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diffuse pollution

Jia Wen, Ying Fang, Guangming Zeng
The efficient removal of heavy metals (HMs) from the environment has become an important issue from both biological and environmental perspectives. Recently, porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), combining central metals and organic ligands, have been proposed as promising materials in the capture of various toxic substances, including HMs, due to their unique characteristics. Here we review recent progress in the field of water remediation from the perspective of primary HMs (including divalent metals and variable-valent metals) in water pollution and the corresponding MOFs (including virgin and modified MOFs, magnetic MOFs composites and so on) that can remove these metals from water...
March 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Juan Zheng, Junlong Huang, Fei Xu, Chuyi Ni, Xintong Xie, Fang Zhu, Dingcai Wu, Gangfeng Ouyang
Hollow carbon nanospheres (HCNs) with numerous nanopores in their ultrathin carbon shells have been prepared and applied as SPME fiber coatings. Benefiting from its ultrahigh surface area, short diffusion distance, and nitrogen doping, the HCNs-coated fiber demonstrates excellent properties of fast mass transfer, broad-spectrum adsorption and high extraction efficiencies. These encouraging results could offer a benchmark for developing advanced SPME in environment analyses requiring high-performance enrichment of abundant analytes, especially for unknown compounds...
March 14, 2018: Nanoscale
Anna Gołąbiewska, Marta Paszkiewicz-Gawron, Aleksandra Sadzińska, Wojciech Lisowski, Ewelina Grabowska, Adriana Zaleska-Medynska, Justyna Łuczak
To investigate the effect of the ionic liquid (IL) chain length on the surface properties and photoactivity of TiO2 , a series of TiO2 microspheres have been synthesized via a solvothermal method assisted by 1-methyl-3-octadecylimidazolium chloride ([ODMIM][Cl]) and 1-methyl-3-tetradecylimidazolium chloride ([TDMIM][Cl]). All as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning transmission microscopy (STEM) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area method, whereas the photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the degradation of phenol in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm)...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Oussama Mghirbi, Jean-Paul Bord, Philippe Le Grusse, Elisabeth Mandart, Jacques Fabre
Faced with health, environmental, and socio-economic issues related to the heavy use of pesticides, diffuse phytosanitary pollution becomes a major concern shared by all the field actors. These actors, namely the farmers and territorial managers, have expressed the need to implement decision support tools for the territorial management of diffuse pollution resulting from the plant protection practices and their impacts. To meet these steadily increasing requests, a cartographic analysis approach was implemented based on GIS which allows the spatialization of the diffuse pollution impacts related to plant protection practices on the Etang de l'Or catchment area in the South of France...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lei Wu, Shanshan Qiao, Mengling Peng, Xiaoyi Ma
Soil and nutrient loss is a common natural phenomenon but it exhibits unclear understanding especially on bare loess soil with variable rainfall intensity and slope gradient, which makes it difficult to design control measures for agricultural diffuse pollution. We employ 30 artificial simulated rainfalls (six rainfall intensities and five slope gradients) to quantify the coupling loss correlation of runoff-sediment-adsorbed and dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus on bare loess slope. Here, we show that effects of rainfall intensity on runoff yield was stronger than slope gradient with prolongation of rainfall duration, and the effect of slope gradient on runoff yield reduced gradually with increased rainfall intensity...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Patrycja Parnicka, Paweł Mazierski, Tomasz Grzyb, Wojciech Lisowski, Ewa Kowalska, Bunsho Ohtani, Adriana Zaleska-Medynska, Joanna Nadolna
Nd-modified TiO2 photocatalysts have been obtained via hydrothermal (HT) and sol-hydrothermal (SHT) methods. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), luminescence spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized samples was evaluated by the degradation of phenol in aqueous solution under irradiation with UV-vis (λ > 350 nm) and vis (λ > 420 nm) light, as well as by the degradation of gaseous toluene under irradiation with vis (λmax = 415 nm) light...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Xuelian Pan, Shaojie Zhuo, Qirui Zhong, Yuanchen Chen, Wei Du, Hefa Cheng, Xilong Wang, Eddy Y Zeng, Baoshan Xing, Shu Tao
