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School refusal

B W Case
Following up on the largest case-control study of malignant mesothelioma yet performed, investigators at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine assessed 1732 male and 670 female cases as of May 2013. Epidemiological findings of a subset of these were published previously, excluding patients who died or who refused to be interviewed. Pathology reports were collected for subjects, including those both eligible and ineligible for epidemiology study based on vital status. The current investigation examined 860 cases having pathology reports available...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
Heidi J Larson, Alexandre de Figueiredo, Zhao Xiahong, William S Schulz, Pierre Verger, Iain G Johnston, Alex R Cook, Nick S Jones
BACKGROUND: Public trust in immunization is an increasingly important global health issue. Losses in confidence in vaccines and immunization programmes can lead to vaccine reluctance and refusal, risking disease outbreaks and challenging immunization goals in high- and low-income settings. National and international immunization stakeholders have called for better monitoring of vaccine confidence to identify emerging concerns before they evolve into vaccine confidence crises. METHODS: We perform a large-scale, data-driven study on worldwide attitudes to immunizations...
September 13, 2016: EBioMedicine
Andreas G Franke, Sophie Lehmberg, Michael Soyka
BACKGROUND: Pharmacological neuroenhancement (PN) is a topic of increasing importance. Its prevalence rates range from 1 % to more than 20 %. Students are a group that shows exceptionally high prevalence rates. However, little is known about teachers' knowledge, management, attitudes and ethical judgements regarding PN. METHODS: A web-based survey containing 40 closed questions was developed. All teachers working at all private and public schools in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, a state in northeastern Germany, were invited to participate after their respective school offices were contacted by telephone, email and mail...
2016: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
Abigail Harrison, Susie Hoffman, Joanne E Mantell, Jennifer A Smit, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Theresa M Exner, Zena A Stein
: This pilot study evaluated a 15 session classroom intervention for HIV and pregnancy prevention among grade 8-10 boys and girls (ages 14-17) in rural South Africa, guided by gender-empowerment theory and implemented by teachers, nurses, and youth peer educators. Pre- and post-intervention surveys included 933 male and female students in two intervention and two comparison schools. MAIN OUTCOME: condom use at last sex; secondary outcomes: partner communication; gender beliefs and values; perceived peer behaviors; self-efficacy for safer sex...
2016: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Aneela N Hussain, Abdullah Alkhenizan, Patricia McWalter, Nusrat Qazi, Amal Alshmassi, Samina Farooqi, Ahmed Abdulkarim
BACKGROUND: Rising incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer can be reduced by effective vaccination. Saudi Food and Drug Administration approved prophylactic HPV vaccine in 2010 for females of 11-26 years. OBJECTIVES: To determine the awareness of HPV infection, its health sequel and the attitude and barriers to the acceptance of HPV vaccine by young women in Saudi Arabia. Dynamics influencing the decision of patients and parents regarding vaccination were assessed to foster effective and strategically focused interventions...
September 2016: Journal of Family & Community Medicine
Diana J Whalen, Kirsten E Gilbert, Deanna M Barch, Joan L Luby, Andy C Belden
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent psychopathology has been linked to increased sleep problems, but there has been less investigation of this relationship in younger samples with early-onset psychopathology. This study examined three specific but commonly observed aspects of sleep behaviors in young children - (i) Sleep onset latency, (ii) Refusal to sleep alone, and (iii) Nighttime awakenings - measured during preschool, and investigated whether these sleep problems predicted anxiety and/or depression across the next 6 years until school age (ages 9-13)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Charlotte Bevan
Extract: Growing up, I never understood why so many people professed to have no interest in science. How could understanding how things work not be the most fascinating thing? And how we, as organisms, develop and function (or fail to) seemed to me the most fascinating thing of all. One of my most inspiring school teachers was the head of Biology and 6th-form, Dr Chris Haworth, who undertook to nurture my ambition to gain a place at "Oxbridge" (no-one from our comprehensive school in the far north of England had previously gone to either Cambridge or Oxford)...
September 6, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Glenn A Melvin, Amanda L Dudley, Michael S Gordon, Ester Klimkeit, Eleonora Gullone, John Taffe, Bruce J Tonge
This study investigates whether the augmentation of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with fluoxetine improves outcomes in anxious school refusing adolescents (11-16.5 years). Sixty-two participants were randomly allocated to CBT alone, CBT + fluoxetine or CBT + placebo. All treatments were well tolerated; with one suicide-attempt in the CBT + placebo group. All groups improved significantly on primary (school attendance) and secondary outcome measures (anxiety, depression, self-efficacy and clinician-rated global functioning); with gains largely maintained at 6-months and 1-year...
August 2, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Susana Helm, Scott K Okamoto
Drug use has been linked empirically with aggression and violence among youth in national and State of Hawai'i samples. In addition, aggression and violence appear to be gendered experiences perceived differently by girls and boys. This article explores the intersection of drug offers/drug refusals with aggression and violence with specific attention paid to gendered perceptions of drug use situations as a context for aggression and violence. A qualitative study, in which 14 sex-specific focus group discussions were held, focused on rural Native Hawaiian middle school students (N = 64)...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Marie Reilly, Jason Fogler, Ellen Selkie, Marilyn Augustyn
Sarah is a 13-year-old eighth grader who was recently diagnosed for the first time with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-inattentive type, and the family elected to treat her with behavioral interventions to help her organization and attention. She had struggled with distractibility and disorganization since the fourth grade. At home, Sarah's mother described her as "spacey" and unable to complete the morning routine without constant supervision. Over time, her mother observed that it seemed as if Sarah had given up on school...
