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diffuse pollution

Ehsan Shafia, Serena Esposito, Elnaz Bahadori, Marco Armandi, Maela Manzoli, Barbara Bonelli
The goal of the protocol is to synthesize Fe-doped aluminosilicate nanotubes of the imogolite type with the formula (OH)3Al2-xFexO3SiOH. Doping with Fe aims at lowering the band gap of imogolite, an insulator with the chemical formula (OH)3Al2O3SiOH, and at modifying its adsorption properties towards azo-dyes, an important class of organic pollutants of both wastewater and groundwater. Fe-doped nanotubes are obtained in two ways: by direct synthesis, where FeCl3 is added to an aqueous mixture of the Si and Al precursors, and by post-synthesis loading, where preformed nanotubes are put in contact with a FeCl3•6H2O aqueous solution...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Matthias Zessner, Martin Schönhart, Juraj Parajka, Helene Trautvetter, Hermine Mitter, Mathias Kirchner, Gerold Hepp, Alfred Paul Blaschke, Birgit Strenn, Erwin Schmid
Changes in climatic conditions will directly affect the quality and quantity of water resources. Further on, they will affect them indirectly through adaptation in land use which ultimately influences diffuse nutrient emissions to rivers and therefore potentially the compliance with good ecological status according to the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). We present an integrated impact modelling framework (IIMF) to track and quantify direct and indirect pollution impacts along policy-economy-climate-agriculture-water interfaces...
November 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jennifer Chia Wee Fern, Hideya Nakamura, Satoru Watano
The aim of this study is to develop a novel milling system using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) for the improvement of dissolution characteristics of water-poorly soluble drugs. SC-CO2 possesses high potential in the application of nanotechnology, due to the attractive properties of SC-CO2 fluid such as cheap, inert and non-polluting. In addition, SC-CO2 has density comparable to a liquid, viscosity similar to a gas, and high diffusion capacity. Most of all, carbon dioxide exists as gas in room temperature and pressure, which enables the removal of fluid instantaneously...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Michal P Spilak, Torben Sigsgaard, Hisamitsu Takai, Guoqiang Zhang
People spend approximately one third of their life sleeping. Exposure to pollutants in the sleep environment often leads to a variety of adverse health effects, such as development and exacerbation of asthma. Avoiding exposure to these pollutants by providing a sufficient air quality in the sleep environment might be a feasible method to alleviate these health symptoms. We performed full-scale laboratory measurements using a thermal manikin positioned on an experimental bed. Three ventilation settings were tested: with no filtration system operated, use of portable air cleaner and use of a temperature-controlled laminar airflow (TLA) device...
2016: PloS One
Stephen L Goldson, Barbara I P Barratt, Karen F Armstrong
To protect productive grasslands from pests and diseases, effective pre- and at-border planning and interventions are necessary. Biosecurity failure inevitably requires expensive and difficult eradication, or long-term and often quite ineffective management strategies. This is compared to the early intervention more likely for sectors where there is public and political interest in plants of immediate economic and/or social value, and where associated pests are typically located above-ground on host plantings of relatively limited distribution...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiao-Wu Lei, Cheng-Yang Yue, Jun-Chao Wei, Rui-Qing Li, Yan Li, Fu-Qi Mi
With similar transition metal (TM) complex cations as structural directing agents (SDAs), six new hybrid lead bromides were synthesized and structurally characterized as [Co(2,2-bipy)3]2{[Co(2,2-bipy)]3Pb7Br24} (1), [Co(2,2-bipy)2Br]PbBr3 (2), [TM(phen)3]Pb2Br6 (TM = Co (3) and Ni (4)), [Co(2,2-bipy)3]Pb3Br9 (5) and [Co(2,2-bipy)3]Pb5Br13·CH3CN (6) with distinct structural types from zero-dimensional (0D) unit, one-dimensional (1D) chain to two-dimensional (2D) layer. Compound 1 contains the 0D {[Co(bipy)]3Pb7Br24}(4-) units built from the [Pb7Br24] ring attached by three unsaturated [Co(2,2-bipy)](2+) complexes via Co-Br bonds...
