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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156335/thyroid-disruption-and-reduced-mental-development-in-children-from-an-informal-e-waste-recycling-area-a-mediation-analysis
#1
Lian Liu, Bo Zhang, Kun Lin, Yuling Zhang, Xijin Xu, Xia Huo
This paper aims to evaluate the effects of thyroid disruption on the mental development of children. A total of 258 three-year-old children in Guiyu (e-waste-exposed group) and Nanao (reference group), China were examined. FT3, FT4, TSH, lead (BPb) and cadmium (BCd) in blood were determined, and cognitive and language scores of children were assessed based on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Stepwise multiple regression was used to estimate the relationship between heavy metals and cognitive and language scores; mediation analysis was performed to determine whether thyroid disruption was mechanistically involved...
November 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156288/determination-and-validation-of-soil-thresholds-for-cadmium-based-on-food-quality-standard-and-health-risk-assessment
#2
Changfeng Ding, Yibing Ma, Xiaogang Li, Taolin Zhang, Xingxiang Wang
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant with high rates of soil-plant transfer. It is essential to establish an accurate soil threshold for the implementation of soil management practices. This study takes root vegetable as an example to derive soil thresholds for Cd based on the food quality standard as well as health risk assessment using species sensitivity distribution (SSD). A soil type-specific bioconcentration factor (BCF, ratio of Cd concentration in plant to that in soil) generated from soil with a proper Cd concentration gradient was calculated and applied in the derivation of soil thresholds instead of a generic BCF value to minimize the uncertainty...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154992/structural-and-biophysical-characterization-of-rv3716c-a-hypothetical-protein-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
A Gopalan, G Deka, M Prabhavathi, H S Savithri, M R N Murthy, A Raja
Latent tuberculosis (TB) is the main hurdle in reaching the goal of "Stop TB 2050". Tuberculin skin and Interferon-gamma release assay tests used currently for the diagnosis of TB infection cannot distinguish between active disease and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and hence new and sensitive protein markers need to be identified for the diagnosis. A protein Rv3716c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtbRv3716c) has been identified as a potential surrogate marker for the diagnosis of LTBI. Here, we present characterization of MtbRv3716c (∼13 kDa) using both biophysical and X-Ray crystallographic methods...
November 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154917/maternal-urinary-cadmium-levels-during-pregnancy-associated-with-risk-of-sex-dependent-birth-outcomes-from-an-e-waste-pollution-site-in-china
#4
Yuling Zhang, Xijin Xu, Aimin Chen, Chand Basha Davuljigari, Xiangbin Zheng, Stephani S Kim, Kim N Dietrich, Shuk-Mei Ho, Tiina Reponen, Xia Huo
This study was to investigate whether exposure to cadmium (Cd) during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse birth outcomes in a sex-dependent manner. Cd concentrations in maternal urine (U-Cd) samples were measured in 237 subjects from Guiyu (e-waste area) and 212 subjects from Haojiang. A significance level of p <0.05 was used for all analyses. The maternal U-Cd levels in Guiyu residents were significantly higher than Haojiang. We found significant inverse associations between U-Cd concentrations and birth anthropometry (birth weight, birth length, Head Circumference and Apgar scores with 1min and 5 mins) in female neonates, but no significant associations were observed in male neonates except Apgar (1min...
November 14, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154872/starvation-thermal-and-heavy-metal-associated-expression-of-four-small-heat-shock-protein-genes-in-musca-domestica
#5
Lu Tian, Xiaoyun Wang, Xiaoping Wang, Chaoliang Lei, Fen Zhu
In this study, starvation-, thermal- and heavy metal-associated expression of four small Musca domestica HSPs (abbreviated as MdomHSPs and they are MdomHSP10, MdomHSP27, MdomHSP27.1 and MdomHSP27.2) were determined. The following results were found: All MdomHSPs were significantly higher expressed during the active larval and adult stages than the egg and pupal stages; All MdomHSPs were expressed at relatively equal levels in the head, thorax and abdomen of adults; The expression of MdomHSP27 was significantly down-regulated in 4-day-old larvae that were starved for 6h, while the other 3 MdomHSPs were not significantly affected; Thermal treatment altered the expression of MdomHSPs in 4-day-old larvae: MdomHSP10 was significantly down-regulated in 4-day-old larvae that were maintained at 4°C and 37°C than in those that were maintained at 25°C; Lead, cadmium and chromium exposure influenced larval expression of MdomHSPs to varying degrees...
