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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445749/equilibrium-ensembles-for-insulin-folding-from-bias-exchange-metadynamics
#1
Richa Singh, Rohit Bansal, Anurag Singh Rathore, Gaurav Goel
Earliest events in the aggregation process, such as single molecule reconfiguration, are extremely important and the most difficult to characterize in experiments. To this end, we have used well-tempered bias exchange metadynamics simulations to determine the equilibrium ensembles of an insulin molecule under amyloidogenic conditions of low pH and high temperature. A bin-based clustering method that uses statistics accumulated in bias exchange metadynamics trajectories was employed to construct a detailed thermodynamic and kinetic model of insulin folding...
April 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445693/high-content-analysis-screening-for-cell-cycle-regulators-using-arrayed-synthetic-crrna-libraries
#2
Žaklina Strezoska, Matthew R Perkett, Eldon T Chou, Elena Maksimova, Emily M Anderson, Shawn McClelland, Melissa L Kelley, Annaleen Vermeulen, Anja van Brabant Smith
The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been utilized for large-scale, loss-of-function screens mainly using lentiviral pooled formats and cell-survival phenotypic assays. Screening in an arrayed format expands the types of phenotypic readouts that can be used to now include high-content, morphology-based assays, and with the recent availability of synthetic crRNA libraries, new studies are emerging. Here, we use a cell cycle reporter cell line to perform an arrayed, synthetic crRNA:tracrRNA screen targeting 169 genes (> 600 crRNAs) and used high content analysis (HCA) to identify genes that regulate the cell cycle...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445597/taller-height-as-a-risk-factor-for-venous-thromboembolism-a-mendelian-randomization-meta-analysis
#3
N S Roetker, S M Armasu, J S Pankow, P L Lutsey, W Tang, M A Rosenberg, T M Palmer, R F MacLehose, S R Heckbert, M Cushman, M de Andrade, A R Folsom
BACKGROUND: Taller height is associated with greater risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). OBJECTIVES: We used instrumental variable (IV) techniques (Mendelian randomization) to further explore this relationship METHODS: Participants of European ancestry were included from two cohort studies [Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS)] and one case-control study [Mayo Clinic VTE Study (Mayo)]. We created two weighted genetic risk scores (GRS) for height; the full GRS included 668 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a previously published meta-analysis and the restricted GRS included a subset of 362 SNPs not associated with weight independently of height...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445584/chronic-opioid-use-following-surgery-for-oral-cavity-cancer
#4
John Pang, Kathryn R Tringale, Viridiana J Tapia, William J Moss, Megan E May, Timothy Furnish, Linda Barnachea, Kevin T Brumund, Assuntina G Sacco, Robert A Weisman, Quyen T Nguyen, Jeffrey P Harris, Charles S Coffey, Joseph A Califano
Importance: Opioid misuse and overuse has become an epidemic. Chronic opioid use among oral cavity cancer patients after surgery has not been described. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of chronic opioid use in patients undergoing surgery for oral cavity cancer, and evaluate possible associated clinical factors; and the association between opioid use and survival. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing surgery for oral cavity cancer a consecutive sample of 99 patients between January 1, 2011, and September 30, 2016, were identified through the institutional cancer registry from a single academic center...
April 26, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445454/body-composition-at-birth-and-its-relationship-with-neonatal-anthropometric-ratios-the-newborn-body-composition-study-of-the-intergrowth-21st-project
#5
José Villar, Fabien A Puglia, Tanis R Fenton, L Cheikh Ismail, Eleonora Staines-Urias, Francesca Giuliani, Eric O Ohuma, Cesar G Victora, Peter Sullivan, Fernando C Barros, Ann Lambert, Aris T Papageorghiou, Roseline Ochieng, Yasmin A Jaffer, Douglas G Altman, Alison J Noble, Michael G Gravett, Manorama Purwar, Ruyan Pang, Ricardo Uauy, Stephen H Kennedy, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe newborn body composition and identify which anthropometric ratio (weight/length; BMI; or ponderal index, PI) best predicts fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM). METHODS: Air-displacement plethysmography (PEA POD) was used to estimate FM, FFM and body fat percentage (BF%). Associations between FFM, FM and BF% and weight/length, BMI and PI were evaluated in 1,019 newborns using multivariate regression analysis. Charts for FM, FFM and BF% were generated using a prescriptive sub-sample (n=247)...
