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ibd horses

B C Guard, J S Suchodolski
Recent molecular studies have revealed a complex microbiota in the dog intestine. Convincing evidence has been reported linking changes in microbial communities to acute and chronic gastrointestinal inflammation, especially in canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The most common microbial changes observed in intestinal inflammation are decreases in the bacterial phyla Firmicutes (i.e., Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and ) and Bacteroidetes, with concurrent increases in Proteobacteria (i.e., ). Due to the important role of microbial-derived metabolites for host health, it is important to elucidate the metabolic consequences of gastrointestinal dysbiosis and physiological pathways implicated in specific disease phenotypes...
June 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Karin M Olofsson, Bernt Hjertner, Caroline Fossum, Charles M Press, Ronny Lindberg
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in horses is an idiopathic disorder, encompassing different types of chronic intestinal inflammation. The pathogenesis of the disease remains to be established, but it has been suggested that an imbalance between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper 17 (Th17)-associated cytokines and altered toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression is associated with intestinal inflammation in other species. The aim of the present study was to quantify Tregs in rectal biopsies from horses affected with IBD by immunohistochemistry and to evaluate expression of genes encoding interleukin (IL)-12p40, IL-17A, IL-23p19 and TLR4 by real-time quantitative PCR...
October 2015: Veterinary Journal
Matt Ellington
A 19-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with crampy abdominal pain and per rectal bleeding 2 weeks after falling from a horse. She had been taking regular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for analgaesia. On arrival, she was tachycardic and tachypnoeic, with a lactate of 7.3 mmol/L. 'FAST' ultrasonography was unremarkable and CT scan showed thickened wall of the transverse colon. She underwent flexible sigmoidoscopy, which demonstrated "patchy inflammation and an isolated area of severe deep ulceration with nodularity and oedema"...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
Susan Prattis, Abdo Jurjus
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disorder with many different putative influences mediating disease onset, severity, progression and diminution. Spontaneous natural IBD is classically expressed as Crohn's Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC) commonly found in primates; lymphoplasmocytic enteritis, eosinophilic gastritis and colitis, and ulcerative colitis with neuronal hyperplasia in dogs; and colitis in horses. Spontaneous inflammatory bowel disease has been noted in a number of rodent models which differ in genetic strain background, induced mutation, microbiota influences and immunopathogenic pathways...
June 2015: Laboratory Animal Research
Rena Ma, Nicholas Sapwell, Heung Kit Leslie Chung, Hoyul Lee, Vikneswari Mahendran, Rupert W Leong, Stephen M Riordan, Michael C Grimm, Li Zhang
Campylobacter concisus is an oral bacterium that is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study examined the impact of pH and bile on the growth of oral C. concisus strains isolated from patients with IBD and controls. The growth of 58 C. concisus strains on horse blood agar (HBA) plates following exposure to media with various pH values for different time points was examined. Furthermore, the growth of C. concisus strains on HBA plates containing different concentrations of ox bile was investigated...
April 2015: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Haisheng Peng, Chao Wang, Xiaoyang Xu, Chenxu Yu, Qun Wang
The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease...
March 14, 2015: Nanoscale
Abigail Basson, Rina Swart, Esme Jordaan, Mikateko Mazinu, Gillian Watermeyer
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors during childhood are thought to play a role in the aetiolgy of Crohn's Disease (CD). However the association between age at time of exposure and the subsequent development of CD in South Africa is unknown. METHODS: A case control study of all consecutive CD patients seen at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) referral centers in the Western Cape, South Africa between September 2011 and January 2013 was performed. Numerous environmental exposures during 3 age intervals; 0-5, 6-10 and 11-18 years were extracted using an investigator administered questionnaire...
2014: PloS One
Ritva Kaikkonen, Kati Niinistö, Benjamin Sykes, Marjukka Anttila, Satu Sankari, Marja Raekallio
BACKGROUND: Recurrent colic and unexplained weight loss despite good appetite and adequate feeding and management practices are common conditions in the horse. However, little information has been published on the systematic diagnostic evaluation, response to treatment, prognostic factors or outcome of either presentation. The aims of this study were to 1) identify possible prognostic indicators and 2) report the short- and long-term response to treatment with corticosteroid therapy of a variety of horses with a presumptive diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
2014: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Bernt Hjertner, Karin M Olofsson, Ronny Lindberg, Lisbeth Fuxler, Caroline Fossum
There is accumulating evidence for the involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with a T helper 17 response in intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in humans. The involvement of interleukin (IL)-17 or IL-23 in equine IBD has not been studied and most gene expression studies in the equine intestine have been limited to the use of a single non-validated reference gene. In this study, expression of the reference gene candidates β2 microglobulin (β2M), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), histone H2A type 1, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), 60S ribosomal protein L32 (RPL32), succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA) and transferrin receptor 1 protein coding (TFRC)in the equine intestine was evaluated by quantitative PCR...
September 2013: Veterinary Journal
Trachsel, Grest, Nitzl, Wunderlin-Stähli, Wehrli Eser
The present retrospective study describes the diagnostic workup and collected findings in 7 horses with chronic inflammatory bowel disease over the years 2000 - 2006. The diagnosis could be confirmed histologically with biopsies taken during laparoscopy or laparotomy or during post mortem examination. Weight loss and chronic diarrhoea were the most commonly reported clinical findings. Among ancillary examinations (fecal analysis, gastroscopy, abdominal ultrasonography, rectal mucosal biopsy) the D-xylose absorption test provided the most useful information...
