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diffuse pollution

Anna Malagó, Faycal Bouraoui, Olga Vigiak, Bruna Grizzetti, Marco Pastori
This study provides an innovative process-based modelling approach using the SWAT model and shows its application to support the implementation of the European environmental policies in large river basins. The approach involves several pioneering modelling aspects: the inclusion of current management practices; an innovative calibration and validation methodology of streamflow and water quality; a sequential calibration starting from crop yields, followed by streamflow and nutrients; and the use of concentrations instead of loads in the calibration...
June 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Liang Wang, Yilun Shi, Tianfu Wang, Lili Zhang
The visible-light-driven plasmonic photocatalyst silver chloride enwrapped silver/nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (AgCl@Ag/N-rGO) was prepared by a facile hydrothermal-in situ oxidation method and characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS). The characterization results reveal that Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were first grafted on N-rGO via N-groups as anchor sites and then enwrapped by AgCl by in situ oxidation...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Tijana Milićević, M Aničić Urošević, Gordana Vuković, Sandra Škrivanj, Dubravka Relić, Marina V Frontasyeva, Aleksandar Popović
Since the methodological parameters of moss bag biomonitoring have rarely been investigated for the application in agricultural areas, two mosses, Sphagnum girgensohnii (a species of the most recommended biomonitoring genus) and Hypnum cupressiforme (commonly available), were verified in a vineyard ambient. The moss bags were exposed along transects in six vineyard parcels during the grapevine season (March‒September 2015). To select an appropriate period for the reliable 'signal' of the element enrichment in the mosses, the bags were simultaneously exposed during five periods (3 × 2 months, 1 × 4 months, and 1 × 6 months)...
June 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Fatih Deniz, Elif Tezel Ersanli
A composite phyco-biomass including four different marine macroalgae species (Chaetomorpha sp., Polysiphonia sp., Ulva sp. and Cystoseira sp.) was evaluated as a novel biosorbent for the biosorption of manganese ions from aqueous solution. The experimental studies were performed to optimize the operational factors including solution pH, biosorbent amount, initial manganese concentration and reaction time in a batch mode biosorption system. The removal yield of the biosorbent for manganese ions increased with increasing pH, manganese ion concentration and reaction time while it decreased as the biosorbent dose increased...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Jian Liu, Dui Wu, Shaojia Fan, Xia Mao, Huizhong Chen
As the significant components of PM2.5, almost all of previous studies on water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) have been limited by the use of single sampling station, short sampling times or low temporal resolution. This paper focuses on analysing one-year (2012) observations of WSIIs at a regional central (RCEN) site, a coastal urban (CURB) site and a coastal rural (CRUR) site in the Pearl River Delta region. On average, secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) were the most abundant component and accounted for over 80% of the total WSIIs...
June 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Katharina Tondera, Kassandra Klaer, Silke Roder, Ira Brueckner, Johannes Pinnekamp
After rain events in densely populated areas, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) can have severe health-related effects upon surface water quality, as well as diffuse overland runoff and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). All of these sources emit pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria into the surface water, which the EU Bathing Water Directive addresses by giving threshold values for the indicators Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci. This study presents a comparison between 21 scenarios of costs for processes that reduce the load of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci into the Ruhr River during and shortly after rain events...
June 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Jian Shen, Wei Chai, Kaixuan Wang, Fang Zhang
A urea-functionalized ordered mesoporous polymeric nanoparticle for removing the perrhenate anion ReO4- as the surrogate of the particularly intractable anion radioactive pollutant TcO4- was demonstrated in the present study. This nanomaterial (denoted as urea-MPN) was produced for the first time by a surfactant-directed urea-phenol-formaldehyde resol oligomers self-assembly protocol under hydrothermal condition. The obtained urea-MPN possessed the uniform nanosized spherical morphology with 3D interconnected ordered cubic mesoporous structure...