November 14, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154310/tutorial-on-x-ray-photon-counting-detector-characterization
#6
Liqiang Ren, Bin Zheng, Hong Liu
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in photon counting detection technology have led to significant research interest in X-ray imaging. OBJECTIVE: As a tutorial level review, this paper covers a wide range of aspects related to X-ray photon counting detector characterization. METHODS: The tutorial begins with a detailed description of the working principle and operating modes of a pixelated X-ray photon counting detector with basic architecture and detection mechanism...
November 16, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154133/signaling-molecule-methylglyoxal-ameliorates-cadmium-injury-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-by-a-coordinated-induction-of-glutathione-pool-and-glyoxalase-system
#7
Zhong-Guang Li, Qian Nie, Cong-Li Yang, Yue Wang, Zhi-Hao Zhou
Methylglyoxal (MG) now is found to be an emerging signaling molecule. It can relieve the toxicity of cadmium (Cd), however its alleviating mechanism still remains unknown. In this study, compared with the Cd-stressed seedlings without MG treatment, MG treatment could stimulate the activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS) in Cd-stressed wheat seedlings, which in turn induced an increase of reduced glutathione (GSH). Adversely, the activated enzymes related to GSH biosynthesis and increased GSH were weakened by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, MG scavenger), 2,4-dihydroxy-benzylamine (DHBA) and 1,3-bischloroethyl-nitrosourea (BCNU, both are specific inhibitors of GR), buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, a specific inhibitors of GSH biosynthesis), and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM, GSH scavenger), respectively...
November 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152371/crystal-structures-of-the-solid-solutions-na3zn0-912cd0-088b5o10-and-na3zn0-845mg0-155b5o10
#8
Xue-An Chen, Ya-Hua Zhang, Xin-An Chang, Wei-Qiang Xiao
Two new penta-borates, tris-odium zinc cadmium penta-borate, Na3Zn0.912Cd0.088B5O10, and tris-odium zinc magnesium penta-borate, Na3Zn0.845Mg0.155B5O10, have been synthesized by high-temperature solution reactions at 1023 K. Their crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both solid solutions crystallize in the ortho-rhom-bic form of the parent compound Na3ZnB5O10 (space group type Pbca, Z = 8) and contain the double ring [B5O10](5-) anion composed of one BO4 tetra-hedron and four BO3 triangles as the basic structural motif...
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152341/crystal-structure-of-4-4-bipyridyl-%C3%AE%C2%BAn-bis-n-2-hydroxy-ethyl-n-iso-propyl-dithio-carbamato-%C3%AE%C2%BA-2-s-s-zinc-ii-4-4-bipyridyl-2-1-and-its-isostructural-cadmium-ii-analogue
#9
Yee Seng Tan, Edward R T Tiekink
The title structures, [M(C6H12NOS2)2(C10H8N2)]·0.5C10H8N2, for M = Zn, (I), and Cd, (II), feature terminally bound 4,4'-bipyridyl ligands and non-coordinating 4,4'-bi-pyridyl mol-ecules, with the latter disposed about a centre of inversion. The coordination geometry about the metal atom is defined by two non-symmetrically chelating di-thio-carbamate ligands and a pyridyl N atom. The NS4 donor sets are distorted but, approximate to trigonal bipyramidal in each case. In the crystal, hy-droxy-O-H⋯O(hy-droxy) and hy-droxy-O-H⋯N(pyrid-yl) hydrogen bonds between the zinc-containing mol-ecules lead to a supra-molecular layer parallel to (100)...
