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diffuse pollution

Jordi Olloquequi, Sergio Jaime, Viviana Parra, Elizabeth Cornejo-Córdova, Gonzalo Valdivia, Àlvar Agustí, Rafael Silva O
BACKGROUND: Exposure to noxious gases and particles contained in both tobacco smoking (TS) and biomass smoke (BS) are well recognized environmental risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is characterized by an abnormal inflammatory response, both in the pulmonary and systemic compartments. The differential effects of TS, BS or their combined exposure have not been well characterized yet. This study sought to compare the lung function characteristics and systemic inflammatory response in COPD patients exposed to TS, BS or their combination...
January 18, 2018: Respiratory Research
Per-Erik Mellander, Phil Jordan, Marianne Bechmann, Ophélie Fovet, Mairead M Shore, Noeleen T McDonald, Chantal Gascuel-Odoux
Management of agricultural diffuse pollution to water remains a challenge and is influenced by the complex interactions of rainfall-runoff pathways, soil and nutrient management, agricultural landscape heterogeneity and biogeochemical cycling in receiving water bodies. Amplified cycles of weather can also influence nutrient loss to water although they are less considered in policy reviews. Here, we present the development of climate-chemical indicators of diffuse pollution in highly monitored catchments in Western Europe...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Long Pang, Peijie Yang, Huiqiang Yang, Liming Ge, Jingwen Xiao, Yifan Zhou
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as flame retardants and plasticizers in many products and materials. Because of the potential biologic toxicity on human beings, OPEs are regarded as a class of emerging pollutants. Dissolved organic matters (DOM) have significant effects on the bioavailability and toxicity of the pollutants in the environment. Negligible-depletion solid-phase microextraction (nd-SPME) is an efficient way for measuring the freely dissolved pollutants but suffers from long equilibrium time...
January 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Christopher J Brown, Richard Hamilton
Ecological communities typically change along gradients of human impact, though it is difficult to estimate the footprint of impacts for diffuse threats like pollution. Here we develop a joint model of benthic habitats on lagoonal coral reefs and use it to infer change in benthic composition along a gradient of distance from logging operations. The model estimates both changes in abundances of benthic groups and their compositional turn-over, a type of beta-diversity. We detect compositional turnover across the gradient and use the model to predict the footprint of turbidity impacts from logging...
January 15, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Junming Li, Xiulan Han, Xiao Li, Jianping Yang, Xuejiao Li
This paper firstly explores the space-time evolution of city-level PM 2.5 concentrations showed a very significant seasonal cycle type fluctuation during the period between 13 May 2014 and 30 May 2017. The period from October to April following each year was a heavy pollution period, whereas the phase from April to October of the current year was part of a light pollution period. The average monthly PM 2.5 concentrations in mainland China based on ground monitoring, employing a descriptive statistics method and a Bayesian spatiotemporal hierarchy model...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Alfredo Mazza, Prisco Piscitelli, Andrea Falco, Maria Lucia Santoro, Manuela Colangelo, Giovanni Imbriani, Adele Idolo, Antonella De Donno, Leopoldo Iannuzzi, Annamaria Colao
The area of Naples and Campania region, in Italy, are experiencing the dramatic consequences of diffuse and illegal waste dumping, resulting in possible threats to human health. This area has been referred to as the "Land of Fires" because of the common practice of waste burning. International interest in the Campania "waste emergency" has triggered several epidemiological studies. This article is aimed at highlighting the body of evidence available concerning human and environmental contamination in the Campania region, and considers the possible lack of comparable knowledge about the situation in other areas suffering from high environmental pollution...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mehdi Zolfaghari, Patrick Drogui, Jean François Blais
Electro-oxidation process by niobium boron-doped diamond (Nb/BDD) electrode was used to treat non-biodegradable oily wastewater provided from soil leachate contaminated by hydrocarbons. Firstly, the diffusion current limit and mass transfer coefficient was experimentally measured (7.1 mA cm-2 and 14.7 μm s-1, respectively), in order to understand minimum applied current density. Later on, the oxidation kinetic model of each pollutant was investigated in different current densities ranged between 3.8 and 61...
