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diffuse pollution

Ravi Mani Tripathi, Braj Raj Shrivastav, Archana Shrivastav
This study reveals the antibacterial and catalytic activity of biogenic gold nanoparicles (AuNPs) synthesised by biomass of Trichoderma harzianum . The antibacterial activity of AuNPs was analysed by the means of growth curve, well diffusion and colony forming unit (CFU) count methods. The minimum inhibitory concentration of AuNPs was 20 µg/ml. AuNPs at 60 µg/ml show effective antibacterial activity as optical absorption was insignificant. The well diffusion and CFU methods were also applied to analyse the effect of various concentration of AuNPs...
June 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Josette Garnier, Antsiva Ramarson, Gilles Billen, Sylvain Théry, Dominique Thiéry, Vincent Thieu, Camille Minaudo, Florentina Moatar
The Grafs-Seneque/Riverstrahler model was implemented for the first time on the Loire River for the 2002-2014 period, to explore eutrophication after improvement of wastewater treatments. The model reproduced the interannual levels and seasonal trends of the major water quality variables. Although eutrophication has been impressively reduced in the drainage network, a eutrophication risk still exists at the coast, as shown by the N-ICEP indicator, pointing out an excess of nitrogen over silica and phosphorus...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hugo O Garcés, Andrés Fuentes, Pedro Reszka, Gonzalo Carvajal
Industrial combustion processes are an important source of particulate matter, causing significant pollution problems that affect human health, and are a major contributor to global warming. The most common method for analyzing the soot emission propensity in flames is the Smoke Point Height (SPH) analysis, which relates the fuel flow rate to a critical flame height at which soot particles begin to leave the reactive zone through the tip of the flame. The SPH and is marked by morphological changes on the flame tip...
May 11, 2018: Sensors
Qing Mu, Manabu Shiraiwa, Mega Octaviani, Nan Ma, Aijun Ding, Hang Su, Gerhard Lammel, Ulrich Pöschl, Yafang Cheng
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like benzo( a )pyrene (BaP) in atmospheric particulate matter pose a threat to human health because of their high carcinogenicity. In the atmosphere, BaP is mainly degraded through a multiphase reaction with ozone, but the fate and atmospheric transport of BaP are poorly characterized. Earlier modeling studies used reaction rate coefficients determined in laboratory experiments at room temperature, which may overestimate/underestimate degradation rates when applied under atmospheric conditions...
March 2018: Science Advances
Angel Belles, Claire Alary, Nellaïdeve Laguerre, Christine Franke
Agarose gel-based passive samplers are nowadays one of the most effective sampling devices able to provide a quantitative evaluation of water contamination level for a broad range of organic contaminants. These devices show significant improvements in comparison to the previous passive samplers dedicated to hydrophilic compounds because they tend to reduce the effect of hydrodynamic flow conditions on the uptake rate of compounds and thus subsequently to improve their accuracy. However, albeit their effects minimized, hydrodynamic water flow and temperature are reported as variables likely to change the uptake rate of compounds that may lead to some inaccuracy if they are not adequately taken into account...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jing Cao, Zeying Hou, Zekun Li, Zhaosheng Chu, Pingping Yang, Binghui Zheng
The present study was carried out in a mesotrophic subtropical plateau lake, Erhai, located in southwest of China. The succession of phytoplankton functional groups and the environmental variables in the lake were investigated from January 2013 to December 2015. The lake had strong radiation levels and a low-temperature amplitude because of its high elevation and strongly mixed water. It was highly affected by the subtropical monsoon precipitation, and its pollution sources were from diffuse pollution caused by rainfall runoff...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xiangjuan Ma, Xin Wang, Xiaolin Yin, Xiangru Kan, Zeyuan Wang
Cotton fabrics dyed with Reactive Black 5 (RB5) was electrochemically stripped using Ti/TiO2 -RuO2 -IrO2 anode in water, pyridine and phenol solution. The results showed that RB5 dye could be easily stripped from the surface of cotton fabrics through the cleavage of chromophoric group (NN) under the attack of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and active chlorines generated in situ. Efficient stripping performance could be obtained in water and pyridine solution, whilst the stripping percent was not obviously affected by pyridine concentration and layers of dyed cotton fabrics...
