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diffuse pollution

Guoshuai Liu, Shijie You, Hong Huang, Ming Ma, Nanqi Ren
Photocatalysis has been gaining a growing popularity in water treatment, and their engineered applications inspire the development of effective photocatalyst materials. To develop photocatalyst that is effective for degradation of organic pollutants, we fabricate a novel direct solid Z-scheme BiPO4-Bi2O2(OH)(NO3) (BPO-BHN) heterojunction structured hybrid. The results demonstrate an enhanced photocatalytic activity of BPO-BHN to produce OH radicals, according to diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), electron spin-resonance resonance (ESR), photoelectrochemical measurements, and theoretical calculation results...
December 23, 2016: Chemosphere
Muthanna J Ahmed
Pharmaceutical pollutants are of significant effect on the environment, so that their treatments have been addressed in many studies. Activated carbon (AC) adsorbent shows best attraction for these compounds due to its unique characteristics represented by high capacity and porosity. In this article, the adsorption performance of AC towards non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, and diclofenac were reviewed. According to collected data, maximum adsorption capacities of 417, 25, 290, and 372 mg/g were obtained from Langmuir isotherm for these drugs, respectively...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Erum Pervaiz, Honghong Liu, Minghui Yang
Present study focused the synthesis of α-MoO3/rGO. One dimensional nano hybrids under mild conditions and a low temperature wet chemical route produced a single, highly pure crystalline orthorhombic α-MoO3 on graphene oxide (GO) sheets. Four nano hybrids as GMO-0, GMO-1, GMO-2, and GMO-3 has been synthesized with a different mass, charging of GO as 0 mg, 40 mg, 60 mg and 100 mg respectively. Photocatalytic performance for organic pollutant reduction has been analyzed. Presence of different amounts of GO in the prepared metal oxide hybrids alters performance of the material as elaborated by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, UV-Visible diffused reflectance spectra and resulted in reduction of organic dyes depicted by photocatalytic experiments...
January 5, 2017: Nanotechnology
Yi Yang, Yuanzhi Li, Mingyang Mao, Min Zeng, Xiujian Zhao
Novel ramsdellite MnO2 hollow spheres consisting of closely stacked nanosheets (R-MnO2-HS) were synthesized by a facile method. The R-MnO2-HS sample was characterized with SEM, XRD, TEM, BET, XPS, diffusive reflectance UV-vis-IR absorption, etc. Remarkably, R-MnO2-HS exhibits highly efficient catalytic activity for the purification of benzene (a carcinogenic air pollutant) under the full solar spectrum or visible-infrared irradiation, even under the infrared irradiation. Its catalytic activity (initial CO2 production rate) under the full solar spectrum irradiation is as high as 210...
January 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xue Yang, Shaojian Wang, Wenzhong Zhang, Dongsheng Zhan, Jiaming Li
China has received increased international criticism in recent years in relation to its air pollution levels, both in terms of the transmission of pollutants across international borders and the attendant adverse health effects being witnessed. Whilst existing research has examined the factors influencing ambient air pollutant concentrations, previous studies have failed to adequately explore the determinants of such concentrations from either a source or diffusion perspective. This study addressed both source (specifically, anthropogenic emissions) and diffusion (namely, meteorological conditions) indicators, in order to detect their respective impacts on the spatial variations seen in the distribution of air pollution...
December 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Matteo Masi, Alessio Ceccarini, Renato Iannelli
We implemented a numerical model to simulate transport of multiple species and geochemical reactions occurring during electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated porous media. The main phenomena described by the model were: (1) species transport by diffusion, electromigration and electroosmosis, (2) pH-dependent buffering of H(+), (3) adsorption of metals onto particle surfaces, (4) aqueous speciation, (5) formation and dissolution of solid precipitates. The model was applied to simulate the electrokinetic extraction of heavy metals (Pb, Zn and Ni) from marine harbour sediments, characterized by a heterogeneous solid matrix, high buffering capacity and aged pollution...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Georgi T Georgiev, James J Butler, Kurt Thome, Catherine Cooksey, Leibo Ding
Satellite instruments operating in the reflected solar wavelength region require accurate and precise determination of the optical properties of their diffusers used in pre-flight and post-flight calibrations. The majority of recent and current space instruments use reflective diffusers. As a result, numerous Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) calibration comparisons have been conducted between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and other industry and university-based metrology laboratories...