April 26, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445440/micronutrient-status-among-pregnant-women-in-zinder-niger-and-risk-factors-associated-with-deficiency
#6
K Ryan Wessells, Césaire T Ouédraogo, Rebecca R Young, M Thierno Faye, Alex Brito, Sonja Y Hess
Anemia and micronutrient (MN) deficiencies in pregnant women are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. In Niger, 58.6% of pregnant women are anemic; however, MN statuses are unknown. The study objectives were to estimate the prevalence of MN deficiencies among pregnant women in Zinder, Niger and explore associated risk factors. Pregnant women living in randomly selected rural villages (n = 88) were included. Capillary and venous blood samples (n = 770) were analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb) and plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), zinc (pZn), retinol binding protein (RBP), folate and vitamin B12...
April 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445310/diagnostic-accuracy-of-serum-alanine-aminotransferase-as-biomarker-for-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-insulin-resistance-in-healthy-subjects-using-3t-mr-spectroscopy
#7
Jose Luis Martin-Rodriguez, Jorge Gonzalez-Cantero, Alvaro Gonzalez-Cantero, Juan Pedro Arrebola, Jorge Luis Gonzalez-Calvin
Recognition of the close relationship of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with diabetes mellitus 2, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease has stimulated growing interest in NAFLD as a public health problem. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) has been proposed as a marker of NAFLD, but levels are within the range currently considered "normal" in a large proportion of NAFLD subjects.The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of serum ALT for identifying individuals with NAFLD, using 3-Tesla (T) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS)...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445228/the-relationship-of-core-strength-and-activation-and-performance-on-three-functional-movement-screens
#8
Caleb D Johnson, Paul N Whitehead, Erin R Pletcher, Mallory S Faherty, Mita T Lovaleka, Shawn R Eagle, Karen A Keenan
Current measures of core stability utilized by clinicians and researchers suffer from several shortcomings. Three functional movement screens appear, at face-value, to be dependent on the ability to activate and control core musculature. These three screens may present a viable alternative to current measures of core stability. Thirty-nine subjects completed a deep squat, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability screen. Scores on the three screens were summed to calculate a composite score (COMP). During the screens, muscle activity was collected to determine the length of time that the bilateral erector spinae, rectus abdominus, external oblique, and gluteus medius muscles were active...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445072/an-approach-to-the-core-of-lactonamycin
#9
Philip J Parsons, Daniel R Jones, Lee J Walsh, Lewis A T Allen, Ada Onwubiko, Lewis Preece, Johnathan Board, Andrew J P White
A cascade reaction has been developed for the synthesis of lactonamycin. In this paper, we demonstrate that a transition-metal-free thermal ene-diyne cyclization can be used for the construction of the entire core of the antibiotic lactonamycin and anticancer agent lactonamycin Z.
April 26, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445044/highly-oxygenated-multifunctional-compounds-in-%C3%AE-pinene-secondary-organic-aerosol
#10
Xuan Zhang, Andrew T Lambe, Mary Alice Upshur, William A Brooks, Ariana Gray Be, Regan J Thomson, Franz M Geiger, Jason Douglas Surratt, Zhenfa Zhang, Avram Gold, Stephan Graf, Michael J Cubison, Michael Groessl, John T Jayne, Douglas R Worsnop, Manjula R Canagaratna
Highly oxygenated multifunctional organic compounds (HOMs) originating from biogenic emissions constitute a widespread source of organic aerosols in the pristine atmosphere. Yet, the molecular forms in which HOMs are present in the condensed phase upon gas-particle partitioning remain unclear. In this study, we show that highly oxygenated molecules that contain multiple peroxide functionalities are readily cationized by the attachment of Na(+) during electrospray ionization operated in the positive ion mode...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444988/inhibitory-action-of-oxytocin-on-spontaneous-contraction-of-rat-distal-colon-by-nitrergic-mechanism-involvement-of-cyclic-gmp-and-apamin-sensitive-k-channels
#11
R Wang, M T Han, X L Lv, Y A Yu, S Q Chai, C M Qu, C Y Liu
AIM: The mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of oxytocin (OT) on colon tone are not totally understood. We explore the mechanisms of OT on spontaneous contractility in rat distal colon, and identify the mediators involved in this action. METHODS: In rat distal colon strips, mechanical activity was analyzed and the production of nitric oxide (NO) in tissue loaded with the fluorochrome DAF-FM was visualized by confocal microscopy. OT receptor (OTR) expression was determined by western blotting and immunofluorescence...
