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diffuse pollution

Meihua Qiu, Yuqing Chen, Qiao Ye
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic andprogressive fibrotic disease limited to the lungs.The course of disease varies widely, with some patients experiencing acute respiratory deterioration, a conditioncalled acute exacerbations of IPF (AE-IPF). The risk factors contributing to AE-IPF are unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigatedthe risk factors for AE-IPF. METHODS: Studies ofrisk factors for AE-IPF were identified in Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Jie Yuan, Siyue Li, Xi Han, Qiuyang Chen, Xiaoli Cheng, Quanfa Zhang
There are increasing concerns in nitrogen (N) pollution worldwide, especially in aquatic ecosystems, and thus quantifying its sources in waterways is critical for pollution prevention and control. In this study, we investigated the spatio-temporal variabilities of inorganic N concentration (i.e., NO3(-), NH4(+)) and total dissolved N (TDN) and identified their sources in waters and suspended matters using an isotopical approach in the Jinshui River, a river with a length of 87km in the monsoon-climate region of China...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Panpan Zhou, Yu Xie, Jing Fang, Yun Ling, Changling Yu, Xiaoming Liu, Yuhua Dai, Yuancheng Qin, Dan Zhou
In this paper, the mesoporous TiO2 with different concentration of CdS quantum dots (i.e., x% CdS/TiO2) was successfully fabricated by the sol-gel method. The composition, structure and morphology of the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis/DRS) and nitrogen physical adsorption test and so on. The proportion of CdS and TiO2 is very important for the photocatalytic performance...
March 8, 2017: Chemosphere
Jie Liu, Jun Ke, Degang Li, Hongqi Sun, Ping Liang, Xiaoguang Duan, Wenjie Tian, Moses O Tade, Shaomin Liu, Shaobin Wang
A novel shape controlled Cu2O/reduced graphene oxide/In2O3 (Cu2O/RGO/In2O3) hybrid with abundant oxygen vacancies was prepared by a facile, surfactant-free method. The hybrid photocatalyst exhibits an increased photocatalytic activity in water oxidation and degradation of environmental pollutants (methylene blue and Cr6+ solutions) compared with pure In2O3 and Cu2O materials. The presence of oxygen vacancies in Cu2O/RGO/In2O3 and the formation of heterojunction between In2O3 and Cu2O induce extra diffusive electronic states above the valence band (VB) edge and reduce the band gap of the hybrid consequently...
March 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
D James Minick, Kim A Anderson
Superfund sites may be a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the surrounding environment. These sites can also act as PAH sinks from present day anthropogenic activities especially in urban locations. Understanding PAH transport across environmental compartments helps to define the relative contributions of these sources and is therefore important for informing remedial and management decisions. In the present study, paired passive samplers were co-deployed at sediment-water, and water-air interfaces within the Portland Harbor Superfund site (PHSS) and the McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site (MCBSS)...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Xiao-Wu Lei, Cheng-Yang Yue, Sai Wang, Hui Gao, Wei Wang, Ning Wang, Yun-Dong Yin
By using 1,3-di(4-pyridyl)-propane (dpp) as templates or structure-directing agents (SDAs), a series of hybrid cuprous halogenides, namely, [H2dpp]2[Cu4I8]·H2O (1), [H2dpp][Cu2I4] (2), [H2dpp]2Cu11I15 (3) and [H2dpp]2Cu11Br15 (4), have been solvothermally prepared and structurally characterized. Despite the similar chemical compositions, compound 1 features a zero-dimensional (0D) [Cu4I8](4-) unit and compound 2 contains one-dimensional (1D) [Cu2I4](2-) chains, which are both separated by [H2dpp](2+) organic cations...
