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Susanth Subramanian, Gandham Edmond Jonathan, Bimal Patel, Krishna Prabhu
INTRODUCTION: Synovial sarcoma is a rare mesenchymal malignant neoplasm that accounts for less than 10% of soft tissue sarcomas. About 95% of the sarcomas occur in the extremities. Primary synovial sarcomas of the spine are a rare tumor arising from the paravertebral regions, paraspinal muscles or epidural spaces. PURPOSE: To report an atypical radiological presentation of synovial sarcoma of the thoracic spine mimicking a nerve sheath tumor in an elderly adult and describe the management with review of the literature...
February 15, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Amit Amit, Atul Vats, Alireza Shoakazemi, Brian Herron, Anthony McCarthy, Robert Scott McConnell
Spinal Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumour (AT/RT) is a highly malignant tumour, and its prognosis is dismal especially for very young patients. In this article, we present the case of a teenage boy with AT/RT in the cervical spine and its multimodality management. A review of the literature on ATRT of the spine is also presented.
February 12, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Lee Moir, Elena G Bochukova, Rebecca Dumbell, Gareth Banks, Rasneer S Bains, Patrick M Nolan, Cheryl Scudamore, Michelle Simon, Kimberly A Watson, Julia Keogh, Elana Henning, Audrey Hendricks, Stephen O'Rahilly, Inês Barroso, Adrienne E Sullivan, David C Bersten, Murray L Whitelaw, Susan Kirsch, Elizabeth Bentley, I Sadaf Farooqi, Roger D Cox
OBJECTIVE: Genetic studies in obese rodents and humans can provide novel insights into the mechanisms involved in energy homeostasis. METHODS: In this study, we genetically mapped the chromosomal region underlying the development of severe obesity in a mouse line identified as part of a dominant N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen. We characterized the metabolic and behavioral phenotype of obese mutant mice and examined changes in hypothalamic gene expression...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
R Dumbell, I Petri, F Scherbarth, V Diedrich, H A Schmid, S Steinlechner, P Barrett
The Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) is a seasonal mammal, exhibiting a suite of physiologically and behaviourally distinct traits dependent on the time of year and governed by changes in perceived day length (photoperiod). These attributes include significant weight loss, reduced food intake, gonadal atrophy and pelage change with short-day photoperiod as in winter. The central mechanisms driving seasonal phenotype change during winter are mediated by a reduced availability of hypothalamic triiodothyronine (T3), although the downstream mechanisms responsible for physiological and behavioural changes are yet to be fully clarified...
January 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Rebecca Dumbell, Alexei Leliavski, Olga Matveeva, Christopher Blaum, Anthony H Tsang, Henrik Oster
The circadian rhythm of glucocorticoids affects diverse physiological systems, including stress responses and the coordination of rhythmic functions in peripheral and central tissues. Circadian clocks are considered to be important coordinators of glucocorticoid release and loss of the core clock component Brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 leads to ablation of behavioral and physiological rhythms, hypocortisolism, impaired ACTH, and behavioral stress responses. Transplantation and conditional clock gene knock-down studies in mice suggest an important role of local adrenocortical clock function in this context...
November 2016: Endocrinology
Lin Huang, David M J Lilley
k-Turns are widespread RNA architectural elements that mediate tertiary interactions. We describe a double-kink-turn motif comprising two inverted k-turns that forms a tight horse-shoe structure that can assemble into a variety of shapes by coaxial association of helical ends. Using X-ray crystallography we show that these assemble with two (dumbell), three (triangle) and four units (square), with or without bound protein, within the crystal lattice. In addition, exchange of a single basepair can almost double the pore radius or shape of a molecular assembly...