November 24, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Rebekka McIlwaine, Rory Doherty, Siobhan F Cox, Mark Cave
Increasing urbanisation has a direct impact on soil quality, resulting in elevated concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in soils. This research aims to assess if soil PTE concentrations can be used as an 'urbanisation tracer' by investigating geogenic and anthropogenic source contributions and controls, and considering PTE enrichment across historical urban development zones. The UK cities of Belfast and Sheffield are chosen as study areas, where available shallow and deep concentrations of PTEs in soil are compared to identify geogenic and anthropogenic contributions to PTEs...
November 19, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Nathan Bossa, Perrine Chaurand, Clément Levard, Daniel Borschneck, Hélène Miche, Jérôme Vicente, Christophe Geantet, Olivier Aguerre-Chariol, F Marc Michel, Jérôme Rose
Nanomaterials are increasingly being used to improve the properties and functions of common building materials. A new type of self-cleaning cement incorporating TiO2 nanomaterials (TiO2-NMs) with photocatalytic properties is now marketed. This promising cement might provide air pollution-reducing properties but its environmental impact must be validated. During cement use and aging, an altered surface layer is formed that exhibits increased porosity. The surface layer thickness alteration and porosity increase with the cement degradation rate...
November 18, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Xiang Gao, Wei Ouyang, Zengchao Hao, Yandan Shi, Peng Wei, Fanghua Hao
Although climate warming and agricultural land use changes are two of the primary instigators of increased diffuse pollution, they are usually considered separately or additively. This likely lead to poor decisions regarding climate adaptation. Climate warming and farmland responses have synergistic consequences for diffuse nitrogen pollution, which are hypothesized to present different spatio-temporal patterns. In this study, we propose a modeling framework to simulate the synergistic impacts of climate warming and warming-induced farmland shifts on diffuse pollution...
November 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
S Peukert, B A Griffith, P J Murray, C J A Macleod, R E Brazier
: One of the major challenges for agriculture is to understand the effects of agricultural practices on soil properties and diffuse pollution, to support practical farm-scale land management. Three conventionally managed grassland fields with similar short-term management, but different ploughing histories, were studied on a long-term research platform: the North Wyke Farm Platform. The aims were to (i) quantify the between-field and within-field spatial variation in soil properties by geostatistical analysis, (ii) understand the effects of soil condition (in terms of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon contents) on the quality of discharge water and (iii) establish robust baseline data before the implementation of various grassland management scenarios...
July 2016: European Journal of Soil Science
Angel Belles, Claire Alary, Justine Criquet, Anastasia Ivanovsky, Gabriel Billon
A new method based on passive samplers has been developed to assess the diffusive flux of fluorene, fluoranthene and pyrene in the sediment bed and across the sediment-water interface. The dissolved compound concentration gradient in the sediment in the vertical direction was measured at the outlet of a storm water pond by using polyethylene strips as passive samplers. Simultaneously, the dissipation of a set of tracer compounds preloaded in the passive samplers was measured to estimate the effective diffusion coefficients of the pollutants in the sediment...
November 17, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Clemens Reimann, Patrice de Caritat
During the National Geochemical Survey of Australia over 1300 top (0-10cm depth) and bottom (~60-80cm depth) sediment samples (including ~10% field duplicates) were collected from the outlet of 1186 catchments covering 81% of the continent at an average sample density of 1 site/5200km(2). The <2mm fraction of these samples was analysed for 59 elements by ICP-MS following an aqua regia digestion. Results are used here to establish the geochemical background variation of these elements, including potentially toxic elements (PTEs), in Australian surface soil...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Liqiong Chen, Qi Liu, Yunyun Li, Rui Lu, Shijuan Wu, Xin Li, Tao Hou
Leakage of underwater crude oil pipes causes severe pollution to soil and water, and results in great economic loss. To predict the diffusion area of spilled oil before it reaches the water's surface and to reduce the time required for emergency response, numerical simulations were conducted on underwater spilled oil diffusion of bare crude oil pipes using FLUENT software. The influences of water-surface wind speed, leakage hole diameter, water velocity, and initial leakage velocity on oil diffusion were analyzed...