March 2, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Shujun Yu, Xiangxue Wang, Wen Yao, Jian Wang, Yongfei Ji, Yuejie Ai, Ahmed Alsaedi, Tasawar Hayat, Xiangke Wang
Interaction of phenol and naphthol with reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and their competitive behavior on rGO were examined by batch experiments, spectroscopic analysis and theoretical calculations. The batch sorption showed that the removal percentage of phenol or naphthol on rGO in bisolute systems was significantly lower than those of phenol or naphthol in single-solute systems. However, the overall sorption capacity of rGO in bisolute system was higher than single-solute system, indicating that the rGO was a very suitable material for the simultaneous elimination of organic pollutants from aqueous solutions...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Mohammad Omaish Ansari, Rajeev Kumar, Sajid Ali Ansari, Shahid Pervez Ansari, M A Barakat, Ahmed Alshahrie, Moo Hwan Cho
Multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT)-graphene oxide (GO) composite was combined with polyaniline (Pani) using an oxidative polymerisation technique. The resulting Pani@GO-CNT was later doped with para toluene sulphonic acid (pTSA) to generate additional functionality. The functional groups exposed on the GO, Pani and pTSA were expected to impart a high degree of functionality to the pTSA-Pani@GO-CNT composite system. The composite was characterised by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Hongjiao Zhang, Yuntao Gao, Huabin Xiong
The citric acid fermentation broth was prepared and it was employed to washing remediation of heavy metal-polluted soil. A well-defined washing effect was obtained, the removal percentages using citric acid fermentation broth are that 48.2% for Pb, 30.6% for Cu, 43.7% for Cr, and 58.4% for Cd and higher than that using citric acid solution. The kinetics of heavy metals desorption can be described by the double constant equation and Elovich equation and is a heterogeneous diffusion process. The speciation analysis shows that the citric acid fermentation broth can effectively reduce bioavailability and environmental risk of heavy metals...
February 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Li Gao, Bo Gao, Dongyu Xu, Wenqi Peng, Jin Lu, Jijun Gao
The environmental impact of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China has raised widespread concern especially in relation to metal pollution. The diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technology was applied to investigate arsenic (As) remobilization in sediment cores collected from the main stream and a tributary in the TGR during July 2015. The results showed that the horizontal and vertical distributions of CDGT-As varied among the four sampling sites. For the same DGT probe, the horizontal distributions of CDGT-As (0-6mm, 6-12mm, 12-18mm) exhibited similarity in the overlying water and different tendencies in the sediment profiles; the vertical variations of CDGT-As showed different mobilization tendencies...
February 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Andy Vinten, James Sample, Adekunle Ibiyemi, Yakubu Abdul-Salam, Marc Stutter
The cost-effectiveness of six edge-of-field measures for mitigating diffuse pollution from sediment bound phosphorus (P) runoff from temperate arable farmland is analysed at catchment/field scales. These measures were: buffer strips, permanent grassland in the lowest 7% of arable fields, dry detention bunds, wetlands, and temporary barriers such as sediment fences. Baseline field P export was estimated using export coefficients (low risk crops) or a modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (high risk crops). The impact of measures was estimated using simple equations...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jan Šíma, Rachel Milne, Čeněk Novotný, Pavel Hasal
White rot fungi (WRF) are applicable to biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants. However, excessive biomass growth typical for WRF cultivation can hinder their large scale applications. Therefore, immobilization of Irpex lacteus to liquid-core alginate beads restricting excessive mycelium growth and simultaneously keeping high degradation rate of pollutants was tested. Effective diffusivities of dyes to the beads varied from (2.98 ± 0.69) × 10(-10) to (10.27 ± 2.60) × 10(-10) m(2)/s. Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), Reactive Orange 16 (RO16), and Naphthol Blue Black (NBB) were used as model dyes...
