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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342166/effects-of-vitamin-d-on-insulin-resistance-and-myosteatosis-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#1
Elisa Benetti, Raffaella Mastrocola, Fausto Chiazza, Debora Nigro, Giuseppe D'Antona, Valentina Bordano, Roberto Fantozzi, Manuela Aragno, Massimo Collino, Marco Alessandro Minetto
Epidemiological studies pointed out to a strong association between vitamin D deficiency and type 2 diabetes prevalence. However, the role of vitamin D supplementation in the skeletal muscle, a tissue that play a crucial role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, has been scarcely investigated so far. On this basis, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in a murine model of diet-induced insulin resistance with particular attention to the effects evoked on the skeletal muscle...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342124/the-root-of-atractylodes-macrocephala-koidzumi-prevents-obesity-and-glucose-intolerance-and-increases-energy-metabolism-in-mice
#2
Mi Young Song, Soo-Kyoung Lim, Jing-Hua Wang, Hojun Kim
Targeting energy expenditure offers a strategy for treating obesity more effectively and safely. In previous studies, we found that the root of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidzumi (Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba, ARA) increased energy metabolism in C2C12 cells. Here, we investigated the effects of ARA on obesity and glucose intolerance by examining energy metabolism in skeletal muscle and brown fat in high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice. ARA decreased body weight gain, hepatic lipid levels and serum total cholesterol levels, but did not modify food intake...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342109/sources-of-added-sugars-in-young-children-adolescents-and-adults-with-low-and-high-intakes-of-added-sugars
#3
Regan L Bailey, Victor L Fulgoni, Alexandra E Cowan, P Courtney Gaine
High intake of added sugars is associated with excess energy intake and poorer diet quality. The objective of this cross-sectional study (n = 16,806) was to estimate usual intakes and the primary food sources of added sugars across the range of intakes (i.e., deciles) among U.S. children (2-8 years), adolescents and teens (9-18 years), and adults (≥19 years) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) data from 2009-2012. The percent energy contributed by added sugars was 14.3 ± 0.2% (2-8 years), 16...
January 17, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342107/honokiol-improves-liver-steatosis-in-ovariectomized-mice
#4
Yeon-Hui Jeong, Haeng Jeon Hur, Eun-Joo Jeon, Su-Jin Park, Jin Taek Hwang, Ae Sin Lee, Kyong Won Lee, Mi Jeong Sung
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease, and is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Postmenopausal women with estrogen deficiency are at a higher risk of progression to NAFLD. Estrogen has a protective effect against the progression of the disease. Currently, there are no safe and effective treatments for these liver diseases in postmenopausal women. Honokiol (Ho), a bioactive natural product derived from Magnolia spp, has anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-oxidative properties...
January 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342096/high-resolution-lipidomics-of-the-early-life-stages-of-the-red-seaweed-porphyra-dioica
#5
Elisabete da Costa, Vitor Azevedo, Tânia Melo, Andreia M Rego, Dmitry V Evtuguin, Pedro Domingues, Ricardo Calado, Rui Pereira, Maria H Abreu, Maria R Domingues
Porphyra dioica is a commercial seaweed consumed all over the world, mostly in the shape of nori sheets used for "sushi" preparation. It is a well-known part of the Asian diet with health benefits, which have been associated, among others, to the high levels of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in this red alga. However, other highly valued lipids of Porphyra are polar lipids that remain largely undescribed and can have both nutritional value and bioactivity, thus could contribute to the valorization of this seaweed...
January 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342090/development-of-databases-on-iodine-in-foods-and-dietary-supplements
#6
REVIEW
Abby G Ershow, Sheila A Skeaff, Joyce M Merkel, Pamela R Pehrsson
Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and neurodevelopment; thus, an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important for pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of the world, often leading to diets that are low in iodine. Widespread salt iodization has eradicated severe iodine deficiency, but mild-to-moderate deficiency is still prevalent even in many developed countries. To understand patterns of iodine intake and to develop strategies for improving intake, it is important to characterize all sources of dietary iodine, and national databases on the iodine content of major dietary contributors (including foods, beverages, water, salts, and supplements) provide a key information resource...
January 17, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341885/deletion-of-the-duffy-antigen-receptor-for-chemokines-darc-promotes-insulin-resistance-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation-during-high-fat-feeding
#7
Tyler W Benson, Daniel S Weintraub, Matthew Crowe, Nicole K H Yiew, Orishebawo Popoola, Ajay Pillai, Joel Joseph, Krystal Archer, Charlotte Greenway, Tapan K Chatterjee, James Mintz, David W Stepp, Brian K Stansfield, Weiqin Chen, Julia Brittain, Vladimir Y Bogdanov, Yan Gao, James G Wilson, Yaoliang Tang, Ha Won Kim, Neal L Weintraub
OBJECTIVE: Inflammation in adipose tissues in obesity promotes insulin resistance and metabolic disease. The Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) is a promiscuous non-signaling receptor expressed on erythrocytes and other cell types that modulates tissue inflammation by binding chemokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and by acting as a chemokine reservoir. DARC allelic variants are common in humans, but the role of DARC in modulating obesity-related metabolic disease is unknown...
