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diffuse pollution

Manabu Shiraiwa, Ying Li, Alexandra P Tsimpidi, Vlassis A Karydis, Thomas Berkemeier, Spyros N Pandis, Jos Lelieveld, Thomas Koop, Ulrich Pöschl
Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are a large source of uncertainty in our current understanding of climate change and air pollution. The phase state of SOA is important for quantifying their effects on climate and air quality, but its global distribution is poorly characterized. We developed a method to estimate glass transition temperatures based on the molar mass and molecular O:C ratio of SOA components, and we used the global chemistry climate model EMAC with the organic aerosol module ORACLE to predict the phase state of atmospheric SOA...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
Hao Li, Jian Shang, Zhiping Yang, Wenjuan Shen, Zhihui Ai, Lizhi Zhang
Understanding the chemistry of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) decomposition and hydroxyl radicals (•OH) transformation on the surface molecular level is a great challenge for the application of heterogeneous Fenton system in the fields of chemistry, environmental and life science. We report in this study a conceptual oxygen vacancy associated surface Fenton system without any metal ions leaching, exhibiting unprecedented surface chemistry based on the oxygen vacancy of electron-donor nature for heterolytic H2O2 dissociation...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Jin Qian, Kun Li, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang, Mengmeng Shen, Jingjing Liu, Xin Tian, Bianhe Lu
Aquatic sediments are believed to be an important sink for carbon nanotubes (CNTs). With novel properties, CNTs can potentially disturb the fate and mobility of the co-existing contaminants in the sediments. Only toxic pollutants have been investigated previously, and to the best of our knowledge, no data has been published on how CNTs influence phosphorus (P) adsorption on aquatic sediments. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were selected as model CNTs. Experimental results indicated that compared to pseudo-first order and intraparticle diffusion models, the pseudo-second-order model is better for describing the adsorption kinetics of sediments and MWCNT-contaminated sediments...
April 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Shraddha Khamparia, Dipika Kaur Jaspal
Treatment of polluted water has been considered as one of the most important aspects in environmental sciences. Present study explores the decolorization potential of a low cost natural adsorbent Xanthium strumarium L. seed hull for the adsorption of a toxic xanthene dye, Rhodamine B (RHB). The characterization of the adsorbent revealed the presence of high amount of carbon, when exposed to Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Further appreciable decolorization took place which was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis noticing shift in peaks...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Filippo Frizzi, Alberto Masoni, Mine Çelikkol, Enrico Palchetti, Claudio Ciofi, Guido Chelazzi, Giacomo Santini
Natural habitats with serpentine soils are rich in heavy metal ions, which may significantly affect ecological communities. Exposure to metal pollutants results, for instance, in a reduction of population genetic diversity and a diffused higher tolerance towards heavy metals. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exposure to metals in serpentine soils affect accumulation patterns, tolerance towards metal pollutants, and genetic diversity in ants. In particular, we studied colonies of the common Mediterranean ant, Crematogaster scutellaris, along a contamination gradient consisting of two differently contaminated forests and a reference soil with no geogenic contamination...
April 10, 2017: Chemosphere
Atsuto Onoda, Takayasu Kawasaki, Koichi Tsukiyama, Ken Takeda, Masakazu Umezawa
Environmental stimulation during brain development is an important risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disease. Clinical evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to particulate air pollutants leads to diffuse damage to the neurovascular unit in the developing brain and accelerates neurodegeneration. Maternal exposure to carbon black nanoparticles (CB-NPs), used as a model for particulate air pollution, induces long-lasting diffuse perivascular abnormalities. We aimed to comprehensively characterize the perivascular abnormalities related to maternal NPs exposure using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (in situ FT-IR) and classical staining analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Yan Zhang, Guohe Huang, Chunjiang An, Xiaying Xin, Xia Liu, Maya Raman, Yao Yao, Wenxia Wang, Mukesh Doble
From the view of economic efficiency and technology sustainability, biomass adsorbent has a high potential for pollution control. In the present study, the performance of gemini 12-2-12 surfactant-modified wheat bran (MWB) for the removal of anionic azo dyes from aqueous solution was investigated. A new insight was gained into the modification mechanism through synchrotron-assisted infrared analysis and molecular interaction simulation. The equilibrium and kinetic studies for the adsorption of Acid Red 18 (AR-18), Acid Orange 7 (AO-7) and Acid Black 1 (AB-1) on MWB were conducted...
