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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214123/a-tool-for-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-field-scale-sediment-bound-phosphorus-mitigation-measures-and-application-to-analysis-of-spatial-and-temporal-targeting-in-the-lunan-water-catchment-scotland
#1
Andy Vinten, James Sample, Adekunle Ibiyemi, Yakubu Abdul-Salam, Marc Stutter
The cost-effectiveness of six edge-of-field measures for mitigating diffuse pollution from sediment bound phosphorus (P) runoff from temperate arable farmland is analysed at catchment/field scales. These measures were: buffer strips, permanent grassland in the lowest 7% of arable fields, dry detention bunds, wetlands, and temporary barriers such as sediment fences. Baseline field P export was estimated using export coefficients (low risk crops) or a modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (high risk crops). The impact of measures was estimated using simple equations...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213748/immobilization-of-irpex-lacteus-to-liquid-core-alginate-beads-and-their-application-to-degradation-of-pollutants
#2
Jan Šíma, Rachel Milne, Čeněk Novotný, Pavel Hasal
White rot fungi (WRF) are applicable to biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants. However, excessive biomass growth typical for WRF cultivation can hinder their large scale applications. Therefore, immobilization of Irpex lacteus to liquid-core alginate beads restricting excessive mycelium growth and simultaneously keeping high degradation rate of pollutants was tested. Effective diffusivities of dyes to the beads varied from (2.98 ± 0.69) × 10(-10) to (10.27 ± 2.60) × 10(-10) m(2)/s. Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), Reactive Orange 16 (RO16), and Naphthol Blue Black (NBB) were used as model dyes...
February 17, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202064/prediagnostic-plasma-concentrations-of-organochlorines-and-risk-of-b-cell-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-in-envirogenomarkers-a-nested-case-control-study
#3
Rachel S Kelly, Hannu Kiviranta, Ingvar A Bergdahl, Domenico Palli, Ann-Sofie Johansson, Maria Botsivali, Paolo Vineis, Roel Vermeulen, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Marc Chadeau-Hyam
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests a largely environmental component to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDE and HCB have been repeatedly implicated, but the literature is inconsistent and a causal relationship remains to be determined. METHODS: The EnviroGenoMarkers study is nested within two prospective cohorts EPIC-Italy and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Six PCB congeners, DDE and HCB were measured in blood plasma samples provided at recruitment using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192716/development-and-testing-of-a-fast-conceptual-river-water-quality-model
#4
Ingrid Keupers, Patrick Willems
Modern, model based river quality management strongly relies on river water quality models to simulate the temporal and spatial evolution of pollutant concentrations in the water body. Such models are typically constructed by extending detailed hydrodynamic models with a component describing the advection-diffusion and water quality transformation processes in a detailed, physically based way. This approach is too computational time demanding, especially when simulating long time periods that are needed for statistical analysis of the results or when model sensitivity analysis, calibration and validation require a large number of model runs...
February 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190575/water-quality-variables-and-pollution-sources-shaping-stream-macroinvertebrate-communities
#5
Elisabeth Berger, Peter Haase, Mathias Kuemmerlen, Moritz Leps, Ralf Bernhard Schäfer, Andrea Sundermann
In 2015, over 90 percent of German rivers failed to reach a good ecological status as demanded by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). Deficits in water quality, mainly from diffuse pollution such as agricultural run-off, but also from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), have been suggested as important drivers of this decline in ecological quality. We modelled six macroinvertebrate based metrics indicating ecological quality for 184 streams in response to a) PCA-derived water quality gradients, b) individual water quality variables and c) catchment land use and wastewater exposure indices as pollution drivers...
February 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187347/influence-of-blooms-of-phytoplankton-on-concentrations-of-hydrophobic-organic-chemicals-in-sediments-and-snails-in-a-hyper-eutrophic-freshwater-lake
#6
Wei Shi, Nanyang Yu, Xia Jiang, Zhihua Han, Shuhang Wang, Xiaowei Zhang, Si Wei, John P Giesy, Hongxia Yu
Blooms of phytoplankton, which are common in freshwater ecosystems, might not only affect quality of water but also influence biogeochemical processing of pollutants. Based on three years of field observations in sediments of Tai Lake, China, concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in areas where blooms occurred were 2.4 and 3.4 times greater than concentrations in areas without blooms. Concentrations of octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in areas where blooms did not occur were 3...
January 31, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185735/human-bio-monitoring-study-around-a-plant-that-recycles-and-refines-precious-metals-in-central-italy
#7
Elisabetta Chellini, Maria Teresa Maurello, Barbara Cortini, Cristina Aprea
In an area characterized by the presence of a plant that recycles and refines precious metals the study aims to evaluate the exposure to the plant emissions of the residents in the neighbourhood using human urinary biomarkers, in comparison with those obtained in a reference and in an urban area and with the data concerning dispersions of plant emissions obtained through a specific diffusional model. 153 subjects in the study area, 95 in the urban area and 55 in the reference area, aged 18-60years, answered to a self-administered questionnaire and collected their 24-h urine...