April 24, 2018: Chemosphere
Brian Nguyen, Percival J Graham, Chelsea M Rochman, David Sinton
A platform compatible with microtiter plates to parallelize environmental treatments to test the complex impacts of multiple stressors, including parameters relevant to climate change and point source pollutants is developed. This platform leverages (1) the high rate of purely diffusive gas transport in aerogels to produce well-defined centimeter-scale gas concentration gradients, (2) spatial light control, and (3) established automated liquid handling. The parallel gaseous, aqueous, and light control provided by the platform is compatible with multiparameter experiments across the life sciences...
April 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Lixun Zhang, Bo Zhao, Gang Xu, Yuntao Guan
Globally, fluvial heavy metal (HM) pollution has recently become an increasingly severe problem. However, few studies have investigated the variational characteristics of fluvial HMs after rain over long periods (≥1 year). The Dakan River in Xili Reservoir watershed (China) was selected as a case study to investigate pollution levels, influencing factors, and sources of HMs under different rainfall conditions during 2015 and 2016. Fluvial HMs showed evident spatiotemporal variations attributable to the coupled effects of pollution generation and rainfall diffusion...
April 25, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
S Pulley, A L Collins
The mitigation of diffuse sediment pollution requires reliable provenance information so that measures can be targeted. Sediment source fingerprinting represents one approach for supporting these needs, but recent methodological developments have resulted in an increasing complexity of data processing methods rendering the approach less accessible to non-specialists. A comprehensive new software programme (SIFT; SedIment Fingerprinting Tool) has therefore been developed which guides the user through critical data analysis decisions and automates all calculations...
April 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ning Tang, Cheng-Gang Niu, Xue-Ting Li, Chao Liang, Hai Guo, Li-Shen Lin, Chao-Wen Zheng, Guang-Ming Zeng
In order to address the increasingly severe pollution issue caused by heavy metals, activated carbon-based absorbents have gained considerable attention. Herein, two novel adsorbents, amino-functionalized activated carbon (N-AC) and thiol-functionalized activated carbon (S-AC), were successfully synthesized by stepwise modification with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), cyanuric chloride (CC) and sodium sulfide. The pristine and synthesized materials were characterized by BET analysis, SEM, FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and zeta-potential analyzer...
April 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Diego R V Guelfi, Fábio Gozzi, Ignasi Sirés, Enric Brillas, Amílcar Machulek, Silvio César de Oliveira
Solutions with 0.65 mM of the antituberculosis drug isoniazid (INH) in 0.050 M Na2 SO4 at pH 3.0 were treated by electro-Fenton (EF) and UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) processes using a cell with a BDD anode and a carbon-PTFE air-diffusion cathode. The influence of current density on degradation, mineralization rate, and current efficiency has been thoroughly evaluated in EF. The effect of the metallic catalyst (Fe2+ or Fe3+ ) and the formation of products like short-chain linear aliphatic carboxylic acids were assessed in PEF...
April 27, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jin Liu, Huihui Gan, Hongzhang Wu, Xinlei Zhang, Jun Zhang, Lili Li, Zhenling Wang
Porous hollow Ga₂O₃ nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by a hydrolysis method followed by calcination. The prepared samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra and Raman spectrum. The porous structure of Ga₂O₃ nanoparticles can enhance the light harvesting efficiency, and provide lots of channels for the diffusion of Cr(VI) and Cr(III). Photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI), with different initial pH and degradation of several organic substrates by porous hollow Ga₂O₃ nanoparticles in single system and binary system, were investigated in detail...