April 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Frederieke Kroon, Claire Streten, Simon Harries
BACKGROUND: Biomarkers have been used extensively to provide the connection between external levels of contaminant exposure, internal levels of tissue contamination, and early adverse effects in organisms. OBJECTIVES: To present a three-step protocol for identifying suitable biomarkers to assess fish health in coastal and marine ecosystems, using Gladstone Harbour (Australia) as a case study. METHODS: Prior to applying our protocol, clear working definitions for biomarkers were developed to ensure consistency with the global literature on fish health assessment...
2017: PloS One
Hongfeng Zhang, Xiu He, Weiwei Zhao, Yu Peng, Donglan Sun, Hao Li, Xiaocong Wang
Fe3O4/TiO2 magnetic mesoporous composites were synthesized through a sol-gel method with tetra-n-butyl titanate as precursor and surfactant P123 as template. The as-prepared Fe3O4/TiO2 composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm and pore size distribution. The as-synthesized products were applied as photocatalysis for the degradation of Acid Black ATT and tannery wastewater under UV lamp irradiation. Fe3O4/TiO2-8 composites containing Fe3O4 of 8 wt% were selected as model catalysts...
April 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Zeynep Özcan, Oğuz Başkan, H Şebnem Düzgün, Elçin Kentel, Emre Alp
Fate and transport models are powerful tools that aid authorities in making unbiased decisions for developing sustainable management strategies. Application of pollution fate and transport models in semi-arid regions has been challenging because of unique hydrological characteristics and limited data availability. Significant temporal and spatial variability in rainfall events, complex interactions between soil, vegetation and topography, and limited water quality and hydrological data due to insufficient monitoring network make it a difficult task to develop reliable models in semi-arid regions...
April 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Qingqing Li, Yungui Li, Lizhong Zhu, Baoshan Xing, Baoliang Chen
The uptake of organic chemicals by plants is considered of great significance as it impacts their environmental transport and fate and threatens crop growth and food safety. Herein, the dependence of the uptake, penetration, and distribution of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the morphology and micro-structures of cuticular waxes on leaf surfaces was investigated. Plant surface morphologies and wax micro-structures were examined by scanning emission microscopy, and hydrophobicities of plant surfaces were monitored through contact angle measurements...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
WeiWei Chen, Daniel Q Tong, Mo Dan, ShiChun Zhang, XueLei Zhang, YuePeng Pan
This study presents the mass concentrations of PM2.5, O3, SO2 and NOx at one urban, one suburban and two rural locations in the Changchun region from September 25 to October 27 2013. Major chemical components of PM2.5 at the four sites were daily sampled and analyzed. Most of daily concentrations of SO2 (7-82μg/m(3)), O3 (27-171μg/m(3)) and NOx (14-213μg/m(3)) were below the limits of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in China. However, PM2.5 concentrations (143-168μg/m(3)) were 2-fold higher than NAAQS...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Dongjuan Kang, Xiaolin Yu, Maofa Ge, Feng Xiao, Hui Xu
Al-doped carbon nanotubes (Al-doped CNTs) were prepared as a multifunctional integrated material of adsorbent and coagulant aid for organic pollutant removal from aqueous solution. It was observed that aluminum species were dispersed homogeneously on the surface of CNTs, and mainly anchored onto defect structures of the CNTs. The introduction of aluminium efficiently improved adsorption ability for methyl orange (MO) onto the CNTs, and maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir isotherm model can reach 69...