2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Agnieszka Priebe, Pierre Bleuet, Gael Goret, Jerome Laurencin, Dario Montinaro, Jean-Paul Barnes
In this paper the potential of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy combined with focused ion beam technology to characterize the composition of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in three-dimension is demonstrated. The very high sensitivity of this method allows even very small amounts of elements/compounds to be detected and localized. Therefore, interlayer diffusion of elements between porous electrodes and presence of pollutants can be analyzed with a spatial resolution of the order of 100 nm. However, proper element recognition and mass interference still remain important issues...
December 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Xiang Liu, Lu Huang, Dan Guo, Guoxin Xie
To simulate the heat and mass transfer in real heterogeneous systems, such as metal-production processes and lubrication, the point-contact condition with the formation of narrowly confined liquid film and its surrounding meniscus was constructed to study the classical microchannel boiling problem in this work. Specifically, the evaporation and diffusion of the superheated water meniscus and water/oil droplet in the point-contact geometry were investigated. The emphasis is put on the influence of the contact-line transport behaviors on nucleation and bubble dynamics in the confined meniscus...
December 29, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Mary Akurut, Charles B Niwagaba, Patrick Willems
The water quality in the Inner Murchison Bay (IMB) located in Uganda on the northern shores of Lake Victoria is affected by a complex mixture of processes and driving factors including pollution, river inflows, lake water levels, wetland management and flora and fauna populations. This study attempts to explain long-term variations of the IMB water quality and to provide a plausible water quality model. Because intermittent monitoring around the Bay hinders accurate determination of pollution, concentrations at the extreme northern shores (hotspots) are considered indicative of the pollutant loading into the bay...
January 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Haobo Huang, Wei Ouyang, Haotian Wu, Hongbin Liu, Critto Andrea
Analyses of the spatial-temporal distribution of diffuse pollution in agricultural regions are essential to the sustained management of water resources. Although nutrients, such as phosphorus fertilizers, can promote crop growth while improving soil fertility, excessive nutrient inputs can produce diffuse pollution, which may results in water quality degradation. The objective of this paper is to employ the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to estimate diffuse P effects on temporal and spatial distributions for a typical agricultural watershed and to identify the conjunct and independent influences of long-term land use and soil properties variation on diffuse P...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Shiyong Sun, Shenglan Fan, Kexuan Shen, Shen Lin, Xiaoqin Nie, Mingxue Liu, Faqin Dong, Jian Li
Eutrophic sediment is a serious problem in ecosystem restoration, especially in shallow lake ecosystems. We present a novel bioleaching approach to treat shallow eutrophic sediment with the objective of preventing the release of nitrate, phosphate, and organic compounds from the sediment to the water column, using porous mineral-immobilized photosynthetic bacteria (PSB). Bioactivity of bacteria was maintained during the immobilization process. Immobilized PSB beads were directly deposited on the sediment surface...
December 7, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Michael Finkel, Peter Grathwohl
Column leaching tests have become a standard method for assessing leaching of pollutants from materials used, e.g., for road and railway constructions and in landscaping measures. Column tests showed to be practical in laboratories yielding robust and reproducible results. However, considerable uncertainty still exists related particularly to the degree of equilibration of the pore water with the solids during preparation (pre-equilibration) and percolation of the column. We analyse equilibration time scales and sensitivity of concentrations in column leachate with respect to initial conditions in a series of numerical experiments covering a broad spectrum of material and solute properties...
December 2, 2016: Waste Management
Dagang Song, Kaiwen Pan, Akash Tariq, Azizullah Azizullah, Feng Sun, Zilong Li, Qinli Xiong
Environmental pollution with heavy metals is a serious issue worldwide posing threats to humans, animals and plants and to the stability of overall ecosystem. Chromium (Cr) is one of most hazardous heavy metals with a high carcinogenic and recalcitrant nature. Aim of the present study was to select low-cost biosorbent using wheat straw and Eupatorium adenophorum through simple carbonization process, capable of removing Cr (VI) efficiently from wastewater. From studied plants a low cost adsorbent was prepared for removing Cr (VI) from aqueous solution following very simple carbonization method excluding activation process...