April 22, 2018: Nanomaterials
Gooyong Lee, Shaliza Ibrahim, Shanmuga Kittappa, Heekyung Park, Chang Min Park
Novel heterostructured β-Bi2 O3 /Bi2 O2 CO3 nanoplates (hBN) were synthesized to observe the sonocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) (widely used as a model pollutant) under ultrasonic (US) irradiation. Prior to obtaining the hBN, the Bi2 O2 CO3 micropowder precursor was prepared under hydrothermal conditions and then converted to hBN by increasing the calcination temperature to 300 °C. The synthesized hBN samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (FESEM/EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
June 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Tingting Liao, Ke Gui, Wanting Jiang, Shigong Wang, Bihan Wang, Zhaoliang Zeng, Huizheng Che, Yaqiang Wang, Yang Sun
The Sichuan and Chongqing regions suffer from severe haze weather in winter due to the unfavourable atmospheric diffusion conditions. Reanalysis and precipitation datasets were applied in this study to calculate and distinguish air stagnation events using a developed criterion, and the impacts of the occurrence of air stagnation events on air quality were analysed in combination with the PM2.5 concentration data for the winters of 2013-2016. The highest occurrence frequency of air stagnation events was observed in 2013, and the lowest, 2015...
April 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jin Qian, Kun Li, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Jingjing Liu, Xin Tian, Bianhe Lu, Wenyi Guan
Engineered nano-TiO2 (Enano-TiO2 ) have inevitably discharged into aquatic sediments that resulted from their widespread use. The physicochemical characteristics of sediments might be changed because of remarkable properties of Enano-TiO2 and affected by the aging of sediments, thereby altering the environmental behavior and bioavailability of other pollutants such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in sediments. Here, adsorption behavior and mechanism of PFOS on aging aquatic sediments spiked with Enano-TiO2 at a weight ratio of 5...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zhuang Tian, Can Wang, Min Ji
Eutrophication of urban rivers has caused severe environmental problems due to the pollution from point and diffuse sources. Although eutrophication can be alleviated by reducing the input to the river system, fast-treating terminal control technologies, especially under emergent situations, should be developed to reduce risks induced by eutrophication. The present study developed an emergency purification device based on dissolved air flotation (DAF) technology. After equipment commissioning and parameter optimization for applications in the field of engineering, the device was found to effectively remove total phosphorus, chlorophyll a, chemical oxygen demand, and turbidity in water by controlling the coagulant dosage and adjusting the gas-liquid mixing pump parameters...
April 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Merylin Zizza, Mariana Di Lorenzo, Vincenza Laforgia, Emilia Furia, Giovanni Sindona, Marcello Canonaco, Rosa Maria Facciolo
Food intake ensures energy resources sufficient for basic metabolism, immune system and reproductive investment. It is already known that food-seeking performances, which are crucially controlled by orexins (ORXs), may be under the influence of environmental factors including pollutants. Among these, mancozeb (mz) is becoming an environmental risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Due to few studies on marine fish exposed to mz, it was our intention to correlate feeding latency, food intake and feeding duration to potential neurodegenerative processes in key diencephalic sites and expression changes of the ORX neuroreceptor (ORXR) in the ornate wrasses (Thalassoma pavo)...
April 16, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Christian K Feld, Maria Rosário Fernandes, Maria Teresa Ferreira, Daniel Hering, Steve J Ormerod, Markus Venohr, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas
Rivers are among the most sensitive of all ecosystems to the effects of global change, but options to prevent, mitigate or restore ecosystem damage are still inadequately understood. Riparian buffers are widely advocated as a cost-effective option to manage impacts, but empirical evidence is yet to identify ideal riparian features (e.g. width, length and density) which enhance ecological integrity and protect ecosystem services in the face of catchment-scale stressors. Here, we use an extensive literature review to synthesise evidence on riparian buffer and catchment management effects on instream environmental conditions (e...
April 8, 2018: Water Research
Chi Zhang, Kieran Paddock, Adriana Chou, Austin Scholp, Ting Gong, Jack J Jiang
PURPOSE: Voice abuse is known to be a common risk factor of voice disorders and prolonged; high-intensity phonation has been shown to damage the vocal fold epithelium. We aim to evaluate the effects of phonation on the integrity and barrier function of vocal fold epithelium using a porcine laryngeal model. METHODS: Ex vivo porcine larynges were phonated at low intensity or high intensity for 15, 30, or 60 min within 4 h after harvest. Vocal fold epithelium was visualized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
April 18, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
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