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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426710/diagnostics-and-treatments-in-chronic-diarrhea-and-weight-loss-in-horses
#1
REVIEW
Olimpo Oliver-Espinosa
Chronic diarrhea in the horse is defined as diarrhea present for more than several days with little if any improvement. The diagnosis and treatment of horses with chronic diarrhea usually present a great challenge to the clinician. There are many limitations to treatment of these patients given the limited numbers in which a final diagnosis can be achieved. The lack of knowledge of the alterations of horse microbiota during chronic diarrhea and the multiplicity of causes also make treatment challenging. A poor prognosis is often attached to chronic diarrhea, particularly in cases with neoplasia and inflammatory bowel disease...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351774/inflammatory-bowel-disease-ibd-in-horses-a-retrospective-study-exploring-the-value-of-different-diagnostic-approaches
#2
Berit Boshuizen, Margreet Ploeg, Jeroen Dewulf, Sanne Klooster, Marco de Bruijn, Marie- Thérèse Picavet, Katrien Palmers, Lukas Plancke, Hilde De Cock, Mathijs Theelen, Catherine Delesalle
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing IBD in horses is challenging and requires a multimodal approach, since no conclusive diagnostic test is available. The objectives of this study were to provide an overview of population characteristics, results of applied diagnostic tests, treatment modalities and outcome in a large group of horses thought to have IBD and that were presented to four large equine referral hospitals, and to provide an exploratory investigation of possible associations between results of applied diagnostic tests, applied treatment modalities and outcome...
January 19, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226615/intestinal-organoids-containing-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-nanoparticles-for-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#3
Zahra Davoudi, Nathan Peroutka-Bigus, Bryan Bellaire, Michael Wannemuehler, Terrence A Barrett, Balaji Narasimhan, Qun Wang
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) causes inflammation to the gastrointestinal tract. Local administration of anti-inflammatory drugs such as 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) can alleviate the symptoms of IBD. The application of nanoparticles for IBD treatment in direct rectal administration showed high drug availability and treatment efficacy. However, relying on size-dependent adsorption of smaller particles is not sufficient for making the formulation capable of targeting. Intestinal organoids can improve the functionality of the nanoparticles due to their ability to adsorb small nanoparticle inside the lumen and attach to the damaged area...
April 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229616/invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-an-immunocompromised-patient-with-severe-ulcerative-colitis
#4
David Marti Aguado, María Pilar Ballester, Marta Maia Bosca Watts
Inflammatory bowel disease patients at risk of opportunistic infections are those treated with immunomodulators. Toruner and colleagues found that corticosteroid use was more commonly associated with fungal infections. We present a case of invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis due to corticosteroid therapy in the context of a severe Ulcerative Colitis flare. We want to highlight the relationship between Aspergillus fumigatus and horses; and the use of leucocitapheresis combined with mesalazine as an effective treatment option in this patients who can not take more immunosuppressive therapy...
April 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27285902/horse-species-symposium-canine-intestinal-microbiology-and-metagenomics-from-phylogeny-to-function
#5
B C Guard, J S Suchodolski
Recent molecular studies have revealed a complex microbiota in the dog intestine. Convincing evidence has been reported linking changes in microbial communities to acute and chronic gastrointestinal inflammation, especially in canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The most common microbial changes observed in intestinal inflammation are decreases in the bacterial phyla Firmicutes (i.e., Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and ) and Bacteroidetes, with concurrent increases in Proteobacteria (i.e., ). Due to the important role of microbial-derived metabolites for host health, it is important to elucidate the metabolic consequences of gastrointestinal dysbiosis and physiological pathways implicated in specific disease phenotypes...
June 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26346261/expression-of-t-helper-type-17-th17-associated-cytokines-and-toll-like-receptor-4-and-their-correlation-with-foxp3-positive-cells-in-rectal-biopsies-of-horses-with-clinical-signs-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Karin M Olofsson, Bernt Hjertner, Caroline Fossum, Charles M Press, Ronny Lindberg
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in horses is an idiopathic disorder, encompassing different types of chronic intestinal inflammation. The pathogenesis of the disease remains to be established, but it has been suggested that an imbalance between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper 17 (Th17)-associated cytokines and altered toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression is associated with intestinal inflammation in other species. The aim of the present study was to quantify Tregs in rectal biopsies from horses affected with IBD by immunohistochemistry and to evaluate expression of genes encoding interleukin (IL)-12p40, IL-17A, IL-23p19 and TLR4 by real-time quantitative PCR...
