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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031090/recreational-drug-use-and-risk-of-hiv-infection-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-cross-sectional-study-in-shenzhen-china
#1
Chenlin Duan, Lan Wei, Yitian Cai, Lin Chen, Zhengrong Yang, Wei Tan, Yongxia Gan, William W Au, Jin Zhao
BACKGROUND: Recreational drug use has increased in recent years, especially among MSM, and has been found to be associated with higher risk of HIV infection. However, there is limited information about current recreational drug use among MSM in Shenzhen which is an international gateway city to China with a rapidly expanding MSM population. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among MSM in Shenzhen was conducted and was used to collected information on demographics, sexual behavior and drug use via questionnaires...
October 2, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029348/dysregulation-of-sleep-behavioral-states-in-narcolepsy
#2
Sarah F Schoch, Esther Werth, Rositsa Poryazova, Thomas E Scammell, Christian R Baumann, Lukas L Imbach
Study Objectives: Patients with narcolepsy suffer from poor maintenance of wakefulness and fragmented night sleep, but the underlying mechanism of sleep boundary dysregulation remains little understood. The goal of this study was to quantify abnormal sleep-wake regulation in narcolepsy patients. Methods: Using a model-based approach (state space analysis), we analyzed overnight EEG recordings in ten patients with narcolepsy type 1 and age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects...
October 5, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029324/cadmium-exposure-impairs-cognition-and-olfactory-memory-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#3
Hao Wang, Liang Zhang, Glen M Abel, Daniel R Storm, Zhengui Xia
Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal of high interest to the Superfund Initiative. Recent epidemiology studies have suggested a possible association between Cd exposure and cognitive as well as olfactory impairments in humans. However, studies in animal models are needed to establish a direct causal relationship between Cd exposure and impairments in cognition and olfaction. This study aims to investigate the toxic effect of Cd on cognition and olfactory function in mice. One group of 8-week old C57BL/6 male mice was exposed to 3 mg/L Cd (in the form of CdCl2) through drinking water for 20 weeks for behavior tests and final blood Cd concentration analysis...
September 25, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028966/high-rates-of-subsequent-asymptomatic-stis-and-risky-sexual-behavior-in-patients-initially-presenting-with-primary-hiv-1-infection
#4
Dominique L Braun, Alex Marzel, Daniela Steffens, Peter W Schreiber, Christina Grube, Alexandra U Scherrer, Roger D Kouyos, Huldrych F Günthard
Introduction: Knowledge of the characteristics and risk factors of individuals with an asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection (STI) is essential for implementation of targeted STI screening strategies. Methods: Between June 2015 and January 2017 an STI screening was offered to all participants in the Zurich Primary HIV-1 Infection Study. Patients were tested for gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and hepatitis C virus. Determinants of STI prevalence and incidence were assessed using mixed-model logistic regression and survival analysis...
October 5, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028935/latent-profile-analysis-reveals-behavioral-and-brain-correlates-of-dopamine-cognition-associations
#5
Martin Lövdén, Nina Karalija, Micael Andersson, Anders Wåhlin, Jan Axelsson, Ylva Köhncke, Lars S Jonasson, Anna Rieckman, Goran Papenberg, Douglas D Garrett, Marc Guitart-Masip, Alireza Salami, Katrine Riklund, Lars Bäckman, Lars Nyberg, Ulman Lindenberger
Evidence suggests that associations between the neurotransmitter dopamine and cognition are nonmonotonic and open to modulation by various other factors. The functional implications of a given level of dopamine may therefore differ from person to person. By applying latent-profile analysis to a large (n = 181) sample of adults aged 64-68 years, we probabilistically identified 3 subgroups that explain the multivariate associations between dopamine D2/3R availability (probed with 11C-raclopride-PET, in cortical, striatal, and hippocampal regions) and cognitive performance (episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed)...
September 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028636/effects-and-unforeseen-consequences-of-accessing-references-on-a-maintenance-of-certification-examination-findings-from-a-national-study
#6
Richard A Feinberg, Daniel Jurich, Lauren M Foster
PURPOSE: Increasing criticism of maintenance of certification (MOC) examinations has prompted certifying boards to explore alternative assessment formats. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of allowing test takers to access reference material while completing their MOC Part III standardized examination. METHOD: Item response data were obtained from 546 physicians who completed a medical subspecialty MOC examination between 2013 and 2016. To investigate if accessing references was related to better performance, an analysis of covariance was conducted on the MOC examination scores with references (access or no access) as the between-groups factor and scores from the physicians' initial certification examination as a covariate...