September 1, 2010: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
D C Sellon, K Spaulding, B A Breuhaus, L Katz, R Mealey
Hepatic abscesses were diagnosed in 3 adult horses. Two were < 4 years old and had evidence of concurrent immune-mediated conditions, including aseptic arthritis, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, and immune-mediated anemia. Predisposing factors for hepatic abscess formation in these horses included prior abdominal surgery, proximal duodenitis/jejunitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and a penetrating foreign body in the large colon. Serum hepatic enzyme activities were within or slightly greater then reference limits in all 3 horses...
March 15, 2000: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
J H van der Kolk, L A van Putten, C J Mulder, G C M Grinwis, M Reijm, C M Butler, B M E von Blomberg
BACKGROUND: Equine inflammatory small bowel disease (ISBD) is an idiopathic pathologic condition seeming to increase in prevalence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential role of gluten in equine ISBD. ANIMALS & METHODS: Antibodies known to be important in the diagnosis of human coeliac disease (CD): IgA antibodies to human recombinant and guinea pig tissue-transglutaminase (TGA), native gliadin (AGA), deamidated-gliadin-peptides (DGPA), and primate and equine endomysium (EMA) were assessed in blood samples from three different groups of horses: ISBD affected (n = 12) on a gluten-rich diet and controls either on gluten-rich (n = 22) or gluten-poor (n = 25) diets...
2012: Veterinary Quarterly
F Beccati, M Pepe, R Gialletti, M Cercone, C Bazzica, S Nannarone
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Abdominal ultrasonography has become a part of the diagnostic investigation for the acute abdomen in many equine clinics. There is limited information on the correlation between abnormalities detected on abdominal ultrasonography and the specific category of small intestine (SI) and large intestine (LI) diseases. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between abdominal ultrasonographic findings and disease categories that cause abdominal pain requiring surgery...
August 2011: Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement
D S Trachsel, P Grest, D Nitzl, P Wunderlin-Stähli, M Wehrli Eser
The present retrospective study describes the diagnostic workup and collected findings in 7 horses with chronic inflammatory bowel disease over the years 2000-2006. The diagnosis could be confirmed histologically with biopsies taken during laparoscopy or laparotomy or during post mortem examination. Weight loss and chronic diarrhoea were the most commonly reported clinical findings. Among ancillary examinations (fecal analysis, gastroscopy, abdominal ultrasonography, rectal mucosal biopsy) the D-xylose absorption test provided the most useful information...
September 2010: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Ramón A Juste
Crohn's disease (CD) is a well known chronic pathological condition whose aetiology has remained unrecognized for nearly a century. Complex immune mechanisms in a specific genetic background causing an abnormal local inflammatory response are thought to be directly responsible for the clinical picture, but no external factor triggering such host responses has been identified. Humans lose the capability of breaking down milk lactose early in life and, afterwards, ingestion of large amounts of lactose causes a transient digestive illness known as lactose intolerance...
July 2010: Medical Hypotheses
Karen A Kalck
This article discusses types of inflammatory bowel disease in horses, including pathologic findings and proposed causes. The diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease is presented in detail, including minimum database, rectal palpation, abdominal ultrasound, abdominocentesis, biopsy procedures, and absorption tests. Treatment recommendations and prognosis are also discussed.
August 2009: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Sigrid Grulke, Thierry Franck, Monika Gangl, Fabrice Péters, Alexandra Salciccia, Ginette Deby-Dupont, Didier Serteyn
Gastrointestinal disorders, especially strangulating intestinal obstructions, are still a major cause of illness and death in the horse. Circulating lipopolysaccharides may activate both neutrophils and monocytes. The activated neutrophils release myeloperoxidase (MPO), a specific enzyme with strong oxidative activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate MPO concentrations in the plasma and peritoneal fluid (PF) of horses with colic and to check the hypothesis that these concentrations would be higher in a case of strangulating obstruction than in cases of nonstrangulating disease...
January 2008: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
Michael F Picco
The role of smoking in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has drawn more interest as our understanding of these diseases has moved beyond the simple designations of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). In this issue of the journal, Aldous et al. present two papers on the role of smoking in the heterogeneity of IBD. They confirm the findings of many, are at odds with the findings of some, and provide novel observations for us all as we try to understand this complex interaction. Do these studies provide more clarity or just add to the noise? As always, the devil is in the details...
March 2007: American Journal of Gastroenterology
L E M Willemsen, J P Hoetjes, S J H van Deventer, E A F van Tol
The intestinal barrier function is often impaired in a variety of diseases including chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Increased intestinal permeability during episodes of active disease correlates with destruction or rearrangement of the tight junction protein complex. IFN-gamma has been widely studied for its effect on barrier function and tight junction structures but its mode of action remains unclear. Since the claudin family of tight junction proteins is proposed to be involved in barrier maintenance we studied the effect of IFN-gamma on claudin expression in relation to epithelial barrier function...
November 2005: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
M Packer, J C Patterson-Kane, K C Smith, A E Durham
The histological diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in horses and other species is subjective, and pathological assessments vary considerably as a result. One important criterion is increased infiltration of the lamina propria by eosinophils, plasma cells, lymphocytes or macrophages, but this is difficult to assess without a knowledge of the normal immune cell populations and potential for individual variation. Retrospective jejunal specimens were analysed from 14 horses aged 13-15 years which had not shown clinical or post-mortem signs of gastrointestinal disease...
January 2005: Journal of Comparative Pathology
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