October 2015: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26245287/an-unusual-case-of-abdominal-sepsis-following-traumatic-injury
#7
Matt Ellington
A 19-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with crampy abdominal pain and per rectal bleeding 2 weeks after falling from a horse. She had been taking regular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for analgaesia. On arrival, she was tachycardic and tachypnoeic, with a lactate of 7.3 mmol/L. 'FAST' ultrasonography was unremarkable and CT scan showed thickened wall of the transverse colon. She underwent flexible sigmoidoscopy, which demonstrated "patchy inflammation and an isolated area of severe deep ulceration with nodularity and oedema"...
August 5, 2015: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26155200/spontaneous-and-transgenic-rodent-models-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
REVIEW
Susan Prattis, Abdo Jurjus
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disorder with many different putative influences mediating disease onset, severity, progression and diminution. Spontaneous natural IBD is classically expressed as Crohn's Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC) commonly found in primates; lymphoplasmocytic enteritis, eosinophilic gastritis and colitis, and ulcerative colitis with neuronal hyperplasia in dogs; and colitis in horses. Spontaneous inflammatory bowel disease has been noted in a number of rodent models which differ in genetic strain background, induced mutation, microbiota influences and immunopathogenic pathways...
June 2015: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25657299/investigation-of-the-effects-of-ph-and-bile-on-the-growth-of-oral-campylobacter-concisus-strains-isolated-from-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-controls
#9
Rena Ma, Nicholas Sapwell, Heung Kit Leslie Chung, Hoyul Lee, Vikneswari Mahendran, Rupert W Leong, Stephen M Riordan, Michael C Grimm, Li Zhang
Campylobacter concisus is an oral bacterium that is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study examined the impact of pH and bile on the growth of oral C. concisus strains isolated from patients with IBD and controls. The growth of 58 C. concisus strains on horse blood agar (HBA) plates following exposure to media with various pH values for different time points was examined. Furthermore, the growth of C. concisus strains on HBA plates containing different concentrations of ox bile was investigated...
April 2015: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25619169/an-intestinal-trojan-horse-for-gene-delivery
#10
Haisheng Peng, Chao Wang, Xiaoyang Xu, Chenxu Yu, Qun Wang
The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease...
March 14, 2015: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25514591/the-association-between-childhood-environmental-exposures-and-the-subsequent-development-of-crohn-s-disease-in-the-western-cape-south-africa
#11
Abigail Basson, Rina Swart, Esme Jordaan, Mikateko Mazinu, Gillian Watermeyer
BACKGROUND: Environmental factors during childhood are thought to play a role in the aetiolgy of Crohn's Disease (CD). However the association between age at time of exposure and the subsequent development of CD in South Africa is unknown. METHODS: A case control study of all consecutive CD patients seen at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) referral centers in the Western Cape, South Africa between September 2011 and January 2013 was performed. Numerous environmental exposures during 3 age intervals; 0-5, 6-10 and 11-18 years were extracted using an investigator administered questionnaire...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24894126/diagnostic-evaluation-and-short-term-outcome-as-indicators-of-long-term-prognosis-in-horses-with-findings-suggestive-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-treated-with-corticosteroids-and-anthelmintics
#12
Ritva Kaikkonen, Kati Niinistö, Benjamin Sykes, Marjukka Anttila, Satu Sankari, Marja Raekallio
BACKGROUND: Recurrent colic and unexplained weight loss despite good appetite and adequate feeding and management practices are common conditions in the horse. However, little information has been published on the systematic diagnostic evaluation, response to treatment, prognostic factors or outcome of either presentation. The aims of this study were to 1) identify possible prognostic indicators and 2) report the short- and long-term response to treatment with corticosteroid therapy of a variety of horses with a presumptive diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
2014: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23810185/expression-of-reference-genes-and-t-helper-17-associated-cytokine-genes-in-the-equine-intestinal-tract
#13
Bernt Hjertner, Karin M Olofsson, Ronny Lindberg, Lisbeth Fuxler, Caroline Fossum
There is accumulating evidence for the involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with a T helper 17 response in intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in humans. The involvement of interleukin (IL)-17 or IL-23 in equine IBD has not been studied and most gene expression studies in the equine intestine have been limited to the use of a single non-validated reference gene. In this study, expression of the reference gene candidates β2 microglobulin (β2M), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), histone H2A type 1, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), 60S ribosomal protein L32 (RPL32), succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA) and transferrin receptor 1 protein coding (TFRC)in the equine intestine was evaluated by quantitative PCR...