February 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185700/use-of-spatially-distributed-time-integrated-sediment-sampling-networks-and-distributed-fine-sediment-modelling-to-inform-catchment-management
#8
M T Perks, J Warburton, L J Bracken, S M Reaney, S B Emery, S Hirst
Under the EU Water Framework Directive, suspended sediment is omitted from environmental quality standards and compliance targets. This omission is partly explained by difficulties in assessing the complex dose-response of ecological communities. But equally, it is hindered by a lack of spatially distributed estimates of suspended sediment variability across catchments. In this paper, we demonstrate the inability of traditional, discrete sampling campaigns for assessing exposure to fine sediment. Sampling frequencies based on Environmental Quality Standard protocols, whilst reflecting typical manual sampling constraints, are unable to determine the magnitude of sediment exposure with an acceptable level of precision...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166245/long-term-1997-2014-spatial-and-temporal-variations-in-nitrogen-in-dongting-lake-china
#9
Zebin Tian, Binghui Zheng, Lijing Wang, Liqiang Li, Xing Wang, Hong Li, Stefan Norra
In order to protect the water quality of Dongting Lake, it is significant to find out its nitrogen pollution characteristics. Using long-term monthly to seasonally data (1997-2014), we investigated the spatial and temporal variations in nitrogen in Dongting Lake, the second largest freshwater lake in China. The average concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) in the eastern, southern, and western parts of the lake were 1.77, 1.56, and 1.35 mg/L, respectively, in 2014. TN pollution was generally worse in the southern area than in the western area...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165670/silar-bioi-sensitized-tio2-films-for-visible-light-photocatalytic-degradation-of-rhodamine%C3%A2-b-and-4-chlorophenol
#10
Gylen Odling, Neil Robertson
BiOI nanoplates were deposited upon a film of TiO2 nanoparticles derived from a commercial source using a simple room temperature sequential ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron microscopies have been used to confirm the crystal phase, chemical states of key elements and morphology of the BiOI nanoplate-TiO2 composites. Using both valence band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV/Vis diffuse reflectance measurements the band structure of the composites is determined to be that of a type II heterojunction...
February 6, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161040/heavy-pollution-episodes-transport-pathways-and-potential-sources-of-pm2-5-during-the-winter-of-2013-in-chengdu-china
#11
Tingting Liao, Shan Wang, Jie Ai, Ke Gui, Bolong Duan, Qi Zhao, Xiao Zhang, Wanting Jiang, Yang Sun
Air mass concentration data from 8 environmental quality monitoring sites and meteorological data of Chengdu from 1 December 2013 to 28 February 2014 were used in this study. Chengdu suffered five continuous heavy pollutions during this winter due to the basin terrain and the meteorological conditions of low wind speed, low precipitation and high relative humidity. Analysing the hourly resolution time series of pollutants' concentrations, variation of PM2.5 in the urban area followed a growing "saw-tooth cycle" pattern during the heavy pollution, with a daily cycle of bimodal distribution...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159305/microscopic-characterisation-of-black-crusts-on-different-substrates
#12
J S Pozo-Antonio, M F C Pereira, C S A Rocha
Black crusts on different substrates (carbonate and silicate stones, cement-based mortar and carbonate detrital deposits) in urban environments were characterized microscopically by analysing their morphologies and compositions. The objective of this article is to study the interaction between the substrate and the crust and the influence of the environmental conditions on the crust development. On the one hand, the internal structure and morphology of each sample were evaluated with stereo and scanning electron microscopies...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153226/calibration-and-response-of-an-agarose-gel-based-passive-sampler-to-record-short-pulses-of-aquatic-organic-pollutants
#13
Angel Belles, Claire Alary, Yann Aminot, James W Readman, Christine Franke
A passive sampler inspired from previous devices was developed for the integrative sampling of a broad range of contaminants in the water column. Our primary objective was to improve the performance of the device to provide accurate and averaged pollutant water concentrations. For this purpose, an agarose diffusive gel was used as the boundary layer that drives the analyte uptake rate. Contrary to conventional passive samplers, the developed device does not require the sampling rates to be corrected for exposure conditions (e...