April 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Fabian E Arias Arias, Amerigo Beneduci, Francesco Chidichimo, Emilia Furia, Salvatore Straface
WHO has declared mercury as one of the most dangerous pollutants for human health. Unfortunately, several cases of rivers and aquifers contaminated by mercury inevitably poses the problem on how to remediate them. Considerable efforts are being addressed to develop cost-effective methodologies, among which the use of low-cost adsorbing materials. In this paper, the adsorption performances of an alternative lignocellulosic material derived from the Spanish broom plant, are presented. This plant is widely diffused in the world and its usage for Hg(II) removal from water in real working conditions requires only minimal pretreatment steps...
April 2, 2017: Chemosphere
Horst Kisch
Photocatalysis at semiconductor surfaces is a growing field of general photocatalysis because of its importance for the chemical utilization of solar energy. By analogy with photoelectrochemistry the basic mechanism of semiconductor photocatalysis can be broken down into three steps: photogenerated formation of surface redox centers (electron-hole pairs), interfacial electron transfer from and to substrates (often coupled with proton-transfer), and conversion of primary redox intermediates into the products...
April 5, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Lane G Tidwell, L Blair Paulik, Kim A Anderson
Chemical fate is a concern at environmentally contaminated sites, but characterizing that fate can be difficult. Identifying and quantifying the movement of chemicals at the air-water interface are important steps in characterizing chemical fate. Superfund sites are often suspected sources of air pollution due to legacy sediment and water contamination. A quantitative assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAH (OPAHs) diffusive flux in a river system that contains a Superfund Mega-site, and passes through residential, urban and agricultural land, has not been reported before...
March 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Xinyue Zhang, Li Li, Shanshan Wen, Hongxiang Luo, Changlong Yang
Two types of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) Bi2O3/ZrO2 composites were prepared by the sol-gel method combined with the decompression filling method using polystyrene (PS) microspheres and EO20PO70EO20 (P123) as the templates. The crystal structure, morphology, and surface physicochemical properties of Bi2O3/ZrO2 composites were well characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Lin Zhu, Xun Li, Chen Zhang, Zengqiang Duan
Heavily polluted sediment is becoming an important part of water pollution, and this situation is particularly acute in developing countries. Sediment has gradually changed from being the pollution adsorbent to the release source and has influenced the water environment and public health. In this study, we evaluated the pollutant distribution in sediment in a heavily polluted river and agitated the sediment in a heavily polluted river to re-suspend it and re-release pollutants. We found that the levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH₄⁺-N, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in overlying water were significantly increased 60 min after agitation...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
N Kazakis, N Kantiranis, K Kalaitzidou, E Kaprara, M Mitrakas, R Frei, G Vargemezis, P Tsourlos, A Zouboulis, A Filippidis
Hexavalent chromium constitutes a serious deterioration factor for the groundwater quality of several regions around the world. High concentrations of this contaminant have been also reported in the groundwater of the Sarigkiol hydrological basin (near Kozani city, NW Greece). Specific interest was paid to this particular study area due to the co-existence here of two important factors both expected to contribute to Cr(VI) presence and groundwater pollution; namely the area's exposed ophiolitic rocks and its substantial fly ash deposits originating from the local lignite burning power plant...
March 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Meng Sun, Shuangli Li, Tao Yan, Pengge Ji, Xia Zhao, Kun Yuan, Dong Wei, Bin Du
Heterostructured Bi2O2CO3/Bi2O4 photocatalysts were fabricated by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method, in which melem served as the sacrificial reagent to supply carbonate anions. The as-synthesized Bi2O2CO3/Bi2O4 heterojunction catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. The XRD patterns of Bi2O2CO3/Bi2O4 catalysts showed the distinctive peaks of Bi2O2CO3 and Bi2O4...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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