August 18, 2016: Nanoscale
Rebecca Dumbell, Olga Matveeva, Henrik Oster
In mammals, molecular circadian clocks are present in most cells of the body, and this circadian network plays an important role in synchronizing physiological processes and behaviors to the appropriate time of day. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal endocrine axis regulates the response to acute and chronic stress, acting through its final effectors - glucocorticoids - released from the adrenal cortex. Glucocorticoid secretion, characterized by its circadian rhythm, has an important role in synchronizing peripheral clocks and rhythms downstream of the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Serge A Krasnokutski, Martin Kuhn, Alexander Kaiser, Andreas Mauracher, Michael Renzler, Diethard K Bohme, Paul Scheier
We report the observation of sequential encounters of fullerenes with C atoms in an extremely cold environment. Experiments were performed with helium droplets at 0.37 K doped with C60 molecules and C atoms derived from a novel, pure source of C atoms. Very high-resolution mass spectra revealed the formation of carbenes of the type C60(C:)n with n up to 6. Bridge-type bonding of the C adatoms to form the known dumbbell C60═C═C60 also was observed. Density functional theory calculations were performed that elucidated the carbene character of the C60(C:)n species and their structures...
April 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Frank Scherbarth, Victoria Diedrich, Rebecca A Dumbell, Herbert A Schmid, Stephan Steinlechner, Perry Barrett
Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) show spontaneous daily torpor only after ∼2 mo in winter-like short photoperiods (SP). Although some SP-induced hormonal changes have been demonstrated to be necessary for the occurrence of seasonal torpor, the whole set of preconditions is still unknown. Recent findings provide evidence that the hypothalamic pituitary growth axis is involved in endocrine responses to SP exposure in the photoperiodic hamsters. To examine whether suppression of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion affects the incidence of daily torpor, we used two somatostatin receptor agonists, pasireotide (SOM230) and octreotide, with different affinity profiles for receptor subtypes...
September 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Isa Kolbe, Rebecca Dumbell, Henrik Oster
Many physiological processes and most endocrine functions show fluctuations over the course of the day. These so-called circadian rhythms are governed by an endogenous network of cellular clocks and serve as an adaptation to daily and, thus, predictable changes in the organism's environment. Circadian clocks have been described in several tissues of the stress axis and in adipose cells where they regulate the rhythmic and stimulated release of stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids, and various adipokine factors...
2015: International Journal of Endocrinology
R A Dumbell, F Scherbarth, V Diedrich, H A Schmid, S Steinlechner, P Barrett
The timing of growth in seasonal mammals is inextricably linked to food availability. This is exemplified in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), which uses the annual cycle of photoperiod to optimally programme energy expenditure in anticipation of seasonal fluctuations in food resources. During the autumn, energy expenditure is progressively minimised by physiological adaptations, including a 30% reduction in body mass, comprising a reduction in both fat and lean tissues. However, the mechanistic basis of this adaptation is still unexplained...
July 2015: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Jean-Michel Caillol
We present two methods for solving the electrostatics of point charges and multipoles on the surface of a sphere, i.e., in the space S2, with applications to numerical simulations of two-dimensional (2D) polar fluids. In the first approach, point charges are associated with uniform neutralizing backgrounds to form neutral pseudo-charges, while in the second, one instead considers bi-charges, i.e., dumbells of antipodal point charges of opposite signs. We establish the expressions of the electric potentials of pseudo- and bi-charges as isotropic solutions of the Laplace-Beltrami equation in S2...
April 21, 2015: Journal of Chemical Physics
Massimo Lai, Denis Brun, Stuart J Edelstein, Nicolas Le Novère
Calmodulin is a calcium-binding protein ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells, involved in numerous calcium-regulated biological phenomena, such as synaptic plasticity, muscle contraction, cell cycle, and circadian rhythms. It exibits a characteristic dumbell shape, with two globular domains (N- and C-terminal lobe) joined by a linker region. Each lobe can take alternative conformations, affected by the binding of calcium and target proteins. Calmodulin displays considerable functional flexibility due to its capability to bind different targets, often in a tissue-specific fashion...
January 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
Alexei Leliavski, Rebecca Dumbell, Volker Ott, Henrik Oster
The mammalian circadian timing system consists of a master pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and subordinate clocks that disseminate time information to various central and peripheral tissues. While the function of the SCN in circadian rhythm regulation has been extensively studied, we still have limited understanding of how peripheral tissue clock function contributes to the regulation of physiological processes. The adrenal gland plays a special role in this context as adrenal hormones show strong circadian secretion rhythms affecting downstream physiological processes...
