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diffuse pollution

Bo Liu, Tongjiang Peng, Hongjuan Sun
Pollution by the release of heavy metals from tailings constitutes a potential threat to the environment. To characterize the processes governing the release of Mn, Sr, Pb, and U from the uranium mill tailings, a dynamic leaching test was applied for different size of uranium mill tailings samples. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were performed to determine the content of Mn, Sr, Pb, and U in the leachates. The release of mobile Mn, Sr, Pb, and U fraction was slow, being faster in the initial stage and then attained a near steady-state condition...
May 22, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rémi Dupas, Per-Erik Mellander, Chantal Gascuel-Odoux, Ophélie Fovet, Eoin B McAleer, Noeleen T McDonald, Mairead Shore, Phil Jordan
Diffuse transfer of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in agricultural catchments is controlled by the mobilisation of sources and their delivery to receiving waters. While plot scale experiments have focused on mobilisation processes, many catchment scale studies have hitherto concentrated on the controls of dominant flow pathways on nutrient delivery. To place mobilisation and delivery at a catchment scale, this study investigated their relative influence on contrasting nitrate-N and soluble P concentrations and N:P ratios in two shallow groundwater fed catchments with different land use (grassland and arable) on the Atlantic seaboard of Europe...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jin Zhang, Pei Hua, Peter Krebs
Road-deposited sediment and its adsorbed pollutants have been regarded as significant sources of urban diffuse pollution. In this study, the solid-phase concentrations (mg/g), surface load (mg/m(2)) and chemical fractionation of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) were determined. Geo-accumulation (Igeo) and ecological risk (RI) indexes were employed for metal risk assessment. Results show that the highest solid-phase concentrations of Zn and Cu were usually found at an industrial area. However, Cd had the highest solid-phase concentrations at a rural area, followed by a commercial area...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
P A Makar, R M Staebler, A Akingunola, J Zhang, C McLinden, S K Kharol, B Pabla, P Cheung, Q Zheng
The chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere close to the surface is known to be strongly influenced by vegetation. However, two critical aspects of the forest environment have been neglected in the description of the large-scale influence of forests on air pollution: the reduction of photolysis reaction rates and the modification of vertical transport due to the presence of foliage. Here we show that foliage shading and foliage-modified vertical diffusion have a profound influence on atmospheric chemistry, both at the Earth's surface and extending throughout the atmospheric boundary layer...
May 18, 2017: Nature Communications
Raj Kamal Singh, Ligy Philip, Sarathi Ramanujam
In the present study, plasma generated by pulsed corona discharge was used for the degradation of diclofenac, carbamazepine and ciprofloxacin. Pollutants in aqueous solution were plasma treated under two categories: single and mixed pollutant condition. Mixed pollutant condition showed an antagonistic behaviour and thus the degradation time was higher for mixed condition compared to the single condition. At different voltage and frequencies, degradation efficiency followed the trend, diclofenac>carbamazepine>ciprofloxacin...
May 7, 2017: Water Research
Peifang Wang, Cui Liu, Yu Yao, Chao Wang, Teng Wang, Ye Yuan, Jun Hou
To assess the capabilities of the different techniques in predicting Cadmium (Cd) bioavailability in Cd-contaminated soils with the addition of Zn, one in situ technique (diffusive gradients in thin films; DGT) was compared with soil solution concentration and four widely used single-step extraction methods (acetic acid, EDTA, sodium acetate and CaCl2). Wheat and maize were selected as tested species. The results demonstrated that single Cd-polluted soils inhibited the growth of wheat and maize significantly compared with control plants; the shoot and root biomasses of the plants both dropped significantly (P < 0...
May 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Nathan Cooper, Donna Green, Katrin J Meissner
Publically accessible pollution databases, such as the Australian National Pollutant Inventory, contain information on chemical emissions released by industrial facility and diffuse sources. They are meant to enable public scrutiny of industrial activity, which in turn, is meant to lead to industries reducing their pollution. In Australia, however, concerns have been consistently raised that this process is not occurring. To assess whether Australia's National Pollutant Inventory is fulfilling its legislated goals, we examined the accuracy and consistency of the largest facility and diffuse source of airborne lead, a major pollutant of concern for public health...