A novel enhanced diffusion sampler for collecting gaseous phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) without air agitation is proposed. The diffusion of target compounds into a sampling chamber is facilitated by continuously purging through a closed-loop flow to create a large concentration difference between the ambient air and the air in the sampling chamber. A glass-fiber filter-based prototype was developed. It was demonstrated that the device could collect gaseous PAHs at a much higher rate (1.6 ± 1...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Yi Wang, Yang Long, Zhiqing Yang, Dun Zhang
Visible-light-driven (VLD) BiOI/BiOBr heterostructure films with hierarchical microstructure have been firstly fabricated on 304 stainless steel wire mesh (304SSWM) substrates through a novel ion-exchange method using the BiOI film as precursor. The concentration of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) is the key factor to control the composition and microstructure of BiOI/BiOBr films. Physical, chemical, and optical properties of BiOI/BiOBr heterostructure films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, high resolution transmittance electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance absorption, and fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Xian-Jun Liu, Shan-Wen Hu, Bi-Yi Xu, Ge Zhao, Xiang Li, Fu-Wei Xie, Jing-Juan Xu, Hong-Yuan Chen
In this paper, a novel prototype liquid-air dual gradient chip is introduced, which has paved the way for effective synergic effect bio-evaluation of air pollutant. The chip is composed of an array of the agarose liquid-air interfaces, top air gradient layer and bottom liquid gradient layer. The novel agarose liquid-air interface allows for non-biased exposure of cells to all the substances in the air and diffusive interactions with the liquid phase; while the dual liquid-air gradient provides powerful screening abilities, which well reduced errors, saved time and cost from repeated experiment...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Rainier Hreiz, Olivier Potier, Jim Wicks, Jean-Marc Commenge
In this paper, CFD simulations are employed to characterize the effects of bubble aerator layouts (i.e. spatial arrangement) on the hydrodynamics in activated sludge reactors. The first configuration considered is a channel reactor with aerators placed alongside one lateral wall, for which velocity measurements are available in literature. CFD results were in good agreement with experimental data, which proves that the model is sufficiently accurate and predictive. Accordingly, simulations and numerical residence time distribution tests were conducted for different aerator layouts to determine their effects on the reactor hydrodynamics...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Technology
Marc Debliquy, Driss Lahem, Antonio Bueno-Martinez, Christophe Caucheteur, Marcel Bouvet, Isaline Recloux, Jean-Pierre Raskin, Marie-Georges Olivier
In this article, we describe a NO₂ sensor consisting of a coating based on lutetium bisphthalocyanine (LuPc₂) in mesoporous silica. The sensor exploits the absorption spectrum change of this material which strongly and reversibly decreases in contact with NO₂. NO₂ is measured by following the amplitude change in the reflected spectrum of the coating deposited on the tip of a silica fibre. As diffusion of NO₂ in LuPc₂ is slow, the response time could be slow. To reduce it, the active molecules are dispersed in a mesoporous silica matrix deposited by a sol-gel process (Evaporation Induced Self Assembly) avoiding the formation of large crystals...
March 1, 2018: Sensors
Haowen Li, Baomin Wang, Xingqin Fang, Wei Zhu, Qi Fan, Zhiheng Liao, Jian Liu, Asi Zhang, Shaojia Fan
Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) has a significant impact on the spatial and temporal distribution of air pollutants. In order to gain a better understanding of how ABL affects the variation of air pollutants, atmospheric boundary layer observations were performed at Sanshui in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region over Southern China during the winter of 2013. Two types of typical ABL status which could lead to air pollution were analyzed comparatively: weak vertical diffusion ability type (WVDAT) and weak horizontal transportation ability type (WHTAT)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Kai Zhang, Ying Zhang, Rui Xin, Yongpeng Zhang, Zhiguang Niu
The ocean is the final place where pollutants generated by human activities are deposited. As a result, the long-range transport of the ocean can facilitate the diffusion of terrestrial contaminants, including ARGs. However, to our knowledge, little research has been devoted to discussing the content change of terrestrial ARGs and the reason for the change in coastal area. This study established various microcosms, in which seawater and freshwater were mixed at different ratio to simulate the environmental conditions of different regions in coastal areas...