September 2013: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23492610/diagnostische-aufarbeitung-der-chronischen-darmentz%C3%A3-ndung-beim-pferd
#14
Trachsel, Grest, Nitzl, Wunderlin-Stähli, Wehrli Eser
The present retrospective study describes the diagnostic workup and collected findings in 7 horses with chronic inflammatory bowel disease over the years 2000 - 2006. The diagnosis could be confirmed histologically with biopsies taken during laparoscopy or laparotomy or during post mortem examination. Weight loss and chronic diarrhoea were the most commonly reported clinical findings. Among ancillary examinations (fecal analysis, gastroscopy, abdominal ultrasonography, rectal mucosal biopsy) the D-xylose absorption test provided the most useful information...
September 1, 2010: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22570901/hepatic-abscesses-in-three-horses
#15
D C Sellon, K Spaulding, B A Breuhaus, L Katz, R Mealey
Hepatic abscesses were diagnosed in 3 adult horses. Two were < 4 years old and had evidence of concurrent immune-mediated conditions, including aseptic arthritis, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, and immune-mediated anemia. Predisposing factors for hepatic abscess formation in these horses included prior abdominal surgery, proximal duodenitis/jejunitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and a penetrating foreign body in the large colon. Serum hepatic enzyme activities were within or slightly greater then reference limits in all 3 horses...
March 15, 2000: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22489998/gluten-dependent-antibodies-in-horses-with-inflammatory-small-bowel-disease-isbd
#16
J H van der Kolk, L A van Putten, C J Mulder, G C M Grinwis, M Reijm, C M Butler, B M E von Blomberg
BACKGROUND: Equine inflammatory small bowel disease (ISBD) is an idiopathic pathologic condition seeming to increase in prevalence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential role of gluten in equine ISBD. ANIMALS & METHODS: Antibodies known to be important in the diagnosis of human coeliac disease (CD): IgA antibodies to human recombinant and guinea pig tissue-transglutaminase (TGA), native gliadin (AGA), deamidated-gliadin-peptides (DGPA), and primate and equine endomysium (EMA) were assessed in blood samples from three different groups of horses: ISBD affected (n = 12) on a gluten-rich diet and controls either on gluten-rich (n = 22) or gluten-poor (n = 25) diets...
2012: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21790762/is-there-a-statistical-correlation-between-ultrasonographic-findings-and-definitive-diagnosis-in-horses-with-acute-abdominal-pain
#17
F Beccati, M Pepe, R Gialletti, M Cercone, C Bazzica, S Nannarone
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Abdominal ultrasonography has become a part of the diagnostic investigation for the acute abdomen in many equine clinics. There is limited information on the correlation between abnormalities detected on abdominal ultrasonography and the specific category of small intestine (SI) and large intestine (LI) diseases. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between abdominal ultrasonographic findings and disease categories that cause abdominal pain requiring surgery...
August 2011: Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20814860/-diagnostic-workup-of-chronic-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-the-horse
#18
D S Trachsel, P Grest, D Nitzl, P Wunderlin-Stähli, M Wehrli Eser
The present retrospective study describes the diagnostic workup and collected findings in 7 horses with chronic inflammatory bowel disease over the years 2000-2006. The diagnosis could be confirmed histologically with biopsies taken during laparoscopy or laparotomy or during post mortem examination. Weight loss and chronic diarrhoea were the most commonly reported clinical findings. Among ancillary examinations (fecal analysis, gastroscopy, abdominal ultrasonography, rectal mucosal biopsy) the D-xylose absorption test provided the most useful information...
September 2010: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20451331/crohn-s-disease-and-ruminant-farming-got-lactase
#19
Ramón A Juste
Crohn's disease (CD) is a well known chronic pathological condition whose aetiology has remained unrecognized for nearly a century. Complex immune mechanisms in a specific genetic background causing an abnormal local inflammatory response are thought to be directly responsible for the clinical picture, but no external factor triggering such host responses has been identified. Humans lose the capability of breaking down milk lactose early in life and, afterwards, ingestion of large amounts of lactose causes a transient digestive illness known as lactose intolerance...
July 2010: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19580941/inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-horses
#20
Karen A Kalck
This article discusses types of inflammatory bowel disease in horses, including pathologic findings and proposed causes. The diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease is presented in detail, including minimum database, rectal palpation, abdominal ultrasound, abdominocentesis, biopsy procedures, and absorption tests. Treatment recommendations and prognosis are also discussed.
August 2009: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
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