May 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Senthilkumar Balakrishnan, Ilakkia Sivaji, Selvam Kandasamy, Senbagam Duraisamy, Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar, Guruswami Gurusubramanian
Biosynthesis of nanoparticles has received increasing attention due its effective mode of action, eco-friendly preparation methodology, and less cytotoxicity. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from aqueous seed extract of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) were characterized. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of bioactive components acts as effective in reducing and capping agents for converting AgNO3 to AgNPs. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the biologically reduced reaction mixture showed the surface plasmon peak at 420 nm, which is the characteristic peak of AgNPs...
May 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Erik Jørs, Antonio Aramayo, Omar Huici, Flemming Konradsen, Gabriel Gulis
Integrated pest management (IPM) with an increased used of ecological farming methods and less and safer use of pesticides offers solutions to reduce risks of developing pest resistance, human poisoning, and environmental pollution. Despite being promoted by Food and Agriculture Organization and others, it has not spread readily in low-income countries. This article presents the opinions of Bolivian farmers and agronomists on perceived obstacles and opportunities for a diffusion of IPM. Focus group discussions revealed an increased workload without certainty of higher yields or better prices for products grown with IPM compared with traditional agriculture being hindrances for a spread of IPM...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
Hujia Zhao, Huizheng Che, Yanjun Ma, Yangfeng Wang, Hongbin Yang, Yuche Liu, Yaqiang Wang, Hong Wang, Xiaoye Zhang
The variations of visibility, PM-mass concentration and mixing-layer height (MLH) in four major urban/industry regions (Shenyang, Anshan, Benxi and Fushun) of central Liaoning in Northeast China are evaluated from 2009 to 2012 to characterize their dynamic effect on air pollution. The annual mean visibilities are about 13.7 ± 7.8, 13.5 ± 6.5, 12.8 ± 6.1 and 11.5 ± 6.8 km in Shenyang, Anshan, Benxi and Fushun, respectively. The pollution load (PM × MLH) shows a weaker vertical diffusion in Anshan, with a higher PM concentration near the surface...
April 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Wolfram Seitz, Rudi Winzenbacher
A comprehensive monitoring programme of trace organic chemicals (TOrC) was conducted for a German water protection area in karstic ground. The aim of this survey was to detect the potential anthropogenic influences of point sources such as wastewater treatment plants and diffuse pollution such as runoff water from roads on the raw water used for drinking water treatment. The programme comprised seven sampling campaigns within 2 years each with up to 20 sampling sites. In total, the programme included 84 anthropogenic compounds from pharmaceuticals, iodinated X-ray contrast media, sweeteners, industrial chemicals (benzotriazoles, melamines and benzothiazoles) and pesticide metabolites...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Xiaoyan Zhai, Jun Xia, Yongyong Zhang
Detailed depiction of hydrological process and its associated pollution processes plays a critical role in environment improvement and management at basin scale. It also provides a useful tool to assess impact of potential factors on hydrological and water quality conditions. However, it was still difficult to well capture some typical characteristics of these complicated processes including built-in nonlinearity and time-variation, water infrastructure regulations, particularly for highly regulated basins...
