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Jeffrey D Levengood, Blanton S Tolbert
The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are a diverse family of RNA binding proteins that function in most stages of RNA metabolism. The prototypical member, hnRNP A1, is composed of three major domains; tandem N-terminal RNA Recognition Motifs (RRMs) and a C-terminal mostly intrinsically disordered region. HnRNP A1 is broadly implicated in basic cellular RNA processing events such as splicing, stability, nuclear export and translation. Due to its ubiquity and abundance, hnRNP A1 is also frequently usurped to control viral gene expression...
April 3, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Lei Lei, Wenguang Cao, Ling Liu, Urmi Das, Yujia Wu, Guodong Liu, Muhammad Sohail, Yangjun Chen, Jiuyong Xie
The pituitary-derived somatolactotrophe GH3 cells secrete both growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL). We have found that the hnRNP L and L-like (LL) paralogs differentially regulate alternative splicing of genes in these cells. Here we show that hnRNP L is essential for PRL only, but LL for both PRL and GH production. Transcriptome-wide RNA-seq analysis indicates that they differentially control groups of hormone or hormone-related genes involved in hormone production/regulation at total transcript and alternative exon levels...
April 2, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Allison E Reeme, Tiffany A Claeys, Praful Aggarwal, Amy J Turner, John M Routes, Ulrich Broeckel, Richard T Robinson
Human IL12RB1 is an autosomal gene that is essential for mycobacterial disease resistance and T cell differentiation. Using primary human tissue and PBMCs, we demonstrate that lung and T cell IL12RB1 expression is allele-biased, and the extent to which cells express one IL12RB1 allele is unaffected by activation. Furthermore following its expression the IL12RB1 pre-mRNA is processed into either IL12RB1 Isoform 1 (IL12Rβ1, a positive regulator of IL12 responsiveness) or IL12RB1 Isoform 2 (a protein of heretofore unknown function)...
March 30, 2018: Genes and Immunity
Kersti Nilsson, Chengjun Wu, Naoko Kajitani, Haoran Yu, Efthymios Tsimtsirakis, Lijing Gong, Ellenor B Winquist, Jacob Glahder, Lars Ekblad, Johan Wennerberg, Stefan Schwartz
We show that the alkylating cancer drug melphalan activated the DNA damage response and induced human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) late gene expression in an ATM- and Chk1/2-dependent manner. Activation of HPV16 late gene expression included inhibition of the HPV16 early polyadenylation signal that resulted in read-through into the late region of HPV16. This was followed by activation of the exclusively late, HPV16 splice sites SD3632 and SA5639 and production of spliced late L1 mRNAs. Altered HPV16 mRNA processing was paralleled by increased association of phosphorylated BRCA1, BARD1, BCLAF1 and TRAP150 with HPV16 DNA, and increased association of RNA processing factors U2AF65 and hnRNP C with HPV16 mRNAs...
March 27, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Sean P McClory, Kristen W Lynch, Jonathan P Ling
The fidelity of RNA splicing is regulated by a network of splicing enhancers and repressors, although the rules that govern this process are not yet fully understood. One mechanism that contributes to splicing fidelity is the repression of nonconserved cryptic exons by splicing factors that recognize dinucleotide repeats. We previously identified that TDP-43 and PTBP1/PTBP2 are capable of repressing cryptic exons utilizing UG and CU repeats, respectively. Here we demonstrate that hnRNP L (HNRNPL) also represses cryptic exons by utilizing exonic CA repeats, particularly near the 5'SS...
March 26, 2018: RNA
Jade-Emmanuelle Deshaies, Lulzim Shkreta, Alexander J Moszczynski, Hadjara Sidibé, Sabrina Semmler, Aurélien Fouillen, Estelle R Bennett, Uriya Bekenstein, Laurie Destroismaisons, Johanne Toutant, Quentin Delmotte, Kathryn Volkening, Stéphanie Stabile, Anaïs Aulas, Yousra Khalfallah, Hermona Soreq, Antonio Nanci, Michael J Strong, Benoit Chabot, Christine Vande Velde
The RNA binding proteins TDP-43 (encoded by TARDBP) and hnRNP A1 (HNRNPA1) are each mutated in certain amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases and are often mislocalized in cytoplasmic aggregates within motor neurons of affected patients. Cytoplasmic inclusions of TDP-43, which are accompanied by a depletion of nuclear TDP-43, are observed in most amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases and nearly half of frontotemporal dementia cases. Here, we report that TDP-43 binds HNRNPA1 pre-mRNA and modulates its splicing, and that depletion of nuclear TDP-43 results in increased inclusion of a cassette exon in the HNRNPA1 transcript, and consequently elevated protein levels of an isoform containing an elongated prion-like domain, referred to as hnRNP A1B...