January 13, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341867/genetic-and-microbiome-influence-on-lipid-metabolism-and-dyslipidemia
#8
Maria Matey Hernandez, Frances Mk Mk Williams, Tilly Potter, Ana M Valdes, Tim Spector, Cristina Menni
Disruption in the metabolism of lipids is broadly classified under dyslipidemias and relate to the concentration of lipids in the blood. Dyslipidemia is a predictor of cardio-metabolic disease including obesity. Traditionally, the large inter-individual variation has been related to genetic factors and diet. Genome-wide association studies have identified over 150 loci related to abnormal lipid levels, explaining approximately 40% of the total variation. Part of the unexplained variance has been attributed to environmental factors including diet, but the extent of the dietary contribution remains unquantified...
December 20, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341863/distinct-gene-signatures-predict-insulin-resistance-in-young-mice-with-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#9
Katherine Chen, Alice Jih, Olivia Osborn, Sarah T Kavaler, Wenxian Fu, Roman Sasik, Rintaro Saito, Jane J Kim
Highly inbred C57BL/6 mice show wide variation in their degree of insulin resistance in response to diet-induced obesity even though they are almost genetically identical. Here we employed transcriptional profiling by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver in young mice to determine how gene expression patterns correlate with the later development of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in adulthood. To accomplish this goal, we partially removed and banked tissues from pubertal mice...
January 8, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341825/a-predictive-model-of-rats-calorie-intake-as-a-function-of-diet-energy-density
#10
Rahmatollah Beheshti, Yada Treesukosol, Takeru Igusa, Timothy H Moran
Easy access to high-energy food has been linked to high rates of obesity in the world. Understanding the way that access to palatable (high fat or high calorie) food can lead to overconsumption is essential for both preventing and treating obesity. Although the body of studies focused on the effects of high energy diets is growing, our understanding of how different factors contribute to food choices is not complete. In this study, we present a mathematical model that can predict rats' calorie intake to a high-energy diet based on their ingestive behavior to a standard chow diet...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341824/intestinal-lymph-as-a-readout-of-meal-induced-glp-1-release-in-an-unrestrained-rat-model
#11
Nino Jejelava, Sharon Kaufman, Jean-Philippe Krieger, Marcella Martins Terra, Wolfgang Langhans, Myrtha Arnold
Intestinal lymph supposedly provides a readout for the secretion of intestinal peptides. We here assessed how mesenteric lymph duct (MLD) lymph levels of glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), insulin, and metabolites (Glucose, triglycerides [TG]) evolve after isocaloric high and low fat diet (HFD, LFD) meals, and how they compare to hepatic portal vein (HPV) plasma levels. Moreover, we examined the effects of intraperitoneally (IP) administered GLP-1 (1 or 10 nmol/kg) on these parameters. At 20 min after the HFD meal onset, GLP-1 levels were higher in MLD lymph than in HPV plasma...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341448/beneficial-actions-of-microbiota-derived-tryptophan-metabolites
#12
REVIEW
J J Galligan
Tryptophan is an important dietary amino acid and it is the precursor for 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis in the nervous system and by enterochromaffin cells in the gut mucosa. Tryptophan is also metabolized by enzymes in the gut mucosa and also by enzymes produced by the gut microbiome. Diet and the microbiome can contribute to metabolic disease in part by causing intestinal inflammation and increased permeability. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Jennis et al. test the hypothesis that indole tryptophan metabolites produced by gut bacteria might be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and beneficial metabolic effects of the gut microbiome and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for weight loss by obese patients...
