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Yong Han, Shuya Yin, Lu Huang, Xuelong Wu, Jianbin Zeng, Xiaohui Liu, Long Qiu, Rana Munns, Zhong-Hua Chen, Guoping Zhang
Our previous studies showed that high salt tolerance in Tibetan wild barley accessions was associated with HvHKT1;1, a member of high-affinity potassium transporter family. However, molecular mechanisms of HvHKT1;1 for salt tolerance and its roles in K+/Na+ homeostasis remain to be elucidated. Functional characterization of HvHKT1;1 was conducted in the present study. NaCl-induced transcripts of HvHKT1;1 were significantly higher in the roots of Tibetan wild barley XZ16 relative to other genotypes, being closely associated with its higher biomass and lower tissue Na+ content under salt stress...
June 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Xiaoling Zhang, Alissa A Frame, Jonathan S Williams, Richard D Wainford
Salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) increases hypertension risk and associated adverse cardiovascular outcomes. At present, there are no validated rapid tests or diagnostic markers to identify salt sensitivity of BP in clinical practice. Based on our prior animal studies that report a role for brain Gαi2 proteins in the salt sensitivity of BP and evidence that GNAI2 (single-nucleotide polymorphism) SNPs associate with hypertension risk, we investigated the hypothesis that GNAI2 SNPs associate with salt sensitivity of BP in humans...
June 15, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Hiroki Matsuoka, Seiko Miyata, Nozomi Okumura, Takuya Watanabe, Katsunori Hashimoto, Miki Nagahara, Kazuko Kato, Sayaka Sobue, Kozue Takeda, Masatoshi Ichihara, Takashi Iwamoto, Akiko Noda
PURPOSE: Hypertension is an important risk factor for death resulting from stroke, myocardial infarction, and end-stage renal failure. Hydrogen (H2 ) gas protects against many diseases, including ischemia-reperfusion injury and stroke. The effects of H2 on hypertension and its related left ventricular (LV) function have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of H2 gas on hypertension and LV hypertrophy using echocardiography. METHODS: Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats were randomly divided into three groups: those fed an 8% NaCl diet until 12 weeks of age (8% NaCl group), those additionally treated with H2 gas (8% NaCl + H2 group), and control rats maintained on a diet containing 0...
June 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Honghong Wu, Lana Shabala, Elisa Azzarello, Yuqing Huang, Camilla Pandolfi, Nana Su, Qi Wu, Shengguan Cai, Nadia Bazihizina, Lu Wang, Meixue Zhou, Stefano Mancuso, Zhonghua Chen, Sergey Shabala
The progress in plant breeding for salinity stress tolerance is handicapped by the lack of understanding of the specificity of salt stress signalling and adaptation at the cellular and tissue levels. In this study, we used electrophysiological, fluorescence imaging, and real-time quantitative PCR tools to elucidate the essentiality of the cytosolic Na+ extrusion in functionally different root zones (elongation, meristem, and mature) in a large number of bread and durum wheat accessions. We show that the difference in the root's ability for vacuolar Na+ sequestration in the mature zone may explain differential salinity stress tolerance between salt-sensitive durum and salt-tolerant bread wheat species...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Amrita V Pai, Taylor Maddox, Kathryn Sandberg
T-cell function in female animal models of hypertension is poorly understood since most research is conducted in males. Our findings in Dahl-salt-sensitive and Dahl salt-resistant rats support prior research showing sex-specific T-cell effects in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Further studies are needed to inform clinical studies in both sexes and to provide clues into immune mechanisms underlying susceptibility and resilience to developing hypertension and associated disease.
July 1, 2018: Physiology
Oleg Palygin, Oleh Pochynyuk, Alexander Staruschenko
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple clinical and translational evidence support benefits of high potassium diet; however, there many uncertainties underlying the molecular and cellular mechanisms determining effects of dietary potassium. Kir4.1 and Kir5.1 proteins form a functional heteromer (Kir4.1/Kir5.1), which is the primary inwardly rectifying potassium channel on the basolateral membrane of both distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and the collecting duct principal cells. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize latest advances in our understanding of the evolution, physiological relevance and mechanisms controlling these channels...