March 19, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Li Li, Mingxia Wu, Chengqiang Wang, Zanyang Yu, Hongmei Wang, Hongyi Qi, Xiaoyu Xu
β-asarone, the main component in the volatile oil of Acori tatarinowii Rhizoma, has been found to possess antitumor activity. However, its effect and mechanisms against tumor invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are still unclear. In this study, no or less cytotoxicity was caused by β-asarone within 0-120 μM in human glioma U251 cells for 48 h. β-asarone (30 and 60 μM) inhibited the migration of U251 cells in the wound healing assay, suppressed the invasion of U251 cells in the Boyden chamber invasion assay, and inhibited the adhesion of U251 cells onto the Matrigel...
March 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Zhonghua Li, Wei Zeng, Shiyi Ye, Jian Lv, Axiu Nie, Bingzhou Zhang, Yumei Sun, Heyou Han, Qigai He
The nucleocapsid (N) protein is a major structural component of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which is predicted to be a multifunctional protein in viral replication. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) is a cellular protein participating in the splicing of pre-mRNA in the nucleus and translation regulation in the cytoplasm. According to our previous proteomic study about PEDV infection in vivo, hnRNP A1 was thought to be a cellular factor influencing PEDV replication. In this report, PEDV N protein was discovered to colocalize with cellular hnRNP A1 in perinuclear region of PEDV infected cells...
March 13, 2018: Viruses
Michael Briese, Lena Saal-Bauernschubert, Changhe Ji, Mehri Moradi, Hanaa Ghanawi, Michael Uhl, Silke Appenzeller, Rolf Backofen, Michael Sendtner
Disturbed RNA processing and subcellular transport contribute to the pathomechanisms of motoneuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy. RNA-binding proteins are involved in these processes, but the mechanisms by which they regulate the subcellular diversity of transcriptomes, particularly in axons, are not understood. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein R (hnRNP R) interacts with several proteins involved in motoneuron diseases. It is located in axons of developing motoneurons, and its depletion causes defects in axon growth...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tarek Aboushousha, Olfat Hammam, Noha Helal, Samir El Dahshan
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the expression of cyclin D1 and hnRNP-K in relation to the pathological findings in bladder cancer including the type, grade, muscle invasion and bilharzial association. Methods: We studied the immunoexpression; as regard the percentage, intensity and score of both cyclin D1 and hnRNP-K in different bladder lesions including 10 cases of cystitis; 10 cases of carcinoma insitu (CIS), 20 cases of Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 66 cases of urothelial carcinoma (UC)...
February 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Haoran Yu, Lijing Gong, Chengjun Wu, Kersti Nilsson, Xiaoze Li-Wang, Stefan Schwartz
HPV16 late L1 mRNAs encode a short central exon that is located between HPV16 3'-splice site SA3358 and HPV16 5'-splice site SD3632. While SA3358 is used to produce both HPV16 early mRNAs encoding the E6 and E7 oncogenes, and late mRNAs encoding E4, L1 and L2, SD3632 is used exclusively to produce late L1 mRNA. We have previously identified an 8-nucleotide regulatory RNA element that is required for inclusion of the exon between SA3358 and SD3632 to produce L1 mRNAs at the expense of mRNAs polyadenylated at the HPV16 early polyadenylation signal pAE...
February 1, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Ke Li, Dan Sun, Qiheng Gou, Xixian Ke, Yanqiu Gong, Yuanli Zuo, Jian-Kang Zhou, Chenglin Guo, Zhichu Xia, Lunxu Liu, Qintong Li, Lunzhi Dai, Yong Peng
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) function as critical regulators to participate in tumor progression and metastasis. However, their roles in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are poorly understood. In this study, we found that the expression of the lncRNA linc00460 is significantly upregulated in NSCLC tumors and associated with poor prognosis for NSCLC patients, implying that linc00460 is important for lung cancer development. The accurate transcription initiation and termination sites of linc00460 were then identified by rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technologies, and the sequencing data demonstrated that linc00460, predominantly located in the cytoplasm of lung cancer cells, is a novel transcript variant...
January 31, 2018: Cancer Letters
Alexandre Cloutier, Lulzim Shkreta, Johanne Toutant, Mathieu Durand, Philippe Thibault, Benoit Chabot
Little is known about how RNA binding proteins cooperate to control splicing, and how stress pathways reconfigure these assemblies to alter splice site selection. We have shown previously that SRSF10 plays an important role in the Bcl-x splicing response to DNA damage elicited by oxaliplatin in 293 cells. Here, RNA affinity assays using a portion of the Bcl-x transcript required for this response led to the recovery of the SRSF10-interacting protein 14-3-3ε and the Sam68-interacting protein hnRNP A1. Although SRSF10, 14-3-3ε, hnRNP A1/A2 and Sam68 do not make major contributions to the regulation of Bcl-x splicing under normal growth conditions, upon DNA damage they become important to activate the 5' splice site of pro-apoptotic Bcl-xS...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Breege V Howley, Philip H Howe
The TGFβ signaling pathway is a critical regulator of cancer progression in part through induction of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). This process is aberrantly activated in cancer cells, facilitating invasion of the basement membrane, survival in the circulatory system, and dissemination to distant organs. The mechanisms through which epithelial cells transition to a mesenchymal state involve coordinated transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of gene expression. One such mechanism of control is through the RNA binding protein hnRNP E1, which regulates splicing and translation of a cohort of EMT and stemness-associated transcripts...