2016: SpringerPlus
Adewale Adewuyi, Fabiano Vargas Pereira
Nitrilotriacetic acid functionalized Adansonia digitata (NFAD) biosorbent has been synthesized using a simple and novel method. NFAD was characterized by X-ray Diffraction analysis technique (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR), particle size dispersion, zeta potential, elemental analysis (CHNS/O analyzer), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS)...
November 2016: Journal of Advanced Research
Fernando Plaza, Yipei Wen, Hanna Perone, Yi Xu, Xu Liang
Acid rock drainage (ARD) is one of the most adverse environmental problems of the mining industry. Surface and ground water affected by this pollution are characterized by their acidity and the high content of sulfates and metals/metalloids. In this study, alkaline clay (AC), an industrial waste with a high alkalinity, which is utilized in the alumina refining process, was used as the remediation material to inhibit pyrite oxidation in waste coal piles. Through a series of laboratory experiments (static and kinetic), complemented with field measurements and geochemical modeling, three important issues associated with this passive and sustainable ARD remediation method were investigated: 1) the potential use of alkaline clay as an ARD remediation material, 2) the adequate alkaline clay/coal refuse mixing ratio (AC/CR) to ensure pH values close to neutral conditions, and, 3) the implications for long-term performance, in terms of the trends of the main parameters involved in this process such as pH, concentrations of sulfate, iron and other dissolved contaminants...
October 27, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Li Zhou, Wei Zhang, Ling Chen, Huiping Deng
Composite or hybrid photocatalysts are gaining increasing interests due to the unique and enhanced photocatalytic activity. In this study, Ag3PO4/g-C3N4 with different ratios of Ag3PO4 and g-C3N4 were synthesized using a facile in situ precipitation method. The photocatalysts were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS)...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Alan Puttock, Hugh A Graham, Andrew M Cunliffe, Mark Elliott, Richard E Brazier
Beavers are the archetypal keystone species, which can profoundly alter ecosystem structure and function through their ecosystem engineering activity, most notably the building of dams. This can have a major impact upon water resource management, flow regimes and water quality. Previous research has predominantly focused on the activities of North American beaver (Castor canadensis) located in very different environments, to the intensive lowland agricultural landscapes of the United Kingdom and elsewhere in Europe...
October 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Mauro Masiol, Stefania Squizzato, Gianni Formenton, Roy M Harrison, Claudio Agostinelli
The Veneto region (NE Italy) lies in the eastern part of the Po Valley, a European hotspot for air pollution. Data for key air pollutants (CO, NO, NO2, O3, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5) measured over 7years (2008/2014) across 43 sites in Veneto were processed to characterise their spatial and temporal patterns and assess the air quality. Nitrogen oxides, PM and ozone are critical pollutants frequently breaching the EC limit and target values. Intersite analysis demonstrates a widespread pollution across the region and shows that primary pollutants (nitrogen oxides, CO, PM) are significantly higher in cities and over the flat lands due to higher anthropogenic pressures...
October 24, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Ayman M Atta, Hamad A Al-Lohedan, Ahmed M Tawfik, Abdelrahman O Ezzat
This work first reports the preparation of super-amphiphilic silica-nanogel composites to reduce the contact angle of water to increase the diffusion of pollutant into adsorbents. In this respect, the silica nanoparticles were encapsulated into nanogels based on ionic and nonionic polyacrylamides by dispersion polymerization technique. The morphologies and the dispersion stability of nanogel composites were investigated to clarify the ability of silica-nanogel composites to adsorb at different interfaces. The feasibility of silica polyacrylamide nanogel composites to act as a high-performance adsorbent for removal of methylene blue (MB) dye and heavy metals (Co(2+) and Ni(2+)) from aqueous solution was investigated...
October 19, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yadan Guo, Wenchao Yu, Jinquan Chen, Xuegang Wang, Bai Gao, Guanghui Wang
To overcome the drawback of low stable brought by the transformation of Ag(+) into Ag, a highly efficient and stable photocatalyst Ag3PO4/rectorite composite was successfully synthesized by ultrasound-assisted precipitation method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption, room-temperature photoluminescence spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectrum measurements and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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