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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922176/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-reduces-inflammation-fibrosis-and-preserves-diastolic-function-in-a-rat-model-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#1
Grazia Esposito, Donato Cappetta, Rosa Russo, Alessia Rivellino, Loreta Pia Ciuffreda, Fiorentina Roviezzo, Elena Piegari, L Liberato Berrino, Francesco Rossi, Antonella De Angelis, Konrad Urbanek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a systemic syndrome driven by co-morbidities and its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Several studies suggesting that dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) might be involved in the pathophysiology of heart failure prompted experimental and clinical investigations of DPP4 inhibitors on cardiovascular system. The aim of our study was to determine whether DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin (SITA) affects the progression of HFpEF independently from the effects on glycaemia...
December 6, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920129/chronic-inhibition-of-renal-outer-medullary-potassium-channel-not-only-prevented-but-also-reversed-development-of-hypertension-and-end-organ-damage-in-dahl-salt-sensitive-rats
#2
Xiaoyan Zhou, Michael J Forrest, Wanda Sharif-Rodriguez, Gail Forrest, Daphne Szeto, Olga Urosevic-Price, Yonghua Zhu, Andra S Stevenson, Yuchen Zhou, Sloan Stribling, Maya Dajee, Shawn P Walsh, Alexander Pasternak, Kathleen A Sullivan
The renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK) channel mediates potassium recycling and facilitates sodium reabsorption through the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter in the loop of Henle and potassium secretion at the cortical collecting duct. Evidence from the phenotype of humans and rodents with functional ROMK deficiency supports the contention that selective ROMK inhibitors (ROMKi) will represent a novel diuretic with potential of therapeutic benefit for hypertension. ROMKi have recently been synthesized by Merck & Co, Inc...
December 5, 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906747/update-on-angiotensin-at2-receptors
#3
Robert M Carey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review updates major new findings and concepts introduced during the past year on the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) subtype 2 receptors (AT2Rs) in the control of blood pressure and renal function. RECENT FINDINGS: AT2R activation prevents sodium (Na) retention and lowers blood pressure in the Ang II infusion model of experimental hypertension and prevents salt-sensitive hypertension in the obese Zucker rat model of obesity and the metabolic syndrome...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903222/sustained-elabela-gene-therapy-in-high-salt-induced-hypertensive-rats
#4
Claire A Schreiber, Sara J Holditch, Alex Generous, Yasuhiro Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Elabela (ELA) is a recently identified apelin receptor agonist essential for cardiac development, but its biology and therapeutic potential are unclear. In humans ELA transcripts are detected in embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, kidney, heart and blood vessels. ELA through the apelin receptor promotes angiogenesis in vitro, relaxes murine aortic blood vessels and attenuates high blood pressure in vivo. The apelin receptor when bound to its original ligand, apelin, exerts peripheral vasodilatory and positive inotropic effects, conferring cardioprotection in vivo...
November 21, 2016: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899930/ability-to-remove-na-and-retain-k-correlates-with-salt-tolerance-in-two-maize-inbred-lines-seedlings
#5
Yong Gao, Yi Lu, Meiqin Wu, Enxing Liang, Yan Li, Dongping Zhang, Zhitong Yin, Xiaoyun Ren, Yi Dai, Dexiang Deng, Jianmin Chen
Maize is moderately sensitive to salt stress; therefore, soil salinity is a serious threat to its production worldwide. Here, excellent salt-tolerant maize inbred line TL1317 and extremely salt-sensitive maize inbred line SL1303 were screened to understand the maize response to salt stress and its tolerance mechanisms. Relative water content, membrane stability index, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, maximum photochemical efficiency, photochemical efficiency, shoot and root fresh/dry weight, and proline and water soluble sugar content analyses were used to identify that the physiological effects of osmotic stress of salt stress were obvious and manifested at about 3 days after salt stress in maize...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895193/organum-vasculosum-of-the-lamina-terminalis-detects-nacl-to-elevate-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-blood-pressure
#6
Brian J Kinsman, Sarah S Simmonds, Kirsteen N Browning, Sean D Stocker
High-salt diet elevates NaCl concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid to increase sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in salt-sensitive hypertension. The organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) resides along the rostral wall of the third ventricle, lacks a complete blood-brain barrier, and plays a pivotal role in body fluid homeostasis. Therefore, the present study used a multifaceted approach to examine whether OVLT neurons of Sprague-Dawley rats are intrinsically sensitive to changes in extracellular NaCl concentrations and mediate the sympathoexcitatory responses to central NaCl loading...
