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diffuse pollution

Nicoletta Fortunati, Federica Guaraldi, Valentina Zunino, Federica Penner, Valentina D'Angelo, Francesco Zenga, Francesca Pecori Giraldi, Maria Graziella Catalano, Emanuela Arvat
An increased rate of acromegaly was reported in industrialized areas, suggesting an involvement of environmental pollutants in the pathogenesis and behavior of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas. Based on these premises, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of some widely diffused pollutants (i.e. benzene, BZ; bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, DEHP and polychlorinated biphenyls, PCB) on growth hormone secretion, the somatostatin and estrogenic pathways, viability and proliferation of rat GH-producing pituitary adenoma (GH3) cells...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Research
Zhiheng Liao, Meng Gao, Jiaren Sun, Shaojia Fan
PM2.5 and O3 pollution are of concern for the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region due to their adverse impact on human health. In conjunction with a complex distribution of emission sources, the synoptic circulation conditions control the temporal and spatial variability of air pollution levels and hence the pollution-related health burdens. In this study, a long-term synoptic circulation catalogue is developed by applying the automated Lamb weather type method to the ECMWF mean sea level pressure reanalysis for the YRD region during 2013-2016...
July 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Wenhui Lu, Jinhua Li, Yanqing Sheng, Xinshen Zhang, Jinmao You, Lingxin Chen
Magnetic nanoparticle-multiwalled carbon nanotubes composites (MNP/MWCNTs) were prepared using 1,6-hexanediamine functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNP) linked to carboxylic MWCNTs by facile one-pot solvothermal synthesis for highly efficient removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. The easily obtained magnetic nanocomposites were systematically characterized, and several major factors affecting the adsorption-based removal were investigated, including solution pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature and contact time...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Wen Wu, Zhouhu Wu, Zhiwen Song
Prediction of the pollutant mixing zone (PMZ) near the discharge outfall in Huangshaxi shows large error when using the methods based on the constant lateral diffusion assumption. The discrepancy is due to the lack of consideration of the diffusion coefficient variation. The variable lateral diffusion coefficient is proposed to be a function of the longitudinal distance from the outfall. Analytical solution of the two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation of a pollutant is derived and discussed. Formulas to characterize the geometry of the PMZ are derived based on this solution, and a standard curve describing the boundary of the PMZ is obtained by proper choices of the normalization scales...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Joseph Kim, Shanel Bhagwandin, Daniel M Labow
Mesothelioma is a malignancy of serosal membranes. It is most commonly encountered in the visceral pleura with the second most common location in the peritoneum. The diagnosis is very rare and has been linked to toxic exposure to industrial pollutants, especially asbestos. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) commonly presents with diffuse, extensive spread throughout the abdomen with rare metastatic spread beyond the abdominal cavity. Due to its rarity and nonspecific symptoms, it is usually diagnosed late when the disease burden is extensive...
June 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
Monica A M Moura, Rhaul Oliveira, Claudio M Jonsson, Inês Domingues, Amadeu M V M Soares, António J A Nogueira
Ametryn (AMT) is one of the most widely used herbicides in tropical sugarcane crops, the main culture of São Paulo State, Brazil. It is known as a diffuse pollutant, being found in surface water and sediment of water bodies adjacent to the crop fields. In the present study, the toxicity of AMT to zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos was evaluated using developmental and biochemical endpoints. At the biochemical level, lactate dehydrogenase responded at the lowest concentration tested (4 μg L(-1)) indicating a high demand of energy required to cope with the stress condition...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
B Mikael Gustavsson, Jörgen Magnér, Bethanie Carney Almroth, Martin K Eriksson, Joachim Sturve, Thomas Backhaus
Chemical pollution was monitored and assessed along the Swedish west coast. 62 of 172 analyzed organic chemicals were detected in the water phase of at least one of five monitored sites. A Concentration Addition based screening-level risk assessment indicates that all sites are put at risk from chemical contamination, with total risk quotients between 2 and 9. Only at one site did none of the individual chemicals exceeded its corresponding environmental threshold (PNEC, EQS). The monitoring data thus demonstrate a widespread blanket of diffuse pollution, with no clear trends among sites...
