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diffuse pollution

Germán Cruz-González, Carine Julcour, Hélène Chaumat, Valérie Bourdon, Felipe Ramon-Portugal, Sarra Gaspard, Ulises J Jáuregui-Haza, Henri Delmas
Intensive use of chlorinated pesticides from the 1960s to the 1990s has resulted in a diffuse contamination of soils and surface waters in the banana-producing areas of the French West Indies. The purpose of this research was, for the first time, to examine the degradation of two of these persistent pollutants - chlordecone (CLD) and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) in 1 mg L(-1) synthetic aqueous solutions by means of photolysis, (photo-) Fenton oxidation and ozonation processes. Fenton oxidation is not efficient for CLD and yields less than 15% reduction of β-HCH concentration in 5 h...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Lei Ma, Yu Gao, Tengyu Fu, Liang Cheng, Zhenjie Chen, Manchun Li
When estimating national PM2.5 concentrations, the results of traditional interpolation algorithms are unreliable due to a lack of monitoring sites and heterogeneous spatial distributions. PM2.5 spatial distribution is strongly correlated to elevation, and the information diffusion algorithm has been shown to be highly reliable when dealing with sparse data interpolation issues. Therefore, to overcome the disadvantages of traditional algorithms, we proposed a method combining elevation data with the information diffusion algorithm...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Russell F Cole, Graham A Mills, Michelle S Hale, Ruth Parker, Thi Bolam, Peter R Teasdale, William W Bennett, Gary R Fones
Organotins present a toxicological risk to biota in the aquatic environment. Understanding the behaviour of these compounds in sediment is challenging, with sophisticated analytical techniques required for their measurement. We investigated the use of silica-bound sorbents for diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) adsorption gels to pre-concentrate five organotins (monobutlytin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), diphenyltin (DPhT), triphenyltin (TPhT)) found frequently in coastal sediment. C8 sorbent showed optimum performance in uptake and recovery of organotins for pH and ionic strength ranges typical of coastal waters...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
Zhaoyang Xia, Dongdong Li, Qing Li, Yan Zhang, Wenyi Kang
The conditions of heating, ionic liquid-based ultrasonic-assisted extraction combined with reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography were optimized to simultaneously isolate and determinate brazilin and protosappanin B in Caesalpinia sappan. Ionic liquids, including [BMIM]Br, [BMIM]BF4, [BMIM]PF6 and [HMIM]PF6, were selected as extraction solvents while methanol, acetone, acetonitrile, ethanol and water were selected as dispersants. The chromatographic column was Purospher star RP-C18 (250 mm × 4...
November 13, 2017: Chemistry Central Journal
Afif Hethnawi, Abdallah D Manasrah, Gerardo Vitale, Nashaat N Nassar
In this study, a fixed-bed column adsorption process was employed to remove organic pollutants from a real industrial wastewater effluent using polyethylenimine-functionalized pyroxene nanoparticles (PEI-PY) embedded into Diatomite at very low mass percentage. Various dynamic parameters (e.g., inlet concentration, inlet flow rate, bed height, and PEI-nanoparticle concentration in Diatomite, (%nps)) were investigated to determine the breakthrough behavior. The obtained breakthrough curves were fit with a convection-dispersion model to determine the characteristic parameters based on mass transfer phenomena...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Bangchao Zhong, Song Wang, Huanhuan Dong, Yuanfang Luo, Zhixin Jia, Xiangyang Zhou, Mingzhou Chen, Dong Xie, Demin Jia
Commercial herbicide atrazine (AT) was first loaded into the lumen of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) in the amount of 9 wt %, and then the AT-loaded HNTs (HNTs-AT) were further incorporated into poly(vinyl alcohol)/starch composites (PVA/ST, with the weight ratio of 80/20) to construct a dual drug delivery system. AT loaded in nanotubes displayed much slower release from PVA/ST film in water than free AT; for example, the total release amount of AT from PVA/ST film with loaded AT was only 61% after 96 h, while this value reached 97% in PVA/ST film with free AT...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Salvador Cotillas, Engracia Lacasa, Cristina Sáez, Pablo Cañizares, Manuel A Rodrigo
Hospital effluents are a major source for the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment. In this work, the treatment of synthetic urine polluted with chloramphenicol is studied by using three different conductive-diamond electrochemical oxidation technologies: electrolysis (single electrolysis), photoelectrolysis and high-frequency ultrasound sonoelectrolysis. These technologies were evaluated at 10 and 100 mA cm(-2). Results shows that not only chloramphenicol but also other organics contained in urine are completely mineralized by electrolysis...