February 2015: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Chunxiang Li, Xiyang Qiu, Zhaohui Hou, Keqin Deng
Highly sensitive detection of transcription factors (TF) is essential to proteome and genomics research as well as clinical diagnosis. We describe herein a novel fluorescent-amplified strategy for ultrasensitive, quantitative, and inexpensive detection of TF. The strategy consists of a hairpin DNA probe containing a TF binding sequence for target TF, a dumbbell-shaped probe, a primer DNA probe designed partly complementary to hairpin DNA probe, and a dumbbell probe. In the presence of target TF, the binding of the TF with hairpin DNA probe will prohibit the hybridization of the primer DNA probe with the "stem" and "loop" region of the hairpin DNA probe, then the unhybridized region of the primer DNA will hybridize with dumbbell probe, subsequently promote the ligation reaction and the rolling circle amplification (RCA), finally, the RCA products are quantified via the fluorescent intensity of SYBR Green I (SG)...
February 15, 2015: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Ines Petri, Rebecca Dumbell, Frank Scherbarth, Stephan Steinlechner, Perry Barrett
The Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) is a seasonal mammal responding to the annual cycle in photoperiod with anticipatory physiological adaptations. This includes a reduction in food intake and body weight during the autumn in anticipation of seasonally reduced food availability. In the laboratory, short-day induction of body weight loss can be reversed or prevented by voluntary exercise undertaken when a running wheel is introduced into the home cage. The mechanism by which exercise prevents or reverses body weight reduction is unknown, but one hypothesis is a reversal of short-day photoperiod induced gene expression changes in the hypothalamus that underpin body weight regulation...
2014: PloS One
Jane E Robinson, Neil P Evans, Rebecca Dumbell, Anne-Kristin Solbakk, Erik Ropstad, Ira Ronit Hebold Haraldsen
This study investigated the actions of blocking the GnRH receptor using a specific agonist on the response of male and female sheep to a novel object placed in their pen. The study is part of a series performed on 46 same sex twin animals. One of the pair received a subcutaneous implant of the GnRH agonist Goserelin acetate every four weeks while the other remained untreated. Implantation began immediately prior to puberty; at 8 weeks in the males and 28 weeks in the females (as timing of puberty is sex specific)...
February 2014: Psychoneuroendocrinology
T Nagata, K Okada, I Takebe
M-phase and S-phase protoplasts were prepared from tobacco cells in suspension culture after a high degree of synchronization using aphidicolin, a specific inhibitor for eukaryotic DNA polymerase. When TMV-RNA was introduced into these protoplasts mediated by REV liposomes, 37% of M-phase and 26% of S-phase protoplasts were infected as determined by the fluorescent antibody technique. After the 24 hr interval between the introduction of TMV-RNA into protoplasts and the determination of infection, half of the infected mitotic protoplasts formed dumbell-shaped daughter cells...
December 1982: Plant Cell Reports
K A Fairley-Grenot, S M Assmann
Knowledge of ion fluxes in the dumbell-shaped guard cells of grass species has been limited by the difficulty of obtaining isolated epidermes or guard-cell protoplasts for use in radioactive-tracer or electrophysiological studies. We describe here a method for isolating guard-cell protoplasts from Zea mays L. Whole-cell patch clamp has been used to measure K(+)-channel current across the plasma membrane surrounding these protoplasts. Two populations of K(+)-permeable channels have been identified. Hyperpolarization of the membrane to potentials (Vm) more negative than -100 mV results in inward K(+) current through one population of channels...
January 1992: Planta
Santosh Hunasgi, Anila Koneru, M Vanishree, Ravikumar Shamala
Keloids extend beyond the borders of the original wound invading normal skin. Usually appear as firm nodules, often pruritic and painful, and generally do not regress spontaneously. Most often occur on the chest, shoulders, upper back, back of the neck, and earlobes. The aim of the paper is to discuss a case of keloid, review the pathophysiology and also to highlight the differences between keloid and hypertrophic scars. A 26-year-old female complains of swelling on ear lobe since 3 years. Swelling was firm, non-tender, dumbell-shaped with central wooden stick still present, measuring 3 cm in diameter medial to the inferior part of the helix...
January 2013: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
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