July 7, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Cheng-Yang Yue, Xiao-Wu Lei, Xin-Xiu Lu, Yan Li, Jun-Chao Wei, Wei Wang, Yun-Dong Yin, Ning Wang
By using transition-metal (TM) complex cationic dyes as structure-directing agents and photosensitizers, a series of inorganic-organic hybrid metal halides, namely, [TM(2,2'-bipy)3]AgPb2I7 [TM = Ni (1), Co (2) and Zn (3)], [Co(2,2'-bipy)3]CuPb2Br7 (4) and [TM(2,2'-bipy)3]AgPb2Br7 [TM = Ni (5) and Fe (6)], have been solvothermally prepared and structurally characterized. Compounds 1-3 feature 1D [AgPb2I7](2-) chains built from the condensation of [Ag2I6] dimers and [Pb4I14] tetramers, and compounds 4, 5 and 6 contain similar 1D [CuPb2Br7](2-) and [AgPb2Br7](2-) chains, respectively...
July 18, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Sijo Francis, Siby Joseph, Ebey P Koshy, Beena Mathew
The fabrication of spherical silver nanoparticles using the phytoreducing agent Elephantopus scaber is reported here. Irradiation of the reaction mixture under a domestic microwave oven enabled the formation of stable silver nanoparticles and was confirmed by UV-vis spectral portrait. Chemical components inherent in the aqueous leaf extract which reduces the monovalent silver were identified by FT-IR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the synthesized nanoparticles was established as face centred cube by the powder XRD analysis...
July 6, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Wei Ouyang, Weijia Huang, Xin Hao, Mats Tysklind, Peter Haglund, Fanghua Hao
Some heavy metals in farmland soil can be transported into the waterbody, affecting the water quality and sediment at the watershed outlet, which can be used to determine the historical loss pattern. Cd is a typical heavy metal leached from farmland that is related to phosphate fertilizers and carries serious environmental risk. The spatial-vertical pattern of Cd in soil and the vertical trend of Cd in the river sediment core were analyzed, which showed the migration and accumulation of Cd in the watershed...
June 29, 2017: Water Research
Serdar Altun, Selçuk Özdemir, Harun Arslan
In this study, we aimed to identify the toxic effects of chlorpyrifos exposure on the tissues of common carp. For this purpose, we evaluated histopathological changes in the brain, gills, liver, kidney, testis, and ovaries after 21 days of chlorpyrifos exposure. Activation of 8-OHdG, cleaved caspase-3, and iNOS were assesed by immunofluorescence assay in chlorpyrifos-exposed brain and liver tissue. Additionally, we measured the expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-8, iNOS, MT1, CYP1A, and CYP3A genes in chlorpyrifos-exposed brain tissue, as well as the expression levels of FSH and LH genes in chlorpyrifos-exposed ovaries, using qRT-PCR...
July 1, 2017: Environmental Pollution
K Kaviyarasu, C Maria Magdalane, K Kanimozhi, J Kennedy, B Siddhardha, E Subba Reddy, Naresh Kumar Rotte, Chandra Shekhar Sharma, F T Thema, Douglas Letsholathebe, Genene Tessema Mola, M Maaza
The ZnO thin films have been prepared by spin coating followed by annealing at different temperatures like 300°C, 350°C, 400°C, 450°C, 500°C & 550°C and ZnO nanoparticles have been used for photocatalytic and antibacterial applications. The morphological investigation and phase analysis of synthesized thin films well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Photoluminescence (PL), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Raman studies. The luminescence peaks detected in the noticeable region between 350nm to 550nm for all synthesized nanosamples are associated to the existence of defects of oxygen sites...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Diego Cortés-Arriagada, Sebastián Miranda-Rojas, Daniela E Ortega, Alejandro Toro-Labbé
Graphene-based materials have emerged as new potential adsorbents for the adsorption and removal of persistent pollutants, and they could play a key role in the remediation of 1,4-dioxane. In this framework, a quantum chemistry study was carried out to rationalize the sorption properties of oxidized graphene (GO) and Si-doped graphene (SiG) nanosheets for use in 1,4-dioxane removal, taking into account that these adsorbents are experimentally available. Dispersion corrected PBE-D3/SVP calculations show that GO and SiG adsorbs dioxane through non-covalent and covalent interactions, respectively, with adsorption energies of up to ∼0...