November 28, 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884238/the-pressure-of-aging
#7
REVIEW
Majd AlGhatrif, Mingyi Wang, Olga V Fedorova, Alexei Y Bagrov, Edward G Lakatta
Significant hemodynamic changes ensue with aging, leading to an ever-growing epidemic of hypertension. Alterations in central arterial properties play a major role in these hemodynamic changes. These alterations are characterized by an initial decline in aortic distensibility and an increase of diastolic blood pressure, followed by a sharp increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV), and an increase in pulse pressure (PP) beyond the sixth decade. However, the trajectories of PWV and PP diverge with advancing age...
January 2017: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872576/the-alteration-of-mrna-expression-of-sod-and-gpx-genes-and-proteins-in-tomato-lycopersicon-esculentum-mill-under-stress-of-nacl-and-or-zno-nanoparticles
#8
Hesham F Alharby, Ehab M R Metwali, Michael P Fuller, Amal Y Aldhebiani
Five cultivars of tomato having different levels of salt stress tolerance were exposed to different treatments of NaCl (0, 3 and 6 g L(-1)) and ZnO-NPs (0, 15 and 30 mg L(-1)). Treatments with NaCl at both 3 and 6 g L(-1) suppressed the mRNA levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) genes in all cultivars while plants treated with ZnO-NPs in the presence of NaCl, showed increments in the mRNA expression levels. This indicated that ZnO-NPs had a positive response on plant metabolism under salt stress...
November 2016: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862163/the-effects-of-high-sodium-intake-on-systemic-blood-pressure-and-vascular-responses-in-spontaneously-diabetic-wbn-kob-lepr-fa-fa-rats
#9
Yoshiichi Takagi, Haruno Kadowaki, Ikumi Kobayashi, Kaoru Ito, Katsuaki Ito, Mitsuyuki Shirai, Fumitoshi Asai
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension has markedly increased worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a high-salt intake on the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and vascular responses in WBN/Kob-Lepr(fa/fa) (WBKDF) rats, a new spontaneous animal model of T2DM. Male WBKDF rats and age-matched Wistar rats at 6 weeks of age were each divided into two groups and fed either a normal-sodium (0.26%, NS) diet or high-sodium (8%, HS) diet for 14 weeks: 1) Wistar rats on NS diet (Wistar-NS); 2) Wistar rats on HS diet (Wistar-HS); 3) WBKDF rats on NS diet (WBKDF-NS); 4) WBKDF rats on HS diets (WBKDF-HS)...
November 15, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849566/effects-of-sacubitril-valsartan-lcz696-on-natriuresis-diuresis-blood-pressures-and-nt-probnp-in-salt-sensitive-hypertension
#10
Tzung-Dau Wang, Ru-San Tan, Hae-Young Lee, Sang-Hyun Ihm, Moo-Yong Rhee, Brian Tomlinson, Parasar Pal, Fan Yang, Elizabeth Hirschhorn, Margaret F Prescott, Markus Hinder, Thomas H Langenickel
: Salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH) is characterized by impaired sodium excretion and subnormal vasodilatory response to salt loading. Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) was hypothesized to increase natriuresis and diuresis and result in superior blood pressure control compared with valsartan in Asian patients with SSH. In this randomized, double-blind, crossover study, 72 patients with SSH received sacubitril/valsartan 400 mg and valsartan 320 mg once daily for 4 weeks each. SSH was diagnosed if the mean arterial pressure increased by ≥10% when patients switched from low (50 mmol/d) to high (320 mmol/d) sodium diet...