April 26, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444958/role-of-cytochrome-p450-3a4-and-1a2-phenotyping-in-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-receiving-erlotinib-treatment
#12
Zinnia P Parra-Guillen, Peter B Berger, Manuel Haschke, Massimiliano Donzelli, Daria Winogradova, Bogumila Pfister, Martin Früh, Charlotte Kloft, Stephan Krähenbühl, Silke Gillessen, Markus Joerger
Erlotinib is metabolized by cytochrome p450 (CYP) 3A and CYP1A. This study assessed CYP3A4 (midazolam) and CYP1A2 (caffeine) phenotyping in plasma and dried blood spots (DBS) for predicting the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of erlotinib in 36 patients with advanced NSCLC. On day 1, erlotinib 150 mg OD. was initiated, and the 2 oral probe drugs midazolam (2mg) and caffeine (100mg) were added on day 1. Plasma and DBS were collected for erlotinib, OSI-420 and probe drugs for up to 6 hr on day 1 and 2-weekly up to week 10...
April 26, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444930/does-postexercise-modelled-capillary-blood-flow-accurately-reflect-cardiovascular-effects-by-different-exercise-intensities
#13
F Stöcker, C Von Oldershausen, F K Paternoster, T Schulz, R Oberhoffer
Blood flow (BF) in exercising muscles is an important factor for exercise capacity. Recently, a non-invasive method to estimate capillary BF (Qcap ) was introduced. Using this method, the Fick principle is re-arranged by using relative differences in deoxygenated haemoglobin (ΔHHb) as a surrogate for arteriovenous O2 difference and pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2 ) instead of muscular oxygen uptake. The aim of this study was to examine (I) the relationship between Qcap and exercise intensity during and following exercise, and (II) to critically reflect the Qcap approach...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444912/whole-genome-sequencing-reveals-a-novel-deletion-variant-in-the-kit-gene-in-horses-with-white-spotted-coat-colour-phenotypes
#14
N Dürig, R Jude, H Holl, S A Brooks, C Lafayette, V Jagannathan, T Leeb
White spotting phenotypes in horses can range in severity from the common white markings up to completely white horses. EDNRB, KIT, MITF, PAX3 and TRPM1 represent known candidate genes for such phenotypes in horses. For the present study, we re-investigated a large horse family segregating a variable white spotting phenotype, for which conventional Sanger sequencing of the candidate genes' individual exons had failed to reveal the causative variant. We obtained whole genome sequence data from an affected horse and specifically searched for structural variants in the known candidate genes...
April 26, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444848/biologically-meaningful-scents-a-framework-for-understanding-predator-prey-research-across-disciplines
#15
Michael H Parsons, Raimund Apfelbach, Peter B Banks, Elissa Z Cameron, Chris R Dickman, Anke S K Frank, Menna E Jones, Ian S McGregor, Stuart McLean, Dietland Müller-Schwarze, Elisa E Sparrow, Daniel T Blumstein
Fear of predation is a universal motivator. Because predators hunt using stealth and surprise, there is a widespread ability among prey to assess risk from chemical information - scents - in their environment. Consequently, scents often act as particularly strong modulators of memory and emotions. Recent advances in ecological research and analytical technology are leading to novel ways to use this chemical information to create effective attractants, repellents and anti-anxiolytic compounds for wildlife managers, conservation biologists and health practitioners...