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152332/crystal-structure-of-poly-di-aqua-bis-%C3%AE-5-benzene-1-3-di-carboxyl-ato-n-n-di-methyl-formamide-cadmium-ii-disodium-i
#10
Matimon Sangsawang, Kittipong Chainok, Nanthawat Wannarit
The title compound, [CdNa2(C8H4O4)2(C3H7NO)(H2O)2] n or [CdNa2(1,3-bdc)2(DMF)(H2O)2] n , is a new Cd(II)-Na(I) heterobimetallic coordination polymer. The asymmetric unit consists of one Cd(II) atom, two Na(I) atoms, two 1,3-bdc ligands, two coordinated water mol-ecules and one coordinated DMF mol-ecule. The Cd(II) atom exhibits a seven-coordinate geometry, while the Na(I) atoms can be considered to be penta-coordinate. The metal ions and their symmetry-related equivalents are connected via chelating-bridging carboxyl-ate groups of the 1,3-bdc ligands to generate a three-dimensional framework...
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151186/biochar-effects-on-uptake-of-cadmium-and-lead-by-wheat-in-relation-to-annual-precipitation-a-3-year-field-study
#11
Fengfeng Sui, Jing Zuo, De Chen, Lianqing Li, Genxing Pan, David E Crowley
Biochar has been widely studied for its ability to reduce plant uptake of heavy metals by lowering metal bioavailabilities through adsorption and pH-driven fixation reactions. However, the long-term effect of biochar on heavy metal bioavailabilities in alkaline soils under natural redox condition is rarely studied. Here, we report a study examining the effects of biochar on bioavailability and partitioning of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) among different soil fractions over 3 years in a field study with wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151127/permeability-of-hair-to-cadmium-copper-and-lead-in-five-species-of-terrestrial-mammals-and-implications-in-biomonitoring
#12
A N Rendón-Lugo, P Santiago, I Puente-Lee, L León-Paniagua
The capacity of mammal hair to absorb toxic metals and its utility in biomonitoring has been broadly studied. Though these metal-binding properties has generally been attributed to the sulphur contained in cysteine, an amino acid that forms part of keratin, there are not many experimental studies that analyze the role of sulphur in the external deposition of potentially toxic metallic elements in order to better understand the potential of hair in biomonitoring and generate better tools for differentiating between internal and external deposition of contaminants...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150881/genotoxicity-of-11-heavy-metals-detected-as-food-contaminants-in-two-human-cell-lines
#13
B Kopp, D Zalko, M Audebert
Heavy metals, such as arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), germanium (Ge), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), tellurium (Te), and vanadium (V) are widely distributed in the environment and in the food chain. Human exposure to heavy metals through water and food has been reported by different international agencies. Although some of these heavy metals are essential elements for human growth and development, they may also be toxic at low concentrations due to indirect mechanisms. In this study, the genotoxic and cytotoxic properties of 15 different oxidation statuses of 11 different heavy metals were investigated using high-throughput screening (γH2AX assay) in two human cell lines (HepG2 and LS-174T) representative of target organs (liver and colon) for food contaminants...
November 18, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150339/hair-concentration-of-trace-elements-and-growth-in-homeless-children-aged-6years-results-from-the-enfams-study
#14
Lucia Fábelová, Stéphanie Vandentorren, Cécile Vuillermoz, Robert Garnier, Sandrine Lioret, Jérémie Botton
BACKGROUND: Growth is an important indicator of health in early childhood. This is a critical developmental period, during which a number of factors, including exposure to metals, might play a role in later physical and metabolic functions. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between exposure to arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and selenium (Se), and physical growth of children from homeless families aged <6years. METHODS: This study was based on data of the cross-sectional survey (ENFAMS), which was conducted by the Observatoire du Samu Social on a random sample of homeless sheltered families in the Paris region during winter 2013...
November 14, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149723/residual-effects-of-biochar-on-growth-photosynthesis-and-cadmium-uptake-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l-under-cd-stress-with-different-water-conditions
#15
Muhammad Rizwan, Shafaqat Ali, Tahir Abbas, Muhammad Adrees, Muhammad Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Ibrahim, Farhat Abbas, Muhammad Farooq Qayyum, Rab Nawaz
Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination and drought stress are among the main issues hindering global food security. Biochar has been used to reduce metal uptake by plants and water stress mitigation, but long-term residual effects of biochar under Cd stress at different moisture levels needs to be investigated. A following rice (Oryza sativa L.) was grown after wheat on Cd-contaminated soil amended with different levels of biochar (0, 3.0, and 5.0%, w/w). Thirty five days old plants were irrigated with three moisture levels including zero drought as a control (1-2 cm water layer on soil), mild drought (MD, 50% of soil water holding capacity, WHC), and severe drought (SD, 35% of soil WHC) for an accompanying 35 days...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149661/unraveling-the-effects-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-on-uptake-translocation-and-distribution-of-cadmium-in-phragmites-australis-cav-trin-ex-steud
#16
Xiaochen Huang, Li Wang, Shishu Zhu, Shih-Hsin Ho, Jieting Wu, Prasanta K Kalita, Fang Ma
Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. has been reported to form a symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF). However, the tolerance mechanism for AMF symbiosis on cadmium (Cd) phytotoxicity still remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Rhizophagus irregularis inoculation on Cd-stressed (0, 1, and 20mgL(-1)) roots, stems, and leaves of P. australis with regard to subcellular Cd distribution and chemical forms of Cd. In addition, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate variations in subcellular structures and functional groups in plant organs...