November 14, 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848097/transcription-dynamics-of-saltol-qtl-localized-genes-encoding-transcription-factors-reveals-their-differential-regulation-in-contrasting-genotypes-of-rice
#11
Kamlesh K Nutan, Hemant R Kushwaha, Sneh L Singla-Pareek, Ashwani Pareek
Salinity is one of the major environmental factors affecting the growth and yield of rice crop. Salinity stress response is a multigenic trait and numerous approaches have been used to dissect out the key determinants of complex salt tolerance trait and their regulation in plant. In the current study, we have investigated expression dynamics of the genes encoding transcription factors (SalTFs) localized within a major salinity tolerance related QTL-'Saltol' in the contrasting cultivars of rice. SalTFs were found to be differentially regulated between the contrasting genotypes of rice, with higher constitutive expression in the salt tolerant landrace, Pokkali than the cultivar IR64...
November 15, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818338/antimicrobial-and-host-cell-directed-activities-of-gly-ser-rich-peptides-from-salmonid-cathelicidins
#12
Francesca D'Este, Monica Benincasa, Giuseppe Cannone, Michela Furlan, Michele Scarsini, Donatella Volpatti, Renato Gennaro, Alessandro Tossi, Barbara Skerlavaj, Marco Scocchi
Cathelicidins, a major family of vertebrate antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), have a recognized role in the first line of defense against infections. They have been identified in several salmonid species, where the putative mature peptides are unusually long and rich in serine and glycine residues, often arranged in short multiple repeats (RLGGGS/RPGGGS) intercalated by hydrophobic motifs. Fragments of 24-40 residues, spanning specific motifs and conserved sequences in grayling or brown, rainbow and brook trout, were chemically synthesized and examined for antimicrobial activity against relevant Gram-positive and Gram-negative salmonid pathogens, as well as laboratory reference strains...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815007/agroindustrial-compost-as-a-peat-alternative-in-the-horticultural-industry-of-ecuador
#13
Irene Gavilanes-Terán, Janneth Jara-Samaniego, Julio Idrovo-Novillo, Ma Angeles Bustamante, Ma Dolores Pérez-Murcia, Aurelia Pérez-Espinosa, Marga López, Concepción Paredes
This work was conducted in order to investigate the possibility of using different agroindustrial composts in the production of horticultural seedlings, thereby replacing part of the peat in the growing media. Three vegetable species differing in salt sensitivity - tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. Malpica) (the least sensitive), courgette (Cucurbita pepo L. var. Mastil F1) (moderately sensitive) and pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. Largo de Reus Pairal) (the most sensitive) - were grown in nine media containing three composts, prepared by co-composting vegetable waste (flower, broccoli or tomato waste) with laying hen manure and sawdust, as well as peat in various ratios...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814606/regulation-and-function-of-renal-medullary-cyclooxygenase-2-during-high-salt-loading
#14
Tianxin Yang, Mi Liu
Prostaglandins (PGs) are important autocrine/paracrine regulators that contribute to sodium balance and blood pressure control. Along the nephron, the highest amount of PGE2 is found in the distal nephron, an important site for fine-tuning of urinary sodium and water excretion. Cylooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is abundantly expressed in the renal medulla and its expression along with urinary PGE2 excretion is highly induced by chronic salt loading. Factors involved in high salt-induced COX-2 expression in the renal medulla include the hypertonicity, fluid shear stress (FSS), and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha)...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796490/heterologous-expression-of-a-novel-zoysia-japonica-salt-induced-glycine-rich-rna-binding-protein-gene-zjgrp-caused-salt-sensitivity-in-arabidopsis
#15
Ke Teng, Penghui Tan, Guozeng Xiao, Liebao Han, Zhihui Chang, Yuehui Chao
A novel Zoysia japonica salt-induced glycine-rich RNA-binding protein gene was cloned in this study and its overexpression caused salt sensitivity in transgenic Arabidopsis. Glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (GRPs) play crucial roles in diverse plant developmental processes. However, the mechanisms and functions of GRPs in salinity stress responses remain largely unknown. In this study, rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) PCR methods was adopted to isolate ZjGRP from Zosyia japonica, a salt-tolerant grass species...