January 27, 2018: Cytokine
Baixing Wu, Shichen Su, Deepak P Patil, Hehua Liu, Jianhua Gan, Samie R Jaffrey, Jinbiao Ma
Human hnRNP A2/B1 is an RNA-binding protein that plays important roles in many biological processes, including maturation, transport, and metabolism of mRNA, and gene regulation of long noncoding RNAs. hnRNP A2/B1 was reported to control the microRNAs sorting to exosomes and promote primary microRNA processing as a potential m6 A "reader." hnRNP A2/B1 contains two RNA recognition motifs that provide sequence-specific recognition of RNA substrates. Here, we determine crystal structures of tandem RRM domains of hnRNP A2/B1 in complex with various RNA substrates, elucidating specific recognitions of AGG and UAG motifs by RRM1 and RRM2 domains, respectively...
January 29, 2018: Nature Communications
Sajad Sofi, Julia C Fitzgerald, Désirée Jähn, Bernhard Dumoulin, Sabine Stehling, Hartmut Kuhn, Christoph Ufer
The guanine-rich RNA sequence binding factor 1 (GRSF1) constitutes an ubiquitously occurring RNA-binding protein (RBP), which belongs to the family of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F/H (hnRNP F/H). It has been implicated in nuclear, cytosolic and mitochondrial RNA metabolism. Although the crystal structures of GRSF1 orthologs have not been solved, amino acid alignments with similar RNA-binding proteins suggested the existence of three RNA-binding domains designated quasi-RNA recognition motifs (qRRMs)...
April 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Veronica H Ryan, Gregory L Dignon, Gül H Zerze, Charlene V Chabata, Rute Silva, Alexander E Conicella, Joshua Amaya, Kathleen A Burke, Jeetain Mittal, Nicolas L Fawzi
hnRNPA2, a component of RNA-processing membraneless organelles, forms inclusions when mutated in a syndrome characterized by the degeneration of neurons (bearing features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [ALS] and frontotemporal dementia), muscle, and bone. Here we provide a unified structural view of hnRNPA2 self-assembly, aggregation, and interaction and the distinct effects of small chemical changes-disease mutations and arginine methylation-on these assemblies. The hnRNPA2 low-complexity (LC) domain is compact and intrinsically disordered as a monomer, retaining predominant disorder in a liquid-liquid phase-separated form...
February 1, 2018: Molecular Cell
Yohann Jourdy, Alexandre Janin, Mathilde Fretigny, Anne Lienhart, Claude Négrier, Dominique Bozon, Christine Vinciguerra
Incorporation of distant intronic sequences in mature mRNA is an underappreciated cause of genetic disease. Several disease-causing pseudoexons have been found to contain repetitive elements such as Alu elements. This study describes an original pathological mechanism by which a small intronic deletion leads to Alu exonization. We identified an intronic deletion, c.2113+461_2113+473del, in the F8 intron 13, in two individuals with mild hemophilia A. In vivo and in vitro transcript analysis found an aberrant transcript, with an insertion of a 122-bp intronic fragment (c...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Yan Sun, Man Luo, Guilin Chang, Weiying Ren, Kefen Wu, Xi Li, Jiping Shen, Xiaoping Zhao, Yu Hu
Abnormal glucose metabolism is critical in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Expression of the pyruvate kinase (PK) M2 isoform, rather than the PKM1 isoform, serves important functions in reprogramming the glucose metabolism of cancer cells. Preferential expression of PKM2 is primarily driven by alternative splicing, which is coordinated by a group of splicing factors including heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)A1, hnRNPA2 and RNA binding motif containing. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with cancer cell expression of PKM2, instead of PKM1, remain unknown...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
Elżbieta Sokół, Hanna Kędzierska, Alicja Czubaty, Beata Rybicka, Katarzyna Rodzik, Zbigniew Tański, Joanna Bogusławska, Agnieszka Piekiełko-Witkowska
SRSF1, SRSF2 and hnRNP A1 are splicing factors that regulate the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. SRSF1 and SRSF2 contribute to the carcinogenesis in the kidney. Despite their importance, the mechanisms regulating their expression in cancer are not entirely understood. Here, we investigated the microRNA-mediated regulation of SRSF1, SRSF2 and hnRNP A1 in renal cancer. The expression of microRNAs predicted to target SRSF1, SRSF2 and hnRNP A1 was disturbed in renal tumors compared with controls...
February 15, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
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