April 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Meng Sun, Yu Wang, Yu Shao, Yunhui He, Qi Zeng, Huikai Liang, Tao Yan, Bin Du
In this work, highly efficient g-C3N4/Bi4O7 heterojunction photocatalysts have been successfully fabricated by a facile method. Compared with the bare photocatalysts, the obtained g-C3N4/Bi4O7 hybrid photocatalysts exhibited efficient degradation activity toward methylene blue (MB), phenol, rhodamine B (RhB), and bisphenol A (BPA) under visible light irradiation. The influences of different g-C3N4 contents on the photocatalytic efficiency of the hybrid photocatalysts have been investigated. The results revealed that the g-C3N4/Bi4O7 with g-C3N4 mass ratio of 30% exhibited the best photocatalytic activity...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Ke Song, Yong Xue, Xianqing Zheng, Weiguang Lv, Hongxia Qiao, Qin Qin, Jianjun Yang
A 4-year field trial with three treatments and three types of annually rotated vegetables was conducted in calcareous soil in a greenhouse using a phosphorus (P) fractionation method based on the inorganic P fraction classification system described by Jiang-Gu. With the same nutrient input, vegetable yields and P uptake were more stable under the chemical fertilizer (CF) treatment than under the organic manure (OM) treatment, and the average utilization rate of P fertilizer (URP) values were 5.27% and 11.40% under the OM and CF treatments, respectively, over the 4 years...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Manabu Shiraiwa, Ying Li, Alexandra P Tsimpidi, Vlassis A Karydis, Thomas Berkemeier, Spyros N Pandis, Jos Lelieveld, Thomas Koop, Ulrich Pöschl
Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are a large source of uncertainty in our current understanding of climate change and air pollution. The phase state of SOA is important for quantifying their effects on climate and air quality, but its global distribution is poorly characterized. We developed a method to estimate glass transition temperatures based on the molar mass and molecular O:C ratio of SOA components, and we used the global chemistry climate model EMAC with the organic aerosol module ORACLE to predict the phase state of atmospheric SOA...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
Hao Li, Jian Shang, Zhiping Yang, Wenjuan Shen, Zhihui Ai, Lizhi Zhang
Understanding the chemistry of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) decomposition and hydroxyl radical (•OH) transformation on the surface molecular level is a great challenge for the application of heterogeneous Fenton system in the fields of chemistry, environmental, and life science. We report in this study a conceptual oxygen vacancy associated surface Fenton system without any metal ions leaching, exhibiting unprecedented surface chemistry based on the oxygen vacancy of electron-donor nature for heterolytic H2O2 dissociation...
April 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Jin Qian, Kun Li, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Mengmeng Shen, Jingjing Liu, Xin Tian, Bianhe Lu
Aquatic sediments are believed to be an important sink for carbon nanotubes (CNTs). With novel properties, CNTs can potentially disturb the fate and mobility of the co-existing contaminants in the sediments. Only toxic pollutants have been investigated previously, and to the best of our knowledge, no data has been published on how CNTs influence phosphorus (P) adsorption on aquatic sediments. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were selected as model CNTs. Experimental results indicated that compared to pseudo-first order and intraparticle diffusion models, the pseudo-second-order model is better for describing the adsorption kinetics of sediments and MWCNT-contaminated sediments...
August 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Shraddha Khamparia, Dipika Kaur Jaspal
Treatment of polluted water has been considered as one of the most important aspects in environmental sciences. Present study explores the decolorization potential of a low cost natural adsorbent Xanthium strumarium L. seed hull for the adsorption of a toxic xanthene dye, Rhodamine B (RHB). The characterization of the adsorbent revealed the presence of high amount of carbon, when exposed to Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Further appreciable decolorization took place which was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis noticing shift in peaks...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Filippo Frizzi, Alberto Masoni, Mine Çelikkol, Enrico Palchetti, Claudio Ciofi, Guido Chelazzi, Giacomo Santini
Natural habitats with serpentine soils are rich in heavy metal ions, which may significantly affect ecological communities. Exposure to metal pollutants results, for instance, in a reduction of population genetic diversity and a diffused higher tolerance towards heavy metals. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exposure to metals in serpentine soils affect accumulation patterns, tolerance towards metal pollutants, and genetic diversity in ants. In particular, we studied colonies of the common Mediterranean ant, Crematogaster scutellaris, along a contamination gradient consisting of two differently contaminated forests and a reference soil with no geogenic contamination...
April 10, 2017: Chemosphere
Atsuto Onoda, Takayasu Kawasaki, Koichi Tsukiyama, Ken Takeda, Masakazu Umezawa
Environmental stimulation during brain development is an important risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disease. Clinical evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to particulate air pollutants leads to diffuse damage to the neurovascular unit in the developing brain and accelerates neurodegeneration. Maternal exposure to carbon black nanoparticles (CB-NPs), used as a model for particulate air pollution, induces long-lasting diffuse perivascular abnormalities. We aimed to comprehensively characterize the perivascular abnormalities related to maternal NPs exposure using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (in situ FT-IR) and classical staining analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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