November 1, 2017: Water Research
Ute A Gamm, Brendan K Huang, Emily K Mis, Mustafa K Khokha, Michael A Choma
Mucociliary flow is an important defense mechanism in the lung to remove inhaled pathogens and pollutants. Disruption of ciliary flow can lead to respiratory infections. Multiple factors, from drugs to disease can cause an alteration in ciliary flow. However, less attention has been given to injury of the ciliated epithelium. In this study, we show how optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to investigate injury to the ciliated epithelium in a multi-contrast setting. We used particle tracking velocimetry (PTV-OCT) to investigate the cilia-driven flow field and 3D speckle variance imaging to investigate size and extent of injury caused to the skin of Xenopus embryos...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
David M Oliver, Phil J Bartie, A Louise Heathwaite, Sim M Reaney, Jared A Q Parnell, Richard S Quilliam
Effective management of diffuse microbial water pollution from agriculture requires a fundamental understanding of how spatial patterns of microbial pollutants, e.g. E. coli, vary over time at the landscape scale. The aim of this study was to apply the Visualising Pathogen &Environmental Risk (ViPER) model, developed to predict E. coli burden on agricultural land, in a spatially distributed manner to two contrasting catchments in order to map and understand changes in E. coli burden contributed to land from grazing livestock...
October 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Susann-Cathrin Lang, Philipp Mayer, Andrew Hursthouse, Danijela Kötke, Ines Hand, Detlef Schulz-Bull, Gesine Witt
Sediment cores and bottom water samples from across the Baltic Sea region were analyzed for freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree), total sediment concentrations (CT) and the dissolved aqueous fraction in water of seven indicator PCBs. Ex-situ equilibrium sampling of sediment samples was conducted with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated glass fibers that were analyzed by automated thermal desorption GC-MS, which yielded PCB concentrations in the fiber coating (CPDMS). Measurements of CPDMS and CT were then applied to determine (i) spatially resolved freely dissolved PCB concentrations; (ii) baseline toxicity potential based on chemical activities (a); (iii) site specific mixture compositions; (iv) diffusion gradients at the sediment water interface and within the sediment cores; and (vi) site specific distribution ratios (KD)...
October 13, 2017: Chemosphere
Haichao Zhao, Li Zhang, Shengrui Wang, Lixin Jiao
Nitrogen and phosphorus diffusion at the sediment-water interface is vital to the water quality of lakes. In this paper, N and P diffusive fluxes at the sediment-water interface in Erhai Lake were studied using the sediment-pore water diffusive flux method. Characteristics of temporal and spatial variation of N and P diffusive fluxes were analyzed. Effects of the physicochemical properties of sediments and overlying water were discussed. Results showed that (1) the total N and P diffusive fluxes at the sediment-water interface of Erhai Lake are relatively low...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Pau San-Valero, Antonio D Dorado, Guillermo Quijano, F Javier Álvarez-Hornos, Carmen Gabaldón
A dynamic model describing styrene abatement was developed for a two-phase partitioning bioreactor operated as a biotrickling filter (TPPB-BTF). The model was built as a coupled set of two different systems of partial differential equations depending on whether an irrigation or a non-irrigation period was simulated. The maximum growth rate was previously calibrated from a conventional BTF treating styrene (Part 1). The model was extended to simulate the TPPB-BTF based on the hypothesis that the main change associated with the non-aqueous phase is the modification of the pollutant properties in the liquid phase...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
Zhixin Song, Baoqing Shan, Wenzhong Tang
The diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique is a useful tool for assessing metal bioavailability in sediments. However, the DGT technique has not been used to predict metal bioaccumulation in plants grown in sediments in river systems. In this study, the DGT technique was evaluated for predicting metal bioaccumulation in Phragmites australis growing in contaminated sediments. In sediments with high levels of contamination, release of DGT-labile Cr, Zn, Cu, and Cd occurred, which resulted in high bioaccumulation of these metals in P...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Magaly Valencia-Avellan, Rebecca Slack, Anthony Stockdale, Robert John George Mortimer
Point and diffuse sources associated with historical metal ore mining are major causes of metal pollution. The understanding of metal behaviour and fate has been improved by the integration of water chemistry, metal availability and toxicity. Efforts have been devoted to the development of efficient methods of assessing and managing the risk posed by metals to aquatic life and meeting national water quality standards. This study focuses on the evaluation of current water quality and ecotoxicology techniques for the metal assessment of an upland limestone catchment located within a historical metal (lead ore) mining area in northern England...