October 28, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782736/effects-of-high-and-low-sodium-diet-on-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-in-mice-lacking-the-functional-grainyhead-like-1-gene
#16
A Walkowska, M Pawlak, S M Jane, E Kompanowska-Jezierska, T Wilanowski
Hypertension is a major health problem throughout the world because of its high prevalence and its association with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Two independent studies discovered a locus conferring susceptibility to essential hypertension on chromosome 2, in the 2p25 region, but the causative gene remains unknown. Grainyhead-like 1 (GRHL1) is one of the genes located in this region. Our experiments determined that the Grhl1-null mice, when fed standard diet, have the same blood pressure as their wild type littermate controls...
October 26, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780818/gastrin-stimulates-renal-dopamine-production-by-increasing-the-renal-tubular-uptake-of-l-dopa
#17
Xiaoliang Jiang, Yanrong Zhang, Yu Yang, Jian Yang, Laureano D Asico, Wei Chen, Robin A Felder, Ines Armanado, Pedro A Jose, Zhiwei Yang
Gastrin is a peptide hormone that is involved in the regulation of sodium balance and blood pressure. Dopamine, which is also involved in the regulation of sodium balance and blood pressure, directly or indirectly interacts with other blood pressure regulating hormones, including gastrin. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms of the interaction between gastrin and dopamine and tested the hypothesis that gastrin produced in the kidney increases renal dopamine production to keep blood pressure within the normal range...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775022/proteomic-and-phosphoproteomic-analysis-of-renal-cortex-in-a-salt-load-rat-model-of-advanced-kidney-damage
#18
Shaoling Jiang, Hanchang He, Lishan Tan, Liangliang Wang, Zhengxiu Su, Yufeng Liu, Hongguo Zhu, Menghuan Zhang, Fan Fan Hou, Aiqing Li
Salt plays an essential role in the progression of chronic kidney disease and hypertension. However, the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of salt-induced kidney damage remain largely unknown. Here, Sprague-Dawley rats, that underwent 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx, a model of advanced kidney damage) or sham operation, were treated for 2 weeks with a normal or high-salt diet. We employed aTiO2 enrichment, iTRAQ labeling and liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry strategy for proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling of the renal cortex...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773435/a-serine-protease-inhibitor-attenuates-aldosterone-induced-kidney-injuries-via-the-suppression-of-plasmin-activity
#19
Yutaka Kakizoe, Yoshikazu Miyasato, Tomoaki Onoue, Terumasa Nakagawa, Manabu Hayata, Kohei Uchimura, Jun Morinaga, Teruhiko Mizumoto, Masataka Adachi, Taku Miyoshi, Yoshiki Sakai, Kimio Tomita, Masashi Mukoyama, Kenichiro Kitamura
Emerging evidence has suggested that aldosterone has direct deleterious effects on the kidney independently of its hemodynamic effects. However, the detailed mechanisms of these direct effects remain to be elucidated. We have previously reported that camostat mesilate (CM), a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, attenuated kidney injuries in Dahl salt-sensitive rats, remnant kidney rats, and unilateral ureteral obstruction rats, suggesting that some serine proteases would be involved in the pathogenesis of kidney injuries...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770524/assosiation-of-endogenous-cardiotonic-steroids-with-salt-sensitivity-of-blood-pressure-in-georgian-population
#20
N Kantaria, I Pantsulaia, I Andronikashvili, G Simonia
This investigation differentiates types of essential hypertension in a Georgian population as well as describes endogenous cardiotonic steroids in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant subjects. This case control study included 185 subjects: 94 cases with stage 1 essential hypertension (JNC7) naïve to antihypertensive treatment, and 91 controls. A salt-sensitivity test was used to dichotomize case and control groups into salt-sensitive and salt-resistant subgroups. Blood and urine samples were obtained to categorize participants as consuming high and low salt diets...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
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