June 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Min Wei, Xue-Lei Peng, Qi-Sheng Liu, Fang Li, Ming-Ming Yao
In order to effectively photodegradate organic pollutants, ZnO composite and Co-B codoped TiO₂ films were successfully deposited on glass substrates via a modified sol-gel method and a controllable dip-coating technique. Combining with UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) analyses, the multi-modification could not only extend the optical response of TiO₂ to visible light region but also decrease the recombination rate of electron-hole pairs. XRD results revealed that the multi-modified TiO₂ film had an anatase-brookite biphase heterostructure...
June 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jian-Hui Wang, You-Peng Chen, Yang Dong, Xi-Xi Wang, Jin-Song Guo, Yu Shen, Peng Yan, Teng-Fei Ma, Xiu-Qian Sun, Fang Fang, Jing Wang
Biofilms in natural environments offer a superior solution to mitigate water pollution. Artificially intensified biofilm reactors represented by rotating biological contactors (RBCs) are widely applied and studied. Understanding the oxygen transfer process in biofilms is an important aspect of these studies, and describing this process in moving biofilms (such as biofilms in RBCs) is a particular challenge. Oxygen transfer in RBCs behaves differently than in other biological reactors due to the special oxygen supply mode that results from alternate exposure of the biofilm to wastewater and air...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Massimo Cipolla, Alberto Izzotti, Filippo Ansaldi, Paolo Durando, Maria Teresa Piccardo
The impact of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on indoor air quality and on human health is widely recognized. However, VOC contamination in hospital indoor air is rarely studied and chemical compounds that singularly do not show high toxicity are not submitted to any regulation. This study aimed to compare VOC contamination in two different anatomical pathology wards in the same hospital. Hydrocarbons, alcohols, and terpenes were sampled by passive diffusive samplers. Analytical tests were performed by thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry detector...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Swati Maiti, Sudarson Sekhar Sinha, Mukesh Singh
Since the usage of hair dyes has increased in recent time, the removal of residual dye from environment is also an emerging issue. Hair dye contains mixture of chemicals including genotoxic chemical, p-phenylenediamine (p-PD or PPD). The present study reports bioremediation of hair dye using bacteria isolated from saloon effluent. Sugarcane bagasse powder (SBP) was used as a source of nutrient and surface for bacterial growth. The 16S rDNA sequencing confirmed the isolate as Enterobacter cloacae which was designated as DDB I...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Farshad Beshkar, Sahar Zinatloo-Ajabshir, Samira Bagheri, Masoud Salavati-Niasari
Highly photocatalytically active copper chromite nanostructured material were prepared via a novel simple hydrothermal reaction between [Cu(en)2(H2O)2]Cl2 and [Cr(en)3]Cl3.3H2O at low temperature, without adding any pH regulator or external capping agent. The as-synthesized nanostructured copper chromite was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy...
2017: PloS One
Sobia Aslam, Jingbin Zeng, Fazle Subhan, Min Li, Fenglei Lyu, Yanpeng Li, Zifeng Yan
A new route for Fe3O4@MIL-100(Fe) core-shells is proposed via in situ one-step hydrothermal strategy, in which Fe3O4 microspheres not only serve as magnetic cores but also provide Fe(III) for MIL-100(Fe) synthesis. The MIL-100(Fe) is uniformly grown as a shell on the surface of Fe3O4, and the shell thickness can be fine-tuned from 73.5 to 148nm by simply controlling the reaction time. Compared with Fe3O4, the surface area and pore volume of the Fe3O4@MIL-100(Fe) are significantly increased while the magnetism is barely affected...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Dandan Fu, Zhuoqun He, Shanshan Su, Bin Xu, Yuling Liu, Yaping Zhao
Arsenic pollution has caused worldwide attention due to its mandatory toxicity. Chemical structures of the adsorbent and arsenic species greatly influence the arsenic adsorption efficiency. The goethite impregnated graphene oxide (GO)-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) aerogel (α-FeOOH@GCA) was prepared via a facile self-assembly method of GO-CNTs induced by in-situ Fe(2+) reduction. α-FeOOH@GCA showed excellent adsorption capacities of 56.43, 24.43 and 102.11mgg(-1) for As(V), DMA and p-ASA comparing with that of 25...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Thierry Woignier, Florence Clostre, Paula Fernandes, Alain Soler, Luc Rangon, Maria Isabel Sastre-Conde, Magalie Lesueur Jannoyer
Some volcanic soils like andosols contain short-range order nanoclays (allophane) which build aggregates with a tortuous and fractal microstructure. The aim of the work was to study the influence of the microstructure and mesoporosity of the allophane aggregates on the pesticide chlordecone retention in soils. Our study shows that the allophane microstructure favors pollutants accumulation and sequestration in soils. We put forth the importance of the mesoporous microstructure of the allophane aggregates for pollutant trapping in andosols...