2016: PloS One
Ehsan Shafia, Serena Esposito, Elnaz Bahadori, Marco Armandi, Maela Manzoli, Barbara Bonelli
The goal of the protocol is to synthesize Fe-doped aluminosilicate nanotubes of the imogolite type with the formula (OH)3Al2-xFexO3SiOH. Doping with Fe aims at lowering the band gap of imogolite, an insulator with the chemical formula (OH)3Al2O3SiOH, and at modifying its adsorption properties towards azo-dyes, an important class of organic pollutants of both wastewater and groundwater. Fe-doped nanotubes are obtained in two ways: by direct synthesis, where FeCl3 is added to an aqueous mixture of the Si and Al precursors, and by post-synthesis loading, where preformed nanotubes are put in contact with a FeCl3•6H2O aqueous solution...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Matthias Zessner, Martin Schönhart, Juraj Parajka, Helene Trautvetter, Hermine Mitter, Mathias Kirchner, Gerold Hepp, Alfred Paul Blaschke, Birgit Strenn, Erwin Schmid
Changes in climatic conditions will directly affect the quality and quantity of water resources. Further on, they will affect them indirectly through adaptation in land use which ultimately influences diffuse nutrient emissions to rivers and therefore potentially the compliance with good ecological status according to the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). We present an integrated impact modelling framework (IIMF) to track and quantify direct and indirect pollution impacts along policy-economy-climate-agriculture-water interfaces...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jennifer Chia Wee Fern, Hideya Nakamura, Satoru Watano
The aim of this study is to develop a novel milling system using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) for the improvement of dissolution characteristics of water-poorly soluble drugs. SC-CO2 possesses high potential in the application of nanotechnology, due to the attractive properties of SC-CO2 fluid such as cheap, inert and non-polluting. In addition, SC-CO2 has density comparable to a liquid, viscosity similar to a gas, and high diffusion capacity. Most of all, carbon dioxide exists as gas in room temperature and pressure, which enables the removal of fluid instantaneously...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Michal P Spilak, Torben Sigsgaard, Hisamitsu Takai, Guoqiang Zhang
People spend approximately one third of their life sleeping. Exposure to pollutants in the sleep environment often leads to a variety of adverse health effects, such as development and exacerbation of asthma. Avoiding exposure to these pollutants by providing a sufficient air quality in the sleep environment might be a feasible method to alleviate these health symptoms. We performed full-scale laboratory measurements using a thermal manikin positioned on an experimental bed. Three ventilation settings were tested: with no filtration system operated, use of portable air cleaner and use of a temperature-controlled laminar airflow (TLA) device...
2016: PloS One
Stephen L Goldson, Barbara I P Barratt, Karen F Armstrong
To protect productive grasslands from pests and diseases, effective pre- and at-border planning and interventions are necessary. Biosecurity failure inevitably requires expensive and difficult eradication, or long-term and often quite ineffective management strategies. This is compared to the early intervention more likely for sectors where there is public and political interest in plants of immediate economic and/or social value, and where associated pests are typically located above-ground on host plantings of relatively limited distribution...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiao-Wu Lei, Cheng-Yang Yue, Jun-Chao Wei, Rui-Qing Li, Yan Li, Fu-Qi Mi
With similar transition metal (TM) complex cations as structural directing agents (SDAs), six new hybrid lead bromides were synthesized and structurally characterized as [Co(2,2-bipy)3]2{[Co(2,2-bipy)]3Pb7Br24} (1), [Co(2,2-bipy)2Br]PbBr3 (2), [TM(phen)3]Pb2Br6 (TM = Co (3) and Ni (4)), [Co(2,2-bipy)3]Pb3Br9 (5) and [Co(2,2-bipy)3]Pb5Br13·CH3CN (6) with distinct structural types from zero-dimensional (0D) unit, one-dimensional (1D) chain to two-dimensional (2D) layer. Compound 1 contains the 0D {[Co(bipy)]3Pb7Br24}(4-) units built from the [Pb7Br24] ring attached by three unsaturated [Co(2,2-bipy)](2+) complexes via Co-Br bonds...
December 6, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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