February 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341443/stachyose-improves-inflammation-through-modulating-gut-microbiota-of-high-fat-diet-streptozotocin-induced-type-2-diabetes-in-rats
#13
Guimei Liu, Jia Bei, Li Liang, Guoyong Yu, Lu Li, Quanhong Li
SCOPE: The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of stachyose (STS) on type 2 diabetes in rats, and changes in the gut microbiota compared to metformin (MET). METHODS AND RESULTS: The type 2 diabetic model was successfully established via a high-fat diet (HFD) / streptozotocin (STZ) in Wistar rats, and STS or MET was administered for 4 weeks. Blood was collected to analyze biochemical parameters, pancreas for mRNA expression of related gene and contents of colon for gut microbiota...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341260/essential-oils-improved-weight-gain-growth-and-feed-efficiency-of-young-dairy-calves-fed-18-or-20-crude-protein-starter-diets
#14
M Kazemi-Bonchenari, R Falahati, M Poorhamdollah, S R Heidari, A Pezeshki
The objective was to evaluate interactions between starter protein (180 vs. 200 g/kg, DM basis) and a mixture of essential oils (EOs; containing thymol, eugenol, vanillin, limonene and guaiacol) on growth, metabolic and ruminal functions of Holstein dairy calves. In a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design, 48 calves, 3 days old (averaging BW 42.7 ± 1.9 kg), were allocated into groups fed the following diets: (i) 180 g/kg CP with no EO (180P-NEO); (ii) 180 g/kg CP with EO (180P-EO); (iii) 200 g/kg CP with no EO (200P-NEO); and (iv) 200 g/kg CP with EO (200P-EO)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341246/risk-factors-for-disordered-weight-control-behaviors-among-korean-adolescents-multilevel-analysis-of-the-korea-youth-risk-behavior-survey
#15
Yongjoo Kim, S Bryn Austin, S V Subramanian, Jennifer J Thomas, Kamryn T Eddy, Debra L Franko, Rachel F Rodgers, Ichiro Kawachi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for disordered weight control behaviors (DWCB) in South Korean adolescents at multiple levels, including individual, family, school, and geographic area. METHOD: We drew participants from the 11th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, conducted in 2015, with 65,529 adolescents (31,687 girls, 33,842 boys) aged 12-18 years. DWCB was defined as engaging in any of the following behaviors for weight control over the past month: fasting, one-food diet (eating only one food over an extended period of time for weight control), vomiting, and taking laxatives/diuretics/unprescribed diet pills...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341238/temporal-trends-in-a-biomagnifying-contaminant-application-of-amino-acid-compound-specific-stable-nitrogen-isotope-analysis-to-the-interpretation-of-bird-mercury-levels
#16
Craig E Hebert, Brian N Popp
Temporal trends in levels of biomagnifying contaminants, such as mercury (Hg), in top predators can provide insights into changes in contaminant bioavailability through time. However, interpreting contaminant temporal trends in predators can be confounded by temporal changes in their diets which, in turn, could affect organism trophic position and exposure to biomagnifying contaminants. To address this issue, bulk stable nitrogen isotope analysis, i.e. analysis of whole tissue, is widely incorporated into contaminant monitoring programs for the estimation of organism trophic position...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341225/past-and-present-mercury-accumulation-in-the-lake-baikal-seal-temporal-trends-effects-of-life-history-and-toxicological-implications
#17
Amanda E Poste, Mikhail V Pastukhov, Hans Fredrik Veiteberg Braaten, Ted Ozersky, Marianne Moore
Despite global efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emissions, the timescale and degree to which Hg concentrations in the environment and biota respond to decreased emissions remains challenging to assess or predict. Here we characterize long-term trends, life-history patterns in Hg accumulation and toxicological implications of Hg contamination for a freshwater seal from one of the world's largest lakes (Lake Baikal, Siberia) using contemporary tissues and archival teeth. Stable isotope analysis and Hg analyses of soft tissues (muscle, liver, kidney, blood, brain, heart) and teeth from 22 contemporary seals revealed rapid changes in diet and Hg accumulation in the first year of life with a stable diet and increase in tissue Hg throughout the rest of life...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341193/impact-of-trans-fats-on-heat-shock-protein-expression-and-the-gut-microbiota-profile-of-mice
#18
Gessika Cristina Borges Castro Carvalho, Carolina Soares Moura, Aline Rissetti Roquetto, Daniel Barrera-Arellano, Aureo Tatsumi Yamada, Andrey Dos Santos, Mário José Abdalla Saad, Jaime Amaya-Farfan
Partially hydrogenated oils are known to cause metabolic stress and dyslipidemia. This paper explores a new dimension about the interaction between dietary trans-fats and the defense heat-shock protein (HSP) system, inflammation, and the gut microbiota of mice consuming a hyperlipidic diet containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oil free of animal fat. Five diet groups were installed: control diet, 2 hyperlipidic-partially hydrogenated-oil diets, each containing either casein or whey-protein hydrolysate (WPH) as protein source, and 2 consuming hyperlipidic-unhydrogenated-oil diets containing either WPH or casein as a protein source...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341151/gut-microbiome-influences-on-anastomotic-leak-and-recurrence-rates-following-colorectal-cancer-surgery
#19
REVIEW
S Gaines, C Shao, N Hyman, J C Alverdy
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of colorectal cancer recurrence after a curative resection remains poorly understood. A yet-to-be accounted for variable is the composition and function of the microbiome adjacent to the tumour and its influence on the margins of resection following surgery. METHODS: PubMed was searched for historical as well as current manuscripts dated between 1970 and 2017 using the following keywords: 'colorectal cancer recurrence', 'microbiome', 'anastomotic leak', 'anastomotic failure' and 'mechanical bowel preparation'...
January 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341031/getting-more-than-you-paid-for-unauthorized-natural-substances-in-herbal-food-supplements-on-eu-market
#20
Marijana Zovko Končić
As the population in the industrialized world develops preference for what is perceived as a natural and holistic way of disease treatment, the popularity and the number of food supplements on the market, including herbal ones, is experiencing an unprecedented rise. However, unlike herbal medicinal products, intended for treating or preventing disease, current legislation classifies food supplements as products intended for achieving nutritional or physiological effect and to supplement the normal diet. Accordingly, most food supplements are not to be associated with specific health claims...
January 16, 2018: Planta Medica
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