October 12, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028611/automatic-imitation-of-pro-and-antisocial-gestures-is-implicit-social-behavior-censored
#7
Emiel Cracco, Oliver Genschow, Ina Radkova, Marcel Brass
According to social reward theories, automatic imitation can be understood as a means to obtain positive social consequences. In line with this view, it has been shown that automatic imitation is modulated by contextual variables that constrain the positive outcomes of imitation. However, this work has largely neglected that many gestures have an inherent pro- or antisocial meaning. As a result of their meaning, antisocial gestures are considered taboo and should not be used in public. In three experiments, we show that automatic imitation of symbolic gestures is modulated by the social intent of these gestures...
October 10, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028565/human-papillomavirus-vaccine-initiation-in-asian-indians-and-asian-subpopulations-a-case-for-examining-disaggregated-data-in-public-health-research
#8
H Budhwani, P De
OBJECTIVES: Vaccine disparities research often focuses on differences between the five main racial and ethnic classifications, ignoring heterogeneity of subpopulations. Considering this knowledge gap, we examined human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation in Asian Indians and Asian subpopulations. STUDY DESIGN: National Health Interview Survey data (2008-2013), collected by the National Center for Health Statistics, were analyzed. METHODS: Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted on adults aged 18-26 years (n = 20,040)...
October 10, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028455/health-indicators-for-older-sexual-minorities-national-health-interview-survey-2013-2014
#9
Christina N Dragon, Alison M Laffan, Erkan Erdem, Sean Cahill, Daniel Kenefick, Jiahui Ye, Samuel C Haffer
PURPOSE: Advances in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (sexual minority [SM]) acceptance and equality have been made in the past decade. However, certain SM subgroups continue to be disadvantaged due to lack of data and, thus, lack of knowledge about these populations. Data for older sexual minorities are especially lacking and will be increasingly important as more sexual minorities enter older age. This research explores results from a nationally representative health survey to elucidate some health indicators for older sexual minorities...
October 13, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028370/is-it-important-to-talk-about-technologies-with-eating-disorder-clients-the-health-care-professional-perspective
#10
Martina Šmahelová, Michal Čevelíček, Eliška Nehybková, David Šmahel, Ivo Čermák
Nowadays, the use of digital technology is an important issue that should be addressed during the treatment of people who have eating disorders. The involvement or absence of this issue reflects the understanding, experience, and atttude of health-care professionals toward their clients' use of technology. The aim of the present study was to investigate the perceptions of health-care professionals and their assessment of their clients' usage of digital technology while developing strategies for treatment. Semistructured interviews with 30 professionals were performed from October 2015 to June 2016 and a thematic analysis was used to analyze the data...
October 13, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028122/atypical-alk-positive-spitz-tumors-with-9p21-homozygous-deletion-report-of-two-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Andrew J Rand, Wendy L Flejter, Christopher A Dowling, Linda M Brooke, Genevieve M Boland, Daniela Kroshinsky, Isaac R Rosenblum, Marier Hernandez-Perez, Julie D R Reimann
ALK rearrangements occur in up to 10% of spitzoid melanocytic neoplasms. No reported cases have shown homozygous deletion of 9p21 (CDKN2A) or gains of 6p25 (RREB1) or 11q13 (CCND1), which have been associated with aggressive clinical behavior. Here we report two unique cases. Case 1 occurred in a 9-year-old male with a 14-mm nodule on the anterior left thigh. Biopsy revealed an ALK-positive Spitz tumor containing an irregular nodule of densely packed melanocytes with increased mitoses and loss of p16 immunoreactivity...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028064/nonequilibrium-mode-coupling-theory-for-dense-active-systems-of-self-propelled-particles
#12
Saroj Kumar Nandi, Nir S Gov
The physics of active systems of self-propelled particles, in the regime of a dense liquid state, is an open puzzle of great current interest, both for statistical physics and because such systems appear in many biological contexts. We develop a nonequilibrium mode-coupling theory (MCT) for such systems, where activity is included as a colored noise with the particles having a self-propulsion force f0 and a persistence time τp. Using the extended MCT and a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem, we calculate the effective temperature Teff of the active fluid...
October 13, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027702/per1-gup1-and-cwh43-of-methylotrophic-yeast-ogataea-minuta-are-involved-in-cell-wall-integrity
#13
Xin-Xin Xu, Akiko Komatsuzaki, Yasunori Chiba, Xiao-Dong Gao, Takehiko Yoko-O
In eukaryotes, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) modification of many glycoproteins on the cell surface is highly conserved. The lipid moieties of GPI-anchored proteins undergo remodeling processes during their maturation. To date, the products of the PER1, GUP1, and CWH43 genes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been shown to be involved in the lipid remodeling. Here, we focus on the putative GPI remodeling pathway in the methylotrophic yeast Ogataea minuta. We found that the O. minuta homologs of PER1, GUP1, and CWH43 are functionally compatible with those of S...