February 17, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Rachel S Kelly, Hannu Kiviranta, Ingvar A Bergdahl, Domenico Palli, Ann-Sofie Johansson, Maria Botsivali, Paolo Vineis, Roel Vermeulen, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Marc Chadeau-Hyam
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests a largely environmental component to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDE and HCB have been repeatedly implicated, but the literature is inconsistent and a causal relationship remains to be determined. METHODS: The EnviroGenoMarkers study is nested within two prospective cohorts EPIC-Italy and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Six PCB congeners, DDE and HCB were measured in blood plasma samples provided at recruitment using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Ingrid Keupers, Patrick Willems
Modern, model based river quality management strongly relies on river water quality models to simulate the temporal and spatial evolution of pollutant concentrations in the water body. Such models are typically constructed by extending detailed hydrodynamic models with a component describing the advection-diffusion and water quality transformation processes in a detailed, physically based way. This approach is too computational time demanding, especially when simulating long time periods that are needed for statistical analysis of the results or when model sensitivity analysis, calibration and validation require a large number of model runs...
April 15, 2017: Water Research
Elisabeth Berger, Peter Haase, Mathias Kuemmerlen, Moritz Leps, Ralf Bernhard Schäfer, Andrea Sundermann
In 2015, over 90 percent of German rivers failed to reach a good ecological status as demanded by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). Deficits in water quality, mainly from diffuse pollution such as agricultural run-off, but also from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), have been suggested as important drivers of this decline in ecological quality. We modelled six macroinvertebrate based metrics indicating ecological quality for 184 streams in response to a) PCA-derived water quality gradients, b) individual water quality variables and c) catchment land use and wastewater exposure indices as pollution drivers...
February 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Wei Shi, Nanyang Yu, Xia Jiang, Zhihua Han, Shuhang Wang, Xiaowei Zhang, Si Wei, John P Giesy, Hongxia Yu
Blooms of phytoplankton, which are common in freshwater ecosystems, might not only affect quality of water but also influence biogeochemical processing of pollutants. Based on three years of field observations in sediments of Tai Lake, China, concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in areas where blooms occurred were 2.4 and 3.4 times greater than concentrations in areas without blooms. Concentrations of octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in areas where blooms did not occur were 3...
April 15, 2017: Water Research
Elisabetta Chellini, Maria Teresa Maurello, Barbara Cortini, Cristina Aprea
In an area characterized by the presence of a plant that recycles and refines precious metals the study aims to evaluate the exposure to the plant emissions of the residents in the neighbourhood using human urinary biomarkers, in comparison with those obtained in a reference and in an urban area and with the data concerning dispersions of plant emissions obtained through a specific diffusional model. 153 subjects in the study area, 95 in the urban area and 55 in the reference area, aged 18-60years, answered to a self-administered questionnaire and collected their 24-h urine...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
M T Perks, J Warburton, L J Bracken, S M Reaney, S B Emery, S Hirst
Under the EU Water Framework Directive, suspended sediment is omitted from environmental quality standards and compliance targets. This omission is partly explained by difficulties in assessing the complex dose-response of ecological communities. But equally, it is hindered by a lack of spatially distributed estimates of suspended sediment variability across catchments. In this paper, we demonstrate the inability of traditional, discrete sampling campaigns for assessing exposure to fine sediment. Sampling frequencies based on Environmental Quality Standard protocols, whilst reflecting typical manual sampling constraints, are unable to determine the magnitude of sediment exposure with an acceptable level of precision...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Zebin Tian, Binghui Zheng, Lijing Wang, Liqiang Li, Xing Wang, Hong Li, Stefan Norra
In order to protect the water quality of Dongting Lake, it is significant to find out its nitrogen pollution characteristics. Using long-term monthly to seasonally data (1997-2014), we investigated the spatial and temporal variations in nitrogen in Dongting Lake, the second largest freshwater lake in China. The average concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) in the eastern, southern, and western parts of the lake were 1.77, 1.56, and 1.35 mg/L, respectively, in 2014. TN pollution was generally worse in the southern area than in the western area...
2017: PloS One
Gylen Odling, Neil Robertson
BiOI nanoplates were deposited upon a film of TiO2 nanoparticles derived from a commercial source using a simple room temperature sequential ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron microscopies have been used to confirm the crystal phase, chemical states of key elements and morphology of the BiOI nanoplate-TiO2 composites. Using both valence band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV/Vis diffuse reflectance measurements the band structure of the composites is determined to be that of a type II heterojunction...
February 6, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
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