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diffuse pollution

Jing Zhang, Liang Zhu, Zhenyu Shi, Ying Gao
With the addition of sulfite, almost complete removal of seven out of eight tested contaminants, i.e. benzotriazole, phenol, ciprofloxacin, methyl blue, rhodamine B, methyl orange and sulfamethoxazole, was observed in 30 s except for sulfamethoxazole at pH 9.0, while Fe(VI) alone only resulted in less than 6% removal. In this study, the mechanism of sulfite/Fe(VI) process was explored for the first time. Firstly, sulfite attacks Fe(VI) via a 1-e(-) transfer forming the primary sulfite radical (SO3(-)), then SO3(-) reacts rapidly with oxygen in a diffusion controlled rate to form a much more reactive peroxyl radical SO5(-), which further reacts with HSO3(-) and produces SO4(-)...
July 19, 2017: Chemosphere
Ningning Wang, Aihua Wang, Linghao Kong, Mengchang He
The potential ecological risk index (RI) is a diagnostic tool for pollution control which integrate the concentration of heavy metals with ecological effect, environmental effect and toxicity. However, the lack of toxicity coefficients for specific heavy metals limits its widespread use. In this study, we calculated the toxicity coefficient (=7) for antimony (Sb) based on Hakanson's principles, thus broadening the range of potential applications of this risk assessment tool. Taking the case of Xikuangshan (XKS), the largest Sb mine in the world, we predicted the potential ecological risk factor (Er(i)) of Sb for sediment and soil...
August 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Pamela Y Quintas, Andrés H Arias, Ana L Oliva, Claudia E Domini, Mónica B Alvarez, Mariano Garrido, Jorge E Marcovecchio
Levels of tributyltin and its breakdown compounds, including the first record of monobutyltin (MBT) in history for Latin America, were determined in native mussels (Brachidontes rodriguezii) by means of CG-MS, after extraction/derivatization assisted by ultrasound. The samples were collected in 2013 in Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina) at 6 sites, which reflect different levels of maritime activities. Total butyltins (TBts = TBT+ DBT+ MBT) levels ranged from 19.64 to 180.57ng Sn g(-1) dry weight. According to the Oslo-Paris commission, the results indicated that 73...
August 4, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Miroslav Brumovský, Jitka Bečanová, Jiří Kohoutek, Mireno Borghini, Luca Nizzetto
Pollution by chemical substances is of concern for the maintenance of healthy and sustainable aquatic environments. While the occurrence and fate of numerous emerging contaminants, especially pharmaceuticals, is well documented in freshwater, their occurrence and behavior in coastal and marine waters is much less studied and understood. This study investigates the occurrence of 58 chemicals in the open surface water of the Western Mediterranean Sea for the first time. 70 samples in total were collected in 10 different sampling areas...
August 3, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Ritu Gothwal, Shashidhar Thatikonda
Development of antibiotic resistance in environmental bacteria is a direct threat to public health. Therefore, it becomes necessary to understand the fate and transport of antibiotic and its resistant bacteria. This paper presents a mathematical model for spatial and temporal transport of fluoroquinolone and its resistant bacteria in the aquatic environment of the river. The model includes state variables for organic matter, fluoroquinolone, heavy metals, and susceptible and resistant bacteria in the water column and sediment bed...
