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School refusal

Megan H M Kuba, Byron H Izuka
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have showed the efficacy of removable brace treatment for distal radius buckle fractures in children, whereas others have independently suggested that these injuries do not require additional radiographic imaging. However, no study has sought to collectively determine whether treating pediatric distal radius buckle fractures with a removable brace and no follow-up visit or imaging after the initial visit is a safe and satisfactory protocol. METHODS: In total, 42 consecutive patients with a distal forearm buckle fracture seen by a single fellowship trained pediatric orthopaedic surgeon were eligible to participate...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
Mark C Navin, Andrea T Kozak, Emily C Clark
BACKGROUND: In 2015, Michigan implemented an education requirement for parents who requested nonmedical exemptions from school or daycare immunization mandates. Michigan required parents to receive education from public health staff, unlike other states, whose vaccine education requirements could be completed online or at physicians' offices. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Results of focus group interviews with 39 of Michigan's vaccine waiver educators, conducted during 2016 and 2017, were analyzed to identify themes describing educators' experiences of waiver education...
February 20, 2018: Vaccine
A I Bisi-Onyemaechi, N A Akani, A N Ikefuna, B N Tagbo, J M Chinawa
Objectives: Poor maintenance of school environment can cause or worsen illnesses among schoolchildren. The objective of this study was to assess the healthfulness of school environments of primary schools in Enugu East, Nigeria, and to compare the difference if any between public and private schools. Study Design: This was a cross-sectional noninterventional study of the school environments in Enugu East, Nigeria. Methods: Multistage sampling method was used to select the sample population...
February 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Sabine Zinn, Timo Gnambs
A major challenge for representative longitudinal studies is panel attrition, because some respondents refuse to continue participating across all measurement waves. Depending on the nature of this selection process, statistical inferences based on the observed sample can be biased. Therefore, statistical analyses need to consider a missing-data mechanism. Because each missing-data model hinges on frequently untestable assumptions, sensitivity analyses are indispensable to gauging the robustness of statistical inferences...
February 15, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
María Vicent, Cándido J Inglés, Ricardo Sanmartín, Carolina Gonzálvez, José Manuel García-Fernández
The aim of this study was to identify the existence of combinations of aggression components (Anger, Hostility, Physical Aggression and Verbal Aggression) that result in different profiles of aggressive behavior in children, as well as to test the differences between these profiles in scores of perfectionism, school refusal and affect. It is interesting to analyze these variables given: (a) their clinical relevance due to their close relationship with the overall psychopathology; and (b) the need for further evidence regarding how they are associated with aggressive behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Kiri Patton, Jason P Connor, Sharyn Rundle-Thiele, Timo Dietrich, Ross McD Young, Matthew J Gullo
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to develop and validate a shortened version of the Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy Questionnaire-Revised Adolescent version (DRSEQ-RA) using a large sample of adolescents. METHODS: Secondary school students (N = 2609, M = 14.52 years, SD = 0.94) completed the DRSEQ-RA (consisting of subscales: Social Pressure; Opportunistic; Emotional Relief) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). These data were analysed using non-parametric item response theory (NIRT) including Mokken scalability coefficients, and confirmatory factor analysis...
February 5, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Mary M Stephens, Hazel T Cook-Fasano, Katherine Sibbaluca
Childhood bullying is common and can lead to serious adverse physical and mental health effects for both the victim and the bully. In teenagers, risk factors for becoming a victim of bullying include being lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender; having a disability or medical condition such as asthma, diabetes mellitus, a skin condition, or food allergy; or being an outlier in weight and stature. An estimated 20% of youth have been bullied on school property, and 16% have been bullied electronically in the past year...
February 1, 2018: American Family Physician
Jasmijn M de Lijster, Gwen C Dieleman, Elisabeth M W J Utens, Bram Dierckx, Milou Wierenga, Frank C Verhulst, Jeroen S Legerstee
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent during adolescence. Although literature points out that anxiety symptoms are related to problems in social and academic functioning, the extent of these problems among adolescents with clinical anxiety disorders has not been systematically reviewed before. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched up to October 2017, with keywords representing anxiety disorders, adolescents, and social or academic functioning...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Stephen B Kennedy, Katherine Atwood, Albert O Harris, Curtis H Taylor, Steve Shamblen, Wede M Nagbe, Mawen E Gobeh, Fred Sosu, Jemee K Tegli, Cecelia A Morris
Adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa account for greater HIV/STI (human immuno defiency virus/sexually transmitted infection) burdens and difficult-to-reach populations. This study implemented a community-based HIV/STI program to reach at-risk youth aged 15 to 17 years in postconflict Liberia. Using a randomized controlled trial, community youths were assigned to an adapted version of an effective HIV/STI program, Making Proud Choices, or attention-matched comparison curriculum, General Health Program. Both programs were of similar doses, reach and coverage, and administered in classroom settings by trained health educators...
2018: Global Pediatric Health
Ajita Nayak, Bijal Sangoi, Hrishikesh Nachane
OBJECTIVES: School refusal is seen as an emergency in child psychiatry and various risk factors have been analyzed. Children who present with school refusal have been shown to have several associated psychiatric comorbidities. However, risk assessment of psychiatric comorbidities is lacking, particularly in the Indian context. The authors aimed to study the sociodemographic profile and associated psychopathology in children with school refusal. They compared the prevalence rates of psychiatric illnesses to that of the community...