July 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Hongwei Ke, Mian Chen, Mengyang Liu, Meng Chen, Mengshan Duan, Peng Huang, Jiajun Hong, Yan Lin, Shayen Cheng, Xuran Wang, Mengxue Huang, Minggang Cai
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have accumulated ubiquitously inArctic environments, where re-volatilization of certain organic pollutants as a result of climate change has been observed. To investigate the fate of semivolatile organic compounds in the Arctic, dissolved PAHs in the surface seawaters from the temperate Pacific Ocean to the Arctic Ocean, as well as a water column in the Arctic Ocean, were collected during the 4th Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in summer 2010. The total concentrations of seven dissolved PAHs in surface water ranged from 1...
June 16, 2017: Chemosphere
Rebecca J Wood, Simon M Mitrovic, Richard P Lim, Ben J Kefford
Diffuse agricultural runoff into rivers can result in contamination with herbicides for prolonged periods of time. Chronic exposure to herbicides has the potential to alter toxic impacts in primary producers such as benthic diatoms. Determining how individual diatom taxa respond to herbicide exposure over varied exposure durations is essential for assessing herbicide impacts. This study investigated the responses of various benthic diatom taxa and effects at the community level over 12days of atrazine exposure...
June 19, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
Wei Lu, Jiawei Zhang, Youju Huang, Patrick Théato, Qing Huang, Tao Chen
Development of fluorescent film probes for toxic nitroaromatic compound pollutants (NACs) such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in real water samples implies broad applications in environmental and industrial safety control. Despite many recent advances, there are still some difficult challenges facing this area, for example, the restricted sensitivity and long response time caused by hindered and slow diffusion of aqueous NACs samples inside a dense, solid film. Hence, we report herein a robust fluorescent paper sensor with improved sensing abilities, which is prepared by absorbing hydrophilic pyrene-functionalized polymer uniformly into cellulose-based filter papers...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Daniel Gorman, Alexander Turra, Rod M Connolly, Andrew D Olds, Thomas A Schlacher
We compared the sensitivity of algae and hermit crabs to seasonal shifts in the dominance of continuous sewage discharge vs. pulsed inputs of terrestrial material to a subtropical bay. During periods of low rainfall, when sewage was proportionately more important than diffuse loads from adjacent catchments, algae and crabs provided comparable information on the spatial distribution of N pollution. Conversely, during the wet season, when diffuse nitrogen loads from the catchment were of greater importance, the isotope signal of algae decoupled from that of crabs, indexing a greater magnitude of change and a more pronounced spatial gradient...
June 20, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Shu Zhang, Paul N Williams, Chun-Yang Zhou, Lena Q Ma, Jun Luo
The monitoring of oxyanions in waters, presents significant challenges due to their relatively low concentrations, and a characteristically changeable/unstable/reactive geochemistry with high spatial and temporal turnover. This results in a very heterogeneous pattern of mobility and bioavailability, which is difficult to capture reliably and in a cost effective manner. The diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) technique is a popular analytical tool for testing water quality, primarily because it provides a time-integrated measurement...
June 18, 2017: Chemosphere
Reza Habibiandehkordi, David A Lobb, Steve C Sheppard, Don N Flaten, Philip N Owens
Vegetated buffer strips (VBSs) are widely encouraged as a cost-effective strategy to address phosphorus (P) pollution associated with agricultural production. However, there is a lack of evidence in the effectiveness of these measures for tackling diffuse P pollution in cold-climate regions under concentrated runoff flow conditions. This research aimed to investigate the effects of VBSs on reducing P concentrations in surface runoff at three different watersheds in Manitoba, Canada. Surface runoff samples were collected in four sub-catchments from each watershed by installing paired weirs at 0...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Anna Malagó, Faycal Bouraoui, Olga Vigiak, Bruna Grizzetti, Marco Pastori
This study provides an innovative process-based modelling approach using the SWAT model and shows its application to support the implementation of the European environmental policies in large river basins. The approach involves several pioneering modelling aspects: the inclusion of current management practices; an innovative calibration and validation methodology of streamflow and water quality; a sequential calibration starting from crop yields, followed by streamflow and nutrients; and the use of concentrations instead of loads in the calibration...
June 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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