July 2016: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
G M Davies, J Neville, D Wilcox
UNLABELLED: Dental epidemiological surveys of children often focus on caries levels of five-year-olds as they are accessible and amenable to examination. Standardised surveys of this age group have been successfully carried out in the UK for many years. If improvements to caries level at age five are to be made then it is important to know when caries develops in the preceding years and what the likely causes are. This paper reports on the feasibility, utility and impact of a standardised survey of three-year-old children which took place in England...
June 2016: Community Dental Health
Charlotte Lee, Kathryn Whetten, Saad Omer, William Pan, Daniel Salmon
High rates of nonmedical exemptions (NMEs) from required childhood vaccinations have contributed to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles and pertussis. Understanding the parental decision to obtain an NME could help health professionals and public health programs improve vaccination rates in areas with high vaccine refusal. Using a 2002-2003 multi-state survey of parents of school age children (​n=2445), this study found that parental distrust of the government and of healthcare providers is a significant factor related to a number of vaccine-related beliefs and behaviors...
July 25, 2016: Vaccine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Ciara E McGee, Joanne Trigwell, Stuart J Fairclough, Rebecca C Murphy, Lorna Porcellato, Michael Ussher, Lawrence Foweather
BACKGROUND: Preventing children from smoking is a public health priority. This study evaluated the effects of a sport-for-health smoking prevention programme (SmokeFree Sports) on smoking-related intentions and cognitions among primary school children from deprived communities. METHODS: A non-randomised-controlled trial targeted 9-10 year old children from Merseyside, North-West England. 32 primary schools received a programme of sport-for-health activities over 7 months; 11 comparison schools followed usual routines...
2016: BMC Public Health
Annamari Aura, Tiina Laatikainen, Hannu Isoaho, Galina Lazutkina, Kerttu Tossavainen
PURPOSE: Becoming a smoker usually starts during adolescence and is a dynamic process involving experimentation before the establishment of daily smoking. It has been suggested that adolescents who smoke differ from those who do not in their attitudes to smoking. The purpose of this study was to find out whether attitudes related to smoking legislation and restrictions, social pressures in smoking and image of smokers are associated with smoking experimentation, daily smoking and best friends' smoking...
May 16, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Nancy Menzel, Du Feng, Jessica Doolen
There is consensus that registered nurses worldwide have a high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, particularly of the back. Patient handling activities such as lifting present the highest risk of injury, activities that begin in nursing school. A literature review identified 21 studies of back pain in nursing students, indicating a wide range of prevalence rates. A prospective cohort study of nursing students in a United States baccalaureate program followed 119 students who completed the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire upon beginning the 16 month upper division major and then a year later...
2016: International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship
Corinne E Lehmann, Rebecca C Brady, Reuben O Battley, Jennifer L Huggins
While vaccines have decreased the burden of disease, many adolescents still remain under-immunized, particularly for human papillomavirus (HPV) and influenza. We review the most current data regarding adolescent immunizations in the United States and discuss proven strategies that work for increasing vaccination rates. Strategies that have been shown to improve rates include provider feedback, immunization information systems (or registries), and enhanced access outside of provider offices, such as school-based immunization programs...
August 2016: Paediatric Drugs
A J Baibusinova, A K Musakhanova, G M Shalgumbaeva, M A Dauletiarova, Sh E Tokanova, S K Nurtasina
The number of cases of refusal from vaccination increases all over the world. In the Republic of Kazakhstan many studies are devoted to epidemiology of propagation of vaccine-controllable infections, medical aspects ofimmunization, analysis of immunological status and complications of immunization. The issues of awareness of population of the Republic of Kazakhstan about vaccination and refusal of it are investigated insufficiently. This occurrence became a cause of studying the given problem. The study was carried out to investigate attitude ofpopulation to vaccination and main factors of risk of refusal from vaccination of children residing in the city of Semeii and rural districts of the Eastern Kazakhstan oblast...
November 2015: Problemy Sot︠s︡ialʹnoĭ Gigieny, Zdravookhranenii︠a︡ i Istorii Medit︠s︡iny
Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas, Hilde Pape, Anne Line Bretteville-Jensen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adolescents who refuse direct cannabis offers and remain non-users represent a potentially very informative, yet surprisingly understudied group. We examined a range of risk and protective factors putatively associated with this poorly understood "cannabis-resilient" profile. METHODS: Paper-and-pencil questionnaires assessing substance use, peer and family relations, and behavioral and personality characteristics were completed by 19,303 middle- and high-school students from 82 schools in Norway (response rate 84%) RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of cannabis use was 7...
June 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jacqueline E Weinstein, Ashwin Ananth, Jacob P Brunner, Ryan E Nelson, Marjorie E Bateman, John M Carter, Joseph F Buell, Paul L Friedlander
IMPORTANCE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a preventable disease that plays a causative role in a significant proportion of malignant neoplasms of the head and neck. Inner-city populations are at risk for HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer, are least likely to receive HPV vaccination, and report a lack of information regarding HPV. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an educational platform affects knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding HPV vaccination in an inner-city community...
June 1, 2016: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
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