February 1, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Michele Ybarra, Myeshia Price-Feeney, Kelvin Mwaba
Research efforts have overlooked anal sex as a risk factor for adolescents' acquisition of HIV despite the high rates of HIV among South African youth. Here, we report findings from a survey conducted in 2012 among secondary school youth, ages 16-24, in Cape Town. 937 adolescents completed a pencil-and-paper survey. Eleven and 31% of female and male youth, respectively, reported ever having anal sex. By comparison, 59% and 78% of female and male youth reported ever having vaginal sex. The percentage of youth reporting lifetime rates of anal sex increased with age: 32% of 20-to-24 year olds had anal sex compared to 16% of 16-to-17-year olds...
February 1, 2018: AIDS Care
Jordan Sibeoni, Massimiliano Orri, Marc-Antoine Podlipski, Mathilde Labey, Sophie Campredon, Priscille Gerardin, Anne Revah-Levy
Objective: Anxiety-based school refusal in adolescence is a complex, sometimes difficult to treat disorder that can have serious academic and psychiatric consequences. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore how teens with this problem and their parents experience the psychiatric care received. Methods: This qualitative multicenter study took place in France, where we conducted semi-structured interviews with adolescents receiving psychiatric care for anxiety-based school refusal and with their parents...
January 2018: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Chiu-Ching Chang, Jung-Yu Liao, Chiu-Mieh Huang, Hsiao-Pei Hsu, Chih-Che Chen, Jong-Long Guo
BACKGROUND: Studies indicate that adolescent-onset drug users experience a greater likelihood of dependence that continues into adulthood. The importance of early intervention was evident in treating adolescents before their substance use progressed. We examined the effectiveness of an intervention program that prevents students who experiment with drugs from reusing them. METHODS: The study was based on 10 out of 18 invited schools that were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (5 schools, n = 43) or the comparison group (5 schools, n = 41)...
January 16, 2018: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Lois A Weithorn, Dorit Rubinstein Reiss
Rates of vaccine-preventable diseases have increased in the United States in recent years, largely due to parental refusals of recommended childhood immunizations. Empirical studies have demonstrated a relationship between nonvaccination rates and permissive state vaccine exemption policies, indicating that legal reforms may promote higher immunization rates. This article reviews relevant data and considers the legal landscape. It analyzes federal and state Constitutional law, concluding that religious and personal belief exemptions to school-entry vaccine mandates are not constitutionally required...
January 10, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Ellen Kathrine Munkhaugen, Tonje Torske, Elen Gjevik, Terje Nærland, Are Hugo Pripp, Trond H Diseth
This study compared social, executive, emotional, and behavioral characteristics of students with autism spectrum disorder who did and did not display school refusal behavior. The participants were 62 students with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability aged 9-16 years attending inclusive schools. Parents first completed questionnaires assessing social and executive functioning as well as emotional and behavioral problems. They then documented their child's school refusal behavior for a period of 20 days...
December 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Luigi Santacroce, Lucrezia Bottalico, Ioannis Alexandros Charitos
Background: In the pre-Hellenistic period, the concept of medicine was not well-defined. Usually, a disease was considered as a divine punishment and its treatment was devolved to the priests who asked for healing from the divinities. The only job that could be compared to medical practice was a kind of itinerant medicine, derived from the Egyptian therapeutic tradition based only on practical experience and performed by people that knew a number of remedies, mostly vegetable, but without any theoretical bases about the possible mechanisms of action...
December 12, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Leonard T Bikinesi, Robert Mash, Kate Joyner
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant and largely hidden public health problem for all women and, during pregnancy, can have significant effects on the health of both mother and the unborn baby. Previous Namibian studies suggest rates of IPV as high as 36%, although few studies have been conducted in primary care. AIM: To determine the prevalence of IPV amongst women attending antenatal care. SETTING: Outapi primary care clinic, Namibia...
December 6, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
Mary Odum, Corliss W Outley, E Lisako J McKyer, Christine A Tisone, Sharon L McWhinney
Introduction: As physical performance may be more difficult for overweight children than for their non-overweight peers, understanding how weight impacts student performance in the physical education (P.E.) classroom could inform school-based obesity prevention programming. Materials and methods: This qualitative case study examined one elementary physical educator's perspectives of overweight students' weight-related experiences in her classroom. Narratives were elicited during an in-depth interview and analyzed using structural and thematic analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Julian G Elliott, Maurice Place
BACKGROUND: A generation has passed since the literature on the conceptualisation, assessment and treatment of school refusal was reviewed in this journal (Elliott, ). In the light of considerable gaps in the literature, identified at that time, and growing international interest, the current paper sought to identify progress subsequently made this century. METHODS: We open with discussion of continuing conceptual uncertainty as to whether school refusal should incorporate both truancy and absenteeism marked by anxiety and distress...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Min-Pei Lin, Jo Yung-Wei Wu, Jianing You, Wei-Hsuan Hu, Cheng-Fang Yen
The aim of this study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) in a large representative sample of secondary school students and identified the risk and protective factors. Using a crosssectional design, 2170 participants were recruited from senior high schools throughout Taiwan using both stratified and cluster sampling. The prevalence of IA was 17.4% (95% confidence interval, 15.8%-19.0%). High impulsivity, low refusal self-efficacy of Internet use, high positive outcome expectancy of Internet use, high disapproving attitude of Internet use by others, depressive symptoms, low subjective well-being, high frequency of others' invitation to Internet use, and high virtual social support was all independently predictive in the logistic regression analysis...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Adolescence
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