April 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147293/evaluation-of-water-quality-using-water-quality-index-wqi-method-and-gis-in-aksu-river-sw-turkey
#14
Şehnaz Şener, Erhan Şener, Ayşen Davraz
The aim of this study is evaluate water quality of the Aksu River, the main river recharging the Karacaören-1 Dam Lake and flowing approximately 145km from Isparta province to Mediterranean. Due to plan for obtaining drinking water from the Karacaören-1 Dam Lake for Antalya Province, this study has great importance. In this study, physical and chemical analyses of water samples taken from 21 locations (in October 2011 and May 2012, two periods) through flow path of the river were investigated. The analysis results were compared with maximum permissible limit values recommended by World Health Organization and Turkish drinking water standards...
January 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145634/nitrogen-doped-graphene-nanoscroll-foam-with-high-diffusion-rate-and-binding-affinity-for-removal-of-organic-pollutants
#15
Qile Fang, Xufeng Zhou, Wei Deng, Yuewen Liu, Zhi Zheng, Zhaoping Liu
A nitrogen-doped 3D graphene foam assembled with nanoscroll structure is constructed via a facile mild-heating methodology using polar molecule of formamide as the driving regent. The as-prepared graphene nanoscroll foam exhibits promising performance in organic pollutants removal with improved adsorption rate and high binding affinity, which is thought to be a novel adsorption material.
February 1, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119006/assessing-anthropogenic-impacts-on-riverine-ecosystems-using-nested-partial-least-squares-regression
#16
A R L Ferreira, L F Sanches Fernandes, R M V Cortes, F A L Pacheco
The results of three Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression models were used to gain a holistic view on the consequences of natural processes and anthropogenic pressures for water quality degradation and biodiversity decline in a multi-use watershed. The processes were soil erosion and wildfire risk; the pressures comprised land use conflicts, leachates from domestic and industrial waste, arable farming intensity and livestock density. Water quality was characterized for concentrations of nutrients (nitrate, phosphate), oxygen demands (Biochemical Oxygen Demand - BOD5, Chemical Oxygen Demand - COD) and various metals (e...
January 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112662/morphology-dependent-adsorption-of-methylene-blue-on-trititanate-nanoplates-and-nanotubes-prepared-by-the-hydrothermal-treatment-of-tio2
#17
Graham Dawson, Wei Chen, Luhua Lu, Kai Dai
The adsorption properties of two nanomorphologies of trititanate, nanotubes (TiNT) and plates (TiNP), prepared by the hydrothermal reaction of concentrated NaOH with different phases of TiO2, were examined. It was found that the capacity for both morphologies towards methylene blue (MB), an ideal pollutant, was extremely high, with the TiNP having a capacity of 130 mg/g, higher than the TiNT, whose capacity was 120 mg/g at 10 mg/L MB concentration. At capacity, the well-dispersed powders deposit on the floor of the reaction vessel...
January 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105596/monitoring-nutrients-fate-after-digestate-spreading-in-a-short-rotation-buffer-area
#18
Nicolò Colombani, Bruno Boz, Bruna Gumiero, Micòl Mastrocicco
One of the main sources of reactive nitrogen pollution is animal manure. The disposal of digestate (material remaining after the anaerobic digestion of a biodegradable feedstock) in agricultural soils could solve both the problems of soil fertilization and waste removal, but the fate of digestate in the environment must be assessed carefully before its massive utilization. To investigate whether digestate could be safely employed as a soil fertilizer, an agricultural field located in Monastier di Treviso (Northern Italy) and characterized by the presence of low hydraulic conductivity clay soils, was selected to be amended with bovine digestate...
January 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103518/adsorption-of-quinolone-tetracycline-and-penicillin-antibiotics-from-aqueous-solution-using-activated-carbons-review
#19
REVIEW
Muthanna J Ahmed
Antibiotics, an important type of pharmaceutical pollutant, have attracted many researchers to the study of their removal from aqueous solutions. Activated carbon (AC) has been widely used as highly effective adsorbent for antibiotics because of its large specific surface area, high porosity, and favorable pore size distribution. In this article, the adsorption performance of AC towards three major types of antibiotics such as tetracyclines, quinolones, and penicillins were reviewed. According to collected data, maximum adsorption capacities of 1340...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089398/high-temperature-investigations-on-optimising-the-recovery-of-copper-from-waste-printed-circuit-boards
#20
R Cayumil, M Ikram-Ul-Haq, R Khanna, R Saini, P S Mukherjee, B K Mishra, V Sahajwalla
High temperature pyrolysis investigations were carried out on waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) in the temperature range 800-1000°C under inert conditions, with an aim to determine optimal operating conditions for the recovery of copper. Pyrolysis residues were characterized using ICP-OES analysis, SEM/EDS and XRD investigations. Copper foils were successfully recovered after pyrolysis at 800°C for 10-20 min; the levels of Pb and Sn present were found to be quite low and these were generally present near the foil edges...
January 12, 2017: Waste Management
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