December 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rui Lei, Hongwei Ni, Rongsheng Chen, Huazhi Gu, Bowei Zhang, Weiting Zhan
As an n-type semiconductor with an excellent physicochemical properties, iron oxide (Fe2O3) has been extensively used in the fields of environmental pollution control and solar energy conversion. However, the high recombination rate of the photoinduced electron-hole pairs and poor charge mobility for Fe2O3 nanomaterial generally result in low photocatalytic efficiency. Herein, an uniform CdS nanorods grown directly on one-dimensional α-Fe2O3 nanotube arrays (NTAs) are successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method and the constructed heterojunction can be a kind of efficient and recyclable photocatalysts...
December 24, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Guping Zhang, Dongyun Chen, Najun Li, Qingfeng Xu, Hua Li, Jinghui He, Jianmei Lu
Nowadays, among the many heavy metal pollutants, hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) seriously threatens ecological systems and human health due to its high solubility, acute toxicity and potential carcinogenicity in wastewater. Meanwhile, semiconductor photocatalytic reduction is continuously gaining increasing significant research attention in the treatment of Cr(VI). Hence, we report an efficient preparation method for SnS2/SnO2 composites on carbon cloth (CC), for efficient photocatalytic reduction of aqueous Cr(VI)...
December 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Benjamin W Abbott, Florentina Moatar, Olivier Gauthier, Ophélie Fovet, Virginie Antoine, Olivier Ragueneau
Agriculture and urbanization have disturbed three-quarters of global ice-free land surface, delivering huge amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus to freshwater ecosystems. These excess nutrients degrade habitat and threaten human food and water security at a global scale. Because most catchments are either currently subjected to, or recovering from anthropogenic nutrient loading, understanding the short- and long-term responses of river nutrients to changes in land use is essential for effective management. We analyzed a never-published, 18-year time series of anthropogenic (NO3- and PO43-) and naturally derived (dissolved silica) riverine nutrients in 13 catchments recovering from agricultural pollution in western France...
December 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Fatemeh Hashemi, Jørgen E Olesen, Anne L Hansen, Christen D Børgesen, Tommy Dalgaard
Nutrient loss from agriculture is the largest source of diffuse water pollution in Denmark. To reduce nutrient loads a number of solutions have been implemented, but this has been insufficient to achieve the environmental objectives without unacceptable repercussions for agricultural production. This has substantiated the need to develop a new approach to achieve nitrogen (N) load reduction to the aquatic environments with lower costs to farmers. The new approach imply targeting N leaching mitigation to those parts of the landscape which contribute most to the N-loadings...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Nan Li, Panting Lu, Cuixia He, Wangyang Lu, Wenxing Chen
Iron (II) phthalocyanine (FePc) supported on electrospun polyester/poly-4-vinylpyridine nanofibers (PET/P4VP NFs) was prepared by stirring in tetrahydrofuran. The resulting product was confirmed and characterized by ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography. More than 95% of sulfaquinoxalinum (SQX) could be removed by the activation of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of FePc-P4VP/PET with a PET and P4VP mass ratio of 1:1...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Issoufou Ouedraogo, Pierre Defourny, Marnik Vanclooster
In this study, we assess the validity of an African-scale groundwater pollution model for nitrates. In a previous study, we identified a statistical continental-scale groundwater pollution model for nitrate. The model was identified using a pan-African meta-analysis of available nitrate groundwater pollution studies. The model was implemented in both Random Forest (RF) and multiple regression formats. For both approaches, we collected as predictors a comprehensive GIS database of 13 spatial attributes, related to land use, soil type, hydrogeology, topography, climatology, region typology, nitrogen fertiliser application rate, and population density...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
T Coudon, H Hourani, C Nguyen, E Faure, F R Mancini, B Fervers, P Salizzoni
Identifying the long-term effects of airborne pollutants requires the computation of the spatial and temporal variability of their concentration in air to estimate the exposure of the population. To estimate exposure levels of individuals in a breast cancer case control study nested in a national prospective cohort, we determine here the differential impact of a variety of cadmium and dioxin sources on urban air over a large urban area and over a period of almost 20years. To that end, we couple an emission model, to estimate dioxin and cadmium atmospheric annual releases, with an urban dispersion model in order to compute pollutant concentration fields at a fine temporal (1h) and spatial (25m) resolution...
