduce psychotic symptoms...
April 30, 2013: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23422395/switching-from-clozapine-to-zotepine-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-12-week-prospective-randomized-rater-blind-and-parallel-study
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Chao-Cheng Lin, Hsien-Jane Chiu, Jen-Yeu Chen, Ying-Jay Liou, Ying-Chieh Wang, Tzu-Ting Chen, Ya-Mei Bai
Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic for patients with treatment-refractory schizophrenia, but many adverse effects are noted. Clinicians usually hesitate to switch from clozapine to other antipsychotics because of the risk of a re-emergence or worsening of the psychosis, although empirical studies are very limited. Zotepine, an atypical antipsychotic with a pharmacologic profile similar to clozapine, was found to be an effective treatment for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia in Japan...
April 2013: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23243948/-prolonged-toxic-coma-and-anisocoria-secondary-to-doxepin-lorazepam-and-phenobarbital-poisoning-case-study
#20
Małgorzata Kołodziej, Magdalena Majewska, Anna Krajewska, Jarosław Szponar
Doxepin is a tricyclic antidepressant from the group of dibenzoxepines. Apart from the antidepressant effect, it has also the sedative and anxiolytic effect, so it is used in the treatment of anxiety disorder in the course of psychosis, organic diseases and alcoholism. Doxepin increases concentration of norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain by preventing inactivation and blocking their reuptake. In addition, the drug has an antagonistic effect on receptors in CNS (muscarinic M1, histamine H1, alpha-1adrenergic, serotonergic 5-HT2) and also blocks sodium and potassium channels in cardiomyocytes...
2012: Przegla̧d Lekarski
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