October 15, 2017: Water Research
Alice Borghini, Andrea Poscia, Silvia Bosello, Adele Anna Teleman, Mario Bocci, Lanfranco Iodice, Gianfranco Ferraccioli, Daniele Ignazio La Milìa, Umberto Moscato
Atmospheric air pollution has been associated with a range of adverse health effects. The environment plays a causative role in the development of Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). The aim of the present study is to explore the association between particulate (PM10) and benzene (B) exposure in Italian patients with systemic sclerosis and their clinical characteristics of the disease. A correlation study was conducted by enrolling 88 patients who suffer from SSc at the Fondazione Policlinico "A. Gemelli" in Rome (Italy) in the period from January 2013 to January 2014...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Huaijun Xie, Jingwen Chen, Qining Chen, Chang-Er L Chen, Juan Du, Feng Tan, Chengzhi Zhou
As coastal waters in many regions of the world have been polluted by organic micro-pollutants such as antibiotics that can promote the development of resistance genes, it is of importance to monitor the levels of antibiotics in coastal waters. For this purpose, a reliable and robust sampling approach based on diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) was developed in this study. The DGT measurement can provide a time weighted average concentration of pollutants. A binding material (resin XDA-1) with a high adsorption capacity for antibiotics, which can resist the pH and ionic strength of seawaters, was selected...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
A L Collins, J P Newell Price, Y Zhang, R Gooday, P S Naden, D Skirvin
The need for improved abatement of agricultural diffuse water pollution represents cause for concern throughout the world. A critical aspect in the design of on-farm intervention programmes concerns the potential technical cost-effectiveness of packages of control measures. The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) calls for Programmes of Measures (PoMs) to protect freshwater environments and these comprise 'basic' (mandatory) and 'supplementary' (incentivised) options. Recent work has used measure review, elicitation of stakeholder attitudes and a process-based modelling framework to identify a new alternative set of 'basic' agricultural sector control measures for nutrient and sediment abatement across England...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Fatih Deniz, Elif Tezel Ersanli
High levels of heavy metals like copper ions in many industrial based effluents lead to serious environmental and health problems. Biosorption is a potential environmental biotechnology approach for biotreatment of aquatic sites polluted with heavy metal ions. Seaweeds have received great attention for their high bioremediation potential in recent years. However, the co-application of marine macroalgae for removal of heavy metals from wastewater is very limited. Thus, for the first time in literature, a coastal seaweed community composed of Chaetomorpha sp...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Wei Zhao, Cheng Li, Aijian Wang, Cuncai Lv, Weihua Zhu, Shengping Dou, Qian Wang, Qin Zhong
Polyaniline (PANI)-decorated Bi2MoO6 nanosheets (BMO/PANI) were prepared by a facile solvothermal method. Different characterization techniques, including X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, photocurrent spectroscopy, and nanosecond time-resolved emission studies, have been employed to investigate the structure, optical and electrical properties of the BMO/PANI composites...
November 1, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Zhixin Song, Lixin Dong, Baoqing Shan, Wenzhong Tang
It is important to understand the potential bioavailability of heavy metals in the sediments of land-freshwater interfaces (between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems). Therefore, we evaluated the pollution of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd in land-freshwater interface sediments/soils according to total concentrations, and used sequential extraction method to measure different fractions of Cd. Then, the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique was employed to study the potential bioavailability of metals...
October 9, 2017: Chemosphere
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