November 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149643/the-role-of-the-p38-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-pathway-mediated-autophagy-in-cadmium-exposed-monogonont-rotifer-brachious-koreanus
#17
Hye-Min Kang, Chang-Bum Jeong, Min-Sub Kim, Jin-Sol Lee, Jiaying Zhou, Young Hwan Lee, Duck-Hyun Kim, Eunyoung Moon, Hee-Seok Kweon, Su-Jae Lee, Jae-Seong Lee
Autophagy is a 'self-eating' system that regulates the degradation of cellular components and is involved in various biological processes including survival and development. However, despite its crucial role in organisms, the regulatory mechanism of autophagy remains largely unclear, particularly in invertebrates. In this study, conserved autophagy in the rotifer Brachionus koreanus in response to cadmium (Cd) exposure was verified by measuring acidic vesicle organelles using acridine orange (AO) and neutral red (NR) staining, and by detecting LC3 I/II on Western blot and immunofluorescence...
November 10, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149616/protective-effects-of-proanthocyanidins-against-cadmium-induced-testicular-injury-through-the-modification-of-nrf2-keap1-signal-path-in-rats
#18
Liu He, Peng Li, Li-Hui Yu, Lin Li, Yi Zhang, Yang Guo, Miao Long, Jian-Bin He, Shu-Hua Yang
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential chemoprotective effects of proanthocyanidins (PAs) against cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative damage of testes via Nrf2-Keap1 signal pathway in rats. Briefly, by using biochemical histological analysis, as well as the real time PCR and western blot approach, oxidative damage in rat testicular tissue was observed after exposure to Cd. In addition, significant down-regulations of mRNA and protein levels of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), as well as a significant up-regulation of Kelch sample related protein-1 (Keap1) levels in testicular tissue were observed after Cd exposure...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149053/laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy-for-rapid-discrimination-of-heavy-metal-contaminated-seafood-tegillarca-granosa
#19
Guoli Ji, Pengchao Ye, Yijian Shi, Leiming Yuan, Xiaojing Chen, Mingshun Yuan, Dehua Zhu, Xi Chen, Xinyu Hu, Jing Jiang
Tegillarca granosa samples contaminated artificially by three kinds of toxic heavy metals including zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) were attempted to be distinguished using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technology and pattern recognition methods in this study. The measured spectra were firstly processed by a wavelet transform algorithm (WTA), then the generated characteristic information was subsequently expressed by an information gain algorithm (IGA). As a result, 30 variables obtained were used as input variables for three classifiers: partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF), among which the RF model exhibited the best performance, with 93...
November 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147692/topological-transformation-of-a-trefoil-knot-into-a-2-catenane
#20
Thirumurugan Prakasam, Rana A Bilbeisi, Roberto El-Khoury, Loïc J Charbonnière, Mourad Elhabiri, Gennaro Esposito, John-Carl Olsen, Ali Trabolsi
Topological transformation of a zinc-templated trefoil knot, Zn-TK, into a zinc-templated [2]catenane, Zn-[2]C, was studied. The net reaction 2 Zn-TK → 3 Zn-[2]C was accomplished in 89% yield by heating a solution of Zn-TK in D2O. Kinetic investigation by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry revealed that the mechanism is complex, involving a large pool of intermediates that form after imine bond cleavage. Bromide ions, which can occupy the central cavity of Zn-TK, inhibited the reaction...
November 17, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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