June 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
George Lindesay, Yvonnick Bézie, Christophe Ragonnet, Véronique Duchatelle, Chandima Dharmasena, Nicole Villeneuve, Christine Vayssettes-Courchay
Central artery stiffening is recognized as a cardiovascular risk. The effects of hypertension and aging have been shown in human and animal models but the effect of salt is still controversial. We studied the effect of a high-salt diet on aortic stiffness in salt-sensitive spontaneously hypersensitive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP). Distensibility, distension, and β-stiffness were measured at thoracic and abdominal aortic sites in the same rats, using echotracking recording of the aortic diameter coupled with blood pressure (BP), in SHRSP-salt (5% salted diet, 5 weeks), SHRSP, and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Muhammad Naveed Iqbal, Rizwan Rasheed, Muhammad Yasin Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan Ashraf, Iqbal Hussain
Zinc or copper deficiency and salinity are known soil problems and often occur simultaneously in agriculture soils. Plants undergo various changes in physiological and biochemical processes to respond to high salt in the growing medium. There is lack of information on the relation of exogenous application of Zn and Cu with important salinity tolerance mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the effect of foliar Zn and Cu on two maize cultivars (salt-tolerant cv. Yousafwala Hybrid and salt-sensitive cv...
June 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jana P Lim, Holger Fehlauer, Alakananda Das, Gabriella Saro, Dominique A Glauser, Anne Brunet, Miriam B Goodman
The ability to adapt behavior to environmental fluctuations is critical for survival of organisms ranging from invertebrates to mammals. Caenorhabditis elegans can learn to avoid sodium chloride when it is paired with starvation. This behavior may help animals avoid areas without food. While some genes have been implicated in this salt aversive learning behavior, critical genetic components, and the neural circuit in which they act, remain elusive. Here, we show that the sole worm ortholog of mammalian CaMKI/IV, CMK-1, is essential for salt aversive learning behavior in C...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Lei Huang, Aimei Wang, Yun Hao, Weihong Li, Chang Liu, Zhihang Yang, Feng Zheng, Ming-Sheng Zhou
Monocyte/macrophage recruitment is closely associated with the degree of hypertensive renal injury. We investigated the direct role of macrophages using liposome-encapsulated clodronate (LEC) to deplete monocytes/macrophages in hypertensive renal injury. C57BL/6 mice were treated with a pressor dose of angiotensin (Ang, 1.4 mg/kg/day) II plus LEC or the PBS-liposome for 2 weeks. Ang II mice developed hypertension, albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis, and renal fibrosis. LEC treatment reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP), albuminuria, and protected against renal structural injury in Ang II mice...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mei-Ling Chen, Tzu-Pi Huang, Tai-Wei Chen, Hsin-Hua Chan, Bing-Fang Hwang
There have been few studies investigating interactions of G-protein beta3 subunit ( GNB3 ) C825T (rs5443) and dietary sodium intake on the risk of hypertension, i.e., BP salt sensitivity. The study aims to evaluate joint effects of GNB3 polymorphisms and sodium consumption on the development of hypertension. A cohort-based case-control study was conducted in 2014. There are 233 participants with newly diagnosed hypertension in the case group and 699 participants in the gender-matched control group. The primary outcome is the development of hypertension over a 10-year period...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Denisha Spires, Bibek Poudel, Corbin A Shields, Alyssa Pennington, Brianca Fizer, Lateia Taylor, Kasi C McPherson, Denise C Cornelius, Jan Michael Williams
The endothelin (ET) system has emerged as a therapeutic target for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The present study examined whether chronic endothelin A (ETA) receptor blockade with atrasentan prevents the progression of renal injury in two models of DN with pre-existing renal disease that exhibit an increased renal ET-1 system compared to non-diabetic rats: streptozotocin-treated Dahl salt-sensitive (STZ-SS) and Type-2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN) rats. Nine week-old SS rats were treated with (STZ, 50 mg/kg, i...
May 30, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Yanpu Zhang, Piotr Batys, Joshua T O'Neal, Fei Li, Maria Sammalkorpi, Jodie L Lutkenhaus
Water plays a central role in the assembly and the dynamics of charged systems such as proteins, enzymes, DNA, and surfactants. Yet it remains a challenge to resolve how water affects relaxation at a molecular level, particularly for assemblies of oppositely charged macromolecules. Here, the molecular origin of water's influence on the glass transition is quantified for several charged macromolecular systems. It is revealed that the glass transition temperature ( T g ) is controlled by the number of water molecules surrounding an oppositely charged polyelectrolyte-polyelectrolyte intrinsic ion pair as 1/ T g ∼ ln( n H2 O / n intrinsic ion pair )...
May 23, 2018: ACS Central Science
Hai-Ping Hao, Hui Li, Chuang-Dao Jiang, Yu-Dan Tang, Lei Shi
Na+ distribution is one of the most important strategies for plant resistance to salt stress. The way of Na+ compartmentation in different aged leaves has been controversial, especially at the cell and sub-cellular level. The roles that Na+ and K+ /Na+ play the key role in photosynthesis need to be further verified. In this study, using two cucumber cultivars Cucumis sativus L. cv. zhongnong 8 (ZN8, relatively salt tolerant) and Cucumis sativus Jinchun 4 (JC4, salt sensitive) as experiment material, we analyzed the mode of ion compartmentation of Na+ in organelles in different aged leaves and determined which factors (the organelles' Na+ or K+ /Na+ ) affect leaf photosynthesis, using high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution, Ultrathin sectioning technique and X-ray...