August 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hailin Tian, Huiqing Fan, Jiangwei Ma, Zhiyong Liu, Longtao Ma, Shenhui Lei, Jiawen Fang, Changbai Long
In this work, well-aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on the substrate of exfoliated g-C3N4 nanosheets via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, and then Pt/ZnO/g-C3N4 nanostructures were obtained after the deposition of Pt nanoparticles. The growth of vertically ordered ZnO nanorods was occurred on g-C3N4 nanosheets through the bonding interaction between Zn and N atoms, which was confirmed by XPS, FT-IR data and molecular orbital theory. The Pt/ZnO/g-C3N4 nanostructures sensor exhibited the remarkable sensitivity, selectivity, and fast response/recovery time for air pollutants of ethanol and NO2...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Annapaola Migani, Lluís Blancafort
The photocatalytic O-H dissociation of water absorbed on a rutile TiO2(110) surface in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) is studied with spin-polarized density functional theory and a hybrid exchange-correlation functional (HSE06), treating the excited-state species as excitons with triplet multiplicity. This system is a model for the photocatalytic oxidation of water by TiO2 in an aqueous medium, which is relevant for the oxygen evolution reaction and photodegradation of organic pollutants. We provide a comprehensive mechanistic picture where the most representative paths correspond to excitonic configurations with the hole located on three- and two-coordinate surface oxygen atoms (O3s and O2s)...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ondřej Lhotský, Eva Krákorová, Lucie Linhartová, Zdena Křesinová, Jana Steinová, Lukáš Dvořák, Torgeir Rodsand, Alena Filipová, Kristýna Kroupová, Lenka Wimmerová, Jan Kukačka, Tomáš Cajthaml
The present study describes a pilot remediation test of a co-mingled plume containing BTEX, chlorinated pollutants and pharmaceuticals. Remediation was attempted using a combination of various approaches, including a pump and treat system applying an advanced oxidation process and targeted direct push injections of calcium peroxide. The remediation process was monitored intensively and extensively throughout the pilot test using various conventional and passive sampling methods, including next-generation amplicon sequencing...
July 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Kenneth D H Porter, Sim M Reaney, Richard S Quilliam, Chris Burgess, David M Oliver
Microbial pollution of surface waters in agricultural catchments can be a consequence of poor farm management practices, such as excessive stocking of livestock on vulnerable land or inappropriate handling of manures and slurries. Catchment interventions such as fencing of watercourses, streamside buffer strips and constructed wetlands have the potential to reduce faecal pollution of watercourses. However these interventions are expensive and occupy valuable productive land. There is, therefore, a requirement for tools to assist in the spatial targeting of such interventions to areas where they will have the biggest impact on water quality improvements whist occupying the minimal amount of productive land...
July 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Lei Wu, Huanyu Chang, Xiaoyi Ma
The Guanzhong region is one of the water resources shortage areas and also an important food producing area in Chinese Loess Plateau. The unreasonable application of irrigation and pesticide not only reduces the utilization rate of pesticides, but also is a potential threat to aquatic environments. In order to explore the reasonable application pattern of irrigation and pesticide, a modified method considering crop water requirement and pesticide transport was established to simulate transport and fate of Triadimefon in subsurface environment of a winter wheat field in Yangling, China...
July 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Magaly Valencia-Avellan, Rebecca Slack, Anthony Stockdale, Robert John George Mortimer
Point and diffuse pollution from metal mining has led to severe environmental damage worldwide. Mine drainage is a significant problem for riverine ecosystems, it is commonly acidic (AMD), but neutral mine drainage (NMD) can also occur. A representative environment for studying metal pollution from NMD is provided by carboniferous catchments characterised by a circumneutral pH and high concentrations of carbonates, supporting the formation of secondary metal-minerals as potential sinks of metals. The present study focuses on understanding the mobility of metal pollution associated with historical mining in a carboniferous upland catchment...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Ka-Ming Wai, Edward Y Y Ng, Charles M S Wong, Tanya Z Tan, Tang-Huang Lin, Wei-Hung Lien, Peter A Tanner, Carlo S H Wang, Kevin K L Lau, Neon M H He, Jhoon Kim
Aerosols affect the insolation at ground and thus the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, a measure of aerosol pollution) plays an important role on the variation of the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) at locations with different aerosol climatology. The aerosol effects upon PET were studied for the first time at four East Asian cities by coupling a radiative transfer model and a human thermal comfort model which were previously well evaluated. Evident with the MODIS and AERONET AOD observations, the aerosol pollution at Beijing and Seoul was higher than at Chiayi (Taiwan) and Hong Kong...
July 24, 2017: Environmental Research
Amyrhul Abu-Bakar, Reza Ahmadian, Roger A Falconer
The Loughor Estuary is a macro-tidal coastal basin, located along the Bristol Channel, in the South West of the U.K. The maximum spring tidal range in the estuary is up to 7.5 m, near Burry Port Harbour. This estuarine region can experience severe coastal flooding during high spring tides, including extreme flooding of the intertidal saltmarshes at Llanrhidian, as well as the lower industrial and residential areas at Llanelli and Gowerton. The water quality of this estuarine basin needs to comply with the designated standards for safe recreational bathing and shellfish harvesting industries...