February 21, 2018: Chemosphere
Pierina Ielpo, Maria Rosaria Taurino, Riccardo Buccolieri, Claudia Marcella Placentino, Francesco Gallone, Valeria Ancona, Silvana Di Sabatino
Indoor air pollution assessment in work environments remains challenging due to a combination of logistic reasons and availability of costly instrumentation for data acquisition and post-processing. Existing literature focuses on energy production environments, hospitals, and less so on food production spaces. Studies on indoor air quality in bakeries are scarce or even absent. Motivated by this, the present study investigates indoor air quality in a bakery located in Bari province in South Italy, using a combination of approaches including analytical chemistry analyses and computational fluid dynamics to reconstruct the air ventilation in response to air temperature gradients within the working environment...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Marcela Paredes-Laverde, Javier Silva-Agredo, Ricardo A Torres-Palma
The removal of the widely used antibiotic norfloxacin (NOR), the presence of which has been reported in natural water, was evaluated using rice (RH) and coffee (CH) husk wastes as adsorbents. Low particle sizes and natural pH in distilled water favored NOR elimination in both materials. In order to investigate the type of adsorption, the data was adjusted to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The best fit for the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherms suggested a monolayer-type adsorption model...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Woo Jin Chung, Dinh Duc Nguyen, Xuan Thanh Bui, Sang Woo An, J Rajesh Banu, Sang Moon Lee, Sung Su Kim, Dea Hyun Moon, Byong Hun Jeon, Soon Woong Chang
In this study, a magnetically separable, highly active, and recyclable photocatalyst was synthesized by physico-chemical incorporation of Ag, TiO2 , and Fe3 O4 into one structure. The physical and chemical properties of the catalysts were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, field emission transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The Ag-supported magnetic TiO2 composite demonstrated desirable properties and features such as a narrow band gap of 1...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Shaikh A Ali, Mohammad A J Mazumder
Cyclopolymerization of N,N-diallylmethionine hydrochloride, derived from the biogenic amino acid methionine, (90 mol%) and cross-linker tetraallylpiperazinium dichloride (10 mol%) in presence of an azo-initiator afforded pH-responsive cross-linked polyzwitterion (CPZ). The structural morphology of the resin (i.e. CPZ) was examined by the BET and FESEM-EDX analyses. The methionine embedded resin demonstrated remarkable efficacies for the removal of Hg(II) ions at ppb levels. A 50 mg-dose of the resin immersed in aqueous medium (18 mL) could reduce the concentration of Hg(II) from 200 and 400 ppb to 1...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Domenica Mirauda, Marco Ostoich
The present study develops an integrated methodology combining the results of the water-quality classification, according to the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC-WFD, with those of a mathematical integrity model. It is able to analyse the potential anthropogenic impacts on the receiving water body and to help municipal decision-makers when selecting short/medium/long-term strategic mitigation actions to be performed in a territory. Among the most important causes of water-quality degradation in a river, the focus is placed on pollutants from urban wastewater...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Alessia Demichelis, Céline Pascale, Maricarmen Lecuna, Bernhard Niederhauser, Guido Sassi, Maria Paola Sassi
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in gas mixtures at trace level (nmol/mol) are routinely measured by chemical and biochemical laboratories as climate indicators, indoor air quality pollutants from building materials emissions, contaminants in food and beverages, and biomarkers in body fluids (blood, urine, breath) of occupational exposure or human diseases. Current analytical instruments used for measurements are gas chromatographs equipped with various injector and detector configurations. The assurance of measurement quality is done by using a huge amount of certified liquid VOC standard solutions (or gaseous VOC standard cylinders) with multiple dilutions to reach the required trace level...
February 22, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Liqiang Tan, Xiaoli Tan, Huiyang Mei, Yuejie Ai, Lu Sun, Guixia Zhao, Tasawar Hayat, Ahmed Alsaedi, Changlun Chen, Xiangke Wang
The coagulation behaviors of humic acid (HA) with Cs+ (10-500 mM), Sr2+ (0.8-10.0 mM) and Eu3+ (0.01-1.0 mM) at different pH values (2.8, 7.1 and 10.0) were acquired through a dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique combined with spectroscopic analysis and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. The coagulation rate and the average hydrodynamic diameter (<Dh >) increased significantly as the concentration of nuclides increased. <Dh > could be scaled to time t as <Dh >∝ ta at higher Sr2+ concentrations, which shows that HA coagulation is consistent with the diffusion-limited colloid aggregation (DLCA) model...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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