June 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
N Unger, X Yue, K L Harper
A coupled global aerosol-carbon-climate model is applied to assess the impacts of aerosol physical climate change on the land ecosystem services gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) in the 1996-2005 period. Aerosol impacts are quantified on an annual mean basis relative to the hypothetical aerosol-free world in 1996-2005, the global climate state in the absence of the historical rise in aerosol pollution. We examine the separate and combined roles of fast feedbacks associated with the land and slow feedbacks associated with the ocean...
June 2, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Nada Ben Ahmed, Sylvie Masse, Guillaume Laurent, Jean-Yves Piquemal, Claude Yéprémian, Roberta Brayner, Thibaud Coradin
Optical biosensors for the detection of toxic species in aqueous media were developed via the encapsulation of microalgae in sol-gel matrices. In a first step, the effect of cadmium(II), lead(II), and anthracene on the chlorophyll a fluorescence intensity of Anabaena flos-aquae, Chlorella vulgaris, and Euglena gracilis microalgae in suspension was studied. Complementary ATP-metry measurements demonstrated a direct relationship between optical response and pollutant toxicity, in a cell- and dose-dependent manner...
June 2, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Eva M Mockler, Jenny Deakin, Marie Archbold, Laurence Gill, Donal Daly, Michael Bruen
More than half of surface water bodies in Europe are at less than good ecological status according to Water Framework Directive assessments, and diffuse pollution from agriculture remains a major, but not the only, cause of this poor performance. Agri-environmental policy and land management practices have, in many areas, reduced nutrient emissions to water. However, additional measures may be required in Ireland to further decouple the relationship between agricultural productivity and emissions to water, which is of vital importance given on-going agricultural intensification...
May 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
C Boente, N Matanzas, N García-González, E Rodríguez-Valdés, J R Gallego
The urban and peri-urban soils used for agriculture could be contaminated by atmospheric deposition or industrial releases, thus raising concerns about the potential risk to public health. Here we propose a method to evaluate potential soil pollution based on multivariate statistics, geostatistics (kriging), a novel soil pollution index, and bioavailability assessments. This approach was tested in two districts of a highly populated and industrialized city (Gijón, Spain). The soils showed anomalous content of several trace elements, such as As and Pb (up to 80 and 585 mg kg(-1) respectively)...
May 26, 2017: Chemosphere
Liting Ju, Pingxiao Wu, Xiaolin Lai, Shanshan Yang, Beini Gong, Meiqing Chen, Nengwu Zhu
In this study, ZnAlTi layered double hydroxide (ZnAlTi-LDH) combined with fullerene (C60) was fabricated by the urea method, and calcined under vacuum atmosphere to obtain nanocomposites of C60-modified ZnAlTi layered double oxide (ZnAlTi-LDO). The morphology, structure and composition of the nanocomposites were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy, High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier transform infrared and specific surface area. The UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra indicated that the incorporation of C60 expanded the absorption of ZnAlTi-LDO to visible-light region...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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