July 3, 2017: Water Research
Qiong Wu, Jun Qi, Xinghui Xia
Two dated sediment cores from the Miyun Reservoir of Beijing in China were analyzed to reconstruct the pollution history of heavy metals including cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) as well as phosphorus (P). Enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) were applied to assess the enrichment status of heavy metals. Average EF and Igeo values indicated that the studied heavy metals in the sediments mainly originated from non-point source pollution and soil-water erosion, showing low ecological risks...
July 23, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Chia-Ling Chang, Meng-Yuan Li
  Watershed models are important tools for predicting the possible change of watershed responses. Environmental models comprise the deterministic model and the probabilistic model. This study discusses the Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) and the Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN); these two models represent the deterministic model and the probabilistic model, respectively. As the properties of the two models are distinct, they have differing abilities to predict surface-runoff pollution...
August 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Guangxia Liu, Yongrong Bian, Mingyun Jia, Lisa A Boughner, Chenggang Gu, Yang Song, Hongjie Sheng, Wei Zhao, Xin Jiang, Fang Wang
Microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) commonly exist in the soil environment. Currently, there is a knowledge gap regarding the effect of EPS on the fate of POPs in soil. In the present study, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) was used as a model compound to investigate the effects of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and sodium alginate (SA) - mimicking the main components of EPS - on sorption of POPs to soils, through batch experiments. Irrespective of the concentration of BSA: the addition of BSA did enhance the sorption capacity of BDE-47 to soils, due to generation of more sorption sites...
July 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Nicoletta Fortunati, Federica Guaraldi, Valentina Zunino, Federica Penner, Valentina D'Angelo, Francesco Zenga, Francesca Pecori Giraldi, Maria Graziella Catalano, Emanuela Arvat
An increased rate of acromegaly was reported in industrialized areas, suggesting an involvement of environmental pollutants in the pathogenesis and behavior of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas. Based on these premises, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of some widely diffused pollutants (i.e. benzene, BZ; bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, DEHP and polychlorinated biphenyls, PCB) on growth hormone secretion, the somatostatin and estrogenic pathways, viability and proliferation of rat GH-producing pituitary adenoma (GH3) cells...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Research
Zhiheng Liao, Meng Gao, Jiaren Sun, Shaojia Fan
PM2.5 and O3 pollution are of concern for the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region due to their adverse impact on human health. In conjunction with a complex distribution of emission sources, the synoptic circulation conditions control the temporal and spatial variability of air pollution levels and hence the pollution-related health burdens. In this study, a long-term synoptic circulation catalogue is developed by applying the automated Lamb weather type method to the ECMWF mean sea level pressure reanalysis for the YRD region during 2013-2016...
July 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Wenhui Lu, Jinhua Li, Yanqing Sheng, Xinshen Zhang, Jinmao You, Lingxin Chen
Magnetic nanoparticle-multiwalled carbon nanotubes composites (MNP/MWCNTs) were prepared using 1,6-hexanediamine functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNP) linked to carboxylic MWCNTs by facile one-pot solvothermal synthesis for highly efficient removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. The easily obtained magnetic nanocomposites were systematically characterized, and several major factors affecting the adsorption-based removal were investigated, including solution pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature and contact time...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Wen Wu, Zhouhu Wu, Zhiwen Song
Prediction of the pollutant mixing zone (PMZ) near the discharge outfall in Huangshaxi shows large error when using the methods based on the constant lateral diffusion assumption. The discrepancy is due to the lack of consideration of the diffusion coefficient variation. The variable lateral diffusion coefficient is proposed to be a function of the longitudinal distance from the outfall. Analytical solution of the two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation of a pollutant is derived and discussed. Formulas to characterize the geometry of the PMZ are derived based on this solution, and a standard curve describing the boundary of the PMZ is obtained by proper choices of the normalization scales...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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