December 5, 2017: Environment International
Sean D W Comber, Russell Smith, Peter Daldorph, Michael J Gardner, Carlos Constantino, Brian Ellor
Increasing pressures on natural resources has led to the adoption of water quality standards to protect ecological and human health. Lakes and reservoirs are particularly vulnerable to pressure on water quality owing to long residence times compared with rivers. This has raised the question of how to determine and to quantify the sources of priority chemicals (e.g. nutrients, persistent organic pollutants and metals) so that suitable measures can be taken to address failures to comply with regulatory standards...
December 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Wanzhu Zhang, Lin Wang, Bingzhi Dong
The fouling behavior during forward osmosis (FO) was investigated. Tannic acid was used as a model organic foulant for natural organic matter analysis since the main characteristics are similar, and calcium ions were added at different concentrations to explore the anti-pollution capability of FO membranes. The initial permeate flux and calcium ions strength were varied in different operating conditions to describe membrane fouling with membrane cleaning methods. The observed flux decline in FO changed dramatically with the type of foulant and the type of draw solution used to provide the osmotic driving force...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Luca Alberti, Loris Colombo, Giovanni Formentin
The Lombardy Region in Italy is one of the most urbanized and industrialized areas in Europe. The presence of countless sources of groundwater pollution is therefore a matter of environmental concern. The sources of groundwater contamination can be classified into two different categories: 1) Point Sources (PS), which correspond to areas releasing plumes of high concentrations (i.e. hot-spots) and 2) Multiple-Point Sources (MPS) consisting in a series of unidentifiable small sources clustered within large areas, generating an anthropogenic diffuse contamination...
November 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Xiaoyan Zhai, Yongyong Zhang
Diffuse nutrient loss is a serious threat to water security and has severely deteriorated water quality throughout the world. Xin'anjiang catchment, as a main drinking water source for Hangzhou City, has been a national concern for water environment protection with payment for watershed services construction. Detection of diffuse phosphorous (DP) pollution dynamics under climate change is significant for sustainable water quality management. In this study, the impact of projected climate change on DP load was analyzed using SWAT to simulate the future changes of diffuse components (carriers: water discharge and sediment; nutrient: DP) at both station and sub-catchment scales under three climate change scenarios (RCP2...
November 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Olivia Gómez-Laserna, Paola Cardiano, Marta Diez-Garcia, Nagore Prieto-Taboada, Leire Kortazar, María Ángeles Olazabal, Juan Manuel Madariaga
This work is focused on the development of an innovative multi-analytical methodology to estimate the impact suffered by building materials in coastal environments. With the aim of improving the in situ spectroscopic assessment, which is often based on XRF and Raman spectrometers, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy was implemented in the diagnosis study. In this way, the additional benefits from DRIFT were compared to the usual in situ analyses of building materials, which often have interferences from fluorescence and reststrahlen effects...
November 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Manuela Lasagna, Domenico Antonio De Luca
Diffuse nitrate pollution in groundwater is currently considered one of the major causes of water quality degradation. Determining the sources of nitrate contamination is an important first step for a better management of water quality. Thus, the isotopic composition of nitrate (δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3) and boron (δ11B) were used to evaluate nitrate contamination sources and to identify geochemical processes occurring in the shallow and deep aquifers of the Turin-Cuneo plain (NW Italy). The study area is essentially an agricultural zone, where use of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers and organic manure is a common practice and the connection to sewer services is locally lacking...
November 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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