October 13, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027660/maternal-emotion-dysregulation-parenting-stress-and-child-physiological-anxiety-during-dark-enhanced-startle
#14
Minhnguyen Cao, Abigail Powers, Dorthie Cross, Bekh Bradley, Tanja Jovanovic
Maternal emotion dysregulation (ED) plays a crucial role in the development of psychopathology in children. The current study aimed to investigate parenting stress as a mediator of the relationship between maternal emotion dysregulation and child startle potentiation, with child sex as a moderator. Mothers were interviewed to obtain self-report of maternal ED and parenting stress and child's dark-enhanced startle (DES) response was measured using electromyographic recordings of the eye-blink muscle during the delivery of acoustic probes...
October 13, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027643/contribution-of-theory-of-mind-executive-functioning-and-pragmatics-to-socialization-behaviors-of-children-with-high-functioning-autism
#15
Carmen Berenguer, Ana Miranda, Carla Colomer, Inmaculada Baixauli, Belén Roselló
Social difficulties are a key aspect of autism, but the intervening factors are still poorly understood. This study had two objectives: to compare the profile of ToM skills, executive functioning (EF), and pragmatic competence (PC) of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and children with typical development (TD), and analyze their mediator role in social functioning. The participants were 52 children with HFA and 37 children with TD matched on age, intelligence quotient, and expressive vocabulary. Significant differences were found on measures of ToM, both explicit and applied, EF, and PC between children with HFA and TD...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027614/statistical-crossover-and-nonextensive-behavior-of-neuronal-short-term-depression
#16
A J da Silva, S Floquet, D O C Santos
The theoretical basis of neuronal coding, associated with short-term degradation in synaptic transmission, is a matter of debate in the literature. In fact, electrophysiological signals are commonly characterized as inversely proportional to stimulus intensity. Among theoretical descriptions of this phenomenon, models based on 1/f-dependency are employed to investigate the biophysical properties of short-term synaptic depression. In this work, we formulate a model based on a paradigmatic q-differential equation to obtain a generalized formalism useful for investigation of nonextensivity in this specific type of synaptic plasticity...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027606/positive-and-negative-peer-influence-in-residential-care
#17
Jonathan C Huefner, Gail L Smith, Amy L Stevens
The potential for negative peer influence has been well established in research, and there is a growing interest in how positive peer influence also impacts youth. No research, however, has concurrently examined positive and negative peer influence in the context of residential care. Clinical records for 886 residential care youth were used in a Hierarchical Linear Model analysis to examine the impact of negative and positive peer influence on naturally occurring patterns of serious problem behavior over time...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026907/a-two-dimensional-layered-cds-c2n-heterostructure-for-visible-light-driven-photocatalysis
#18
Xukai Luo, Guangzhao Wang, Yuhong Huang, Biao Wang, Hongkuan Yuan, Hong Chen
In this work, we employ hybrid density functional theory calculations to design a two-dimensional layered CdS/C2N heterostructure for visible light photocatalytic water splitting to produce hydrogen. The calculation results show that the conduction band minimum (CBM) and the valence band maximum (VBM) of C2N monolayers are lower than those of CdS nanosheets by about 0.76 eV and 0.44 eV, respectively. The type-II band alignment, density of states, Bader charge analysis, and charge density difference of the CdS/C2N heterostructure indicate that the photogenerated electrons migrate from the CdS monolayer to the C2N monolayer, favoring the separation and transfer of photogenerated charge carriers, which restrains the recombination of photogenerated carriers and enhances the photocatalytic efficiency...
October 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026880/adaptive-social-strategies-in-a-solitary-carnivore
#19
L Mark Elbroch, Michael Levy, Mark Lubell, Howard Quigley, Anthony Caragiulo
Cost-benefit trade-offs for individuals participating in social behaviors are the basis for current theories on the evolution of social behaviors and societies. However, research on social strategies has largely ignored solitary animals, in which we assume that rare interactions are explained by courtship or territoriality or, in special circumstances, resource distributions or kinship. We used directed network analysis of conspecific tolerance at food sources to provide evidence that a solitary carnivore, the puma (Puma concolor), exhibited adaptive social strategies similar to more social animals...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026783/knowledge-and-practice-on-malaria-among-korean-soldiers-in-nearby-demilitarized-zone-in-south-korea
#20
Yeong Seon Hong, Dong-Kyu Lee, Jin-Han Yoon, Aeree Sohn
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to provide evidence for developing intervention and effective management for the prevention of malaria based on epidemiological analysis and assessment of Korean soldiers' knowledge on malaria and malaria preventive behavior. METHODS: The data were collected from 294 Korean soldiers nearby the demilitarized zone in Gyeonggi Province in 2016. Multiple regression analyses were applied for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The level of education (β=...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
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