April 26, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444814/chronic-antibody-mediated-rejection-in-nonhuman-primate-renal-allografts-validation-of-human-histological-and-molecular-phenotypes
#16
B A Adam, R N Smith, I A Rosales, M Matsunami, B Afzali, T Oura, A B Cosimi, T Kawai, R B Colvin, M Mengel
Molecular testing represents a promising adjunct for the diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Here we apply a novel gene expression platform in sequential formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from nonhuman primate (NHP) renal transplants. We analyzed 34 previously-described gene transcripts related to AMR in humans in 197 archival NHP samples, including 102 from recipients that developed chronic AMR, 80 from recipients without AMR, and 15 normal native nephrectomies. Three endothelial genes (VWF, DARC, CAV1), derived from 10-fold cross-validation ROC curve analysis, demonstrated excellent discrimination between AMR and non-AMR samples (AUC=0...
April 26, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444806/swine-foetal-myogenesis-in-different-gestation-periods
#17
J Y P Palencia, C A P Garbossa, R P Betarelli, L S Fonseca, E Lanferdini, G C Guimarães, M G Zangeronimo, A P Schinckel, M L T Abreu
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of sex and uterus position on swine foetal myogenesis at different gestational ages. Fifteen primiparous sows were divided into three groups according to gestational age: 50, 80, and 106 days. The experiment was a block randomized factorial design with two sexes (male and female) and three uterine regions (apex, middle, and base). After slaughter, each uterus horn was divided into three segments of equal length: apex region near the ovary; base region near the uterine body; and the middle region, lying between the apex and base regions...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444804/effect-of-resistant-starch-on-the-intestinal-health-of-old-dogs-fermentation-products-and-histological-features-of-the-intestinal-mucosa
#18
M C Peixoto, É M Ribeiro, A P J Maria, B A Loureiro, L G di Santo, T C Putarov, F N Yoshitoshi, G T Pereira, L R M Sá, A C Carciofi
The effects of resistant starch (RS) intake on nutrient digestibility, microbial fermentation products, faecal IgA, faecal pH, and histological features of the intestinal mucosa of old dogs were evaluated. The same formulation was extruded in two different conditions: one to obtain elevated starch cooking degree with low RS content (0.21%) and the other lower starch cooking with high RS content (1.46%). Eight geriatric Beagles (11.5 ± 0.38 years old) were fed each diet for 61 days in a crossover design...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444779/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-propofol-vs-thiopentone-and-desflurane-for-fatigue-after-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#19
T Nostdahl, O M Fredheim, T Bernklev, T S Doksrod, R M Mohus, J Raeder
Fatigue may delay functional recovery after day surgery and may be more common after propofol anaesthesia. We randomly allocated 123 participants scheduled for ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy to induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia with propofol or thiopentone and desflurane. Postoperative fatigue was unaffected by the allocated anaesthetic. The combined mean (SD) Identity-Consequences Fatigue Scale of 34.3 (15.1) before surgery increased in the first postoperative week: to 60.4 (21.1) on day 1, p < 0...
April 26, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444756/e7-1057%C3%AE-ta-mutation-of-the-acidic-%C3%AE-glucosidase-gene-causes-pompe-s-disease-in-droughtmaster-cattle
#20
R E Lyons, D J Johnston, M R McGowan, A Laing, B Robinson, H Owen, B D Hill, B M Burns
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether known loss-of-function alleles of the acidic α-glucosidase gene (GAA) are present in the Droughtmaster breed and, if so, whether the clinical signs and pathology of generalised glycogenosis (Pompe's disease) previously reported in other affected cattle are also seen in homozygous Droughtmasters. DESIGN: Existing genomic and other diagnostic tests developed for generalised glycogenosis in cattle were used to test for the presence of the three known loss-of-function alleles of GAA in a herd of Droughtmaster cattle...
May 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
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