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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673534/solution-nmr-studies-of-anesthetic-interactions-with-ion-channels
#1
Vasyl Bondarenko, Marta Wells, Yan Xu, Pei Tang
NMR spectroscopy is one of the major tools to provide atomic resolution protein structural information. It has been used to elucidate the molecular details of interactions between anesthetics and ion channels, to identify anesthetic binding sites, and to characterize channel dynamics and changes introduced by anesthetics. In this chapter, we present solution NMR methods essential for investigating interactions between ion channels and general anesthetics, including both volatile and intravenous anesthetics...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673527/x-ray-crystallographic-studies-for-revealing-binding-sites-of-general-anesthetics-in-pentameric-ligand-gated-ion-channels
#2
Qiang Chen, Yan Xu, Pei Tang
X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool in structural biology and can offer insight into structured-based understanding of general anesthetic action on various relevant molecular targets, including pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs). In this chapter, we outline the procedures for expression and purification of pLGICs. Optimization of crystallization conditions, especially to achieve high-resolution structures of pLGICs bound with general anesthetics, is also presented. Case studies of pLGICs bound with the volatile general anesthetic isoflurane, 2-bromoethanol, and the intravenous general anesthetic ketamine are revisited...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629959/baseline-cerebral-metabolic-rate-is-a-critical-determinant