May 19, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Daria V Ilatovskaya, Gregory Blass, Oleg Palygin, Vladislav Levchenko, Tengis S Pavlov, Michael N Grzybowski, Kristen Winsor, Leonid S Shuyskiy, Aron M Geurts, Allen W Cowley, Lutz Birnbaumer, Alexander Staruschenko
Background Loss of glomerular podocytes is an indicator of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The damage to these cells has been attributed in part to elevated intrarenal oxidative stress. The primary source of the renal reactive oxygen species, particularly H2 O2 , is NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4). We hypothesized that NOX4-derived H2 O2 contributes to podocyte damage in DKD via elevation of podocyte calcium. Methods We used Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats with a null mutation for the Nox4 gene (SSNox4-/- ) and mice with knockout of the nonselective calcium channel TRPC6 or double knockout of TRPC5 and TRPC6...
May 23, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Pragya Mishra, Nisha Singh, Ajay Jain, Neha Jain, Vagish Mishra, Pushplatha G, Kiran P Sandhya, Nagendra Kumar Singh, Vandna Rai
Rice, a staple food crop, is often subjected to drought and salinity stresses thereby limiting its yield potential. Since there is a cross talk between these abiotic stresses, identification of common and/or overlapping regulatory elements is pivotal for generating rice cultivars that showed tolerance towards them. Analysis of the gene interaction network (GIN) facilitates identifying the role of individual genes and their interactions with others that constitute important molecular determinants in sensing and signaling cascade governing drought and/or salinity stresses...
2018: Bioinformation
L Jagmasevic-Mezesova, P Svitok, B Kalocayova, M Zeman, N Vrbjar
In rodents, increased angiotensin 2 (Ang2) during pregnancy increases blood pressure and decreases salt sensitivity in the offspring. To explore the underlying mechanisms, this study evaluated the effects of prenatal Ang2 exposure on the activity of renal Na,K-ATPase, which is one of the main systems that maintains sodium ion homeostasis in an organism. Moreover, this study also investigated the impact of a higher-salt diet on the enzyme activity in the offspring in a sex-dependent manner. Pregnant Wistar rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps that continuously released Ang2 (2 μg/kg/h) for 2 weeks...
February 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Rikke Zachar, Ammar Al-Mashhadi, Henrik Dimke, Per Svenningsen, Boye L Jensen, Mattias Carlström
Obstruction of urine flow at the level of the pelvo-ureteric junction (UPJO) and subsequent development of hydronephrosis is one of the most common congenital renal malformations. UPJO is associated with development of salt-sensitive hypertension, which is set by the obstructed kidney, and with a stimulated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in rodent models. This study aimed at investigating the hypothesis that i) in pediatric patients with UPJO the RAAS is activated prior to surgical relief of the obstruction; ii) in rats with UPJO the RAAS activation is reflected by increased abundance of renal aldosterone-stimulated Na+ transporters; and iii) the injured UPJO kidney allows aberrant filtration of plasminogen leading to proteolytic activation of the epithelial sodium channel gamma subunit (γ-ENaC)...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Ionut Tudorancea, Thomas E Lohmeier, Barbara T Alexander, Dragos Pieptu, Dragomir N Serban, Radu Iliescu
Aim: Activation of the sympathetic nervous system is common in resistant hypertension (RHT) and also in chronic kidney disease (CKD), a prevalent condition among resistant hypertensives. However, renal nerve ablation lowers blood pressure (BP) only in some patients with RHT. The influence of loss of nephrons per se on the antihypertensive response to renal denervation (RDNx) is unclear and was the focus of this study. Methods: Systemic hemodynamics and sympathetically mediated low frequency oscillations of systolic BP were determined continuously from telemetrically acquired BP recordings in rats before and after surgical excision of ∼80% of renal mass and subsequent RDNx...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yusuke Ito, Yasuhiro Maejima, Natsuko Tamura, Yuka Shiheido-Watanabe, Masanori Konishi, Takashi Ashikaga, Kenzo Hirao, Mitsuaki Isobe
5-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) have beneficial effects in patients with heart failure (HF), regardless of serum cholesterol levels. However, their synergic effects with angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) remain to be established. We assessed the existence and potential underlying mechanisms of the effects of combined ARB [losartan (LOS)] and statin [simvastatin (SIM)] on cardiac function in rats and mice with load-induced HF. Salt-loaded Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats were treated with vehicle, LOS, SIM, or LOS + SIM for 8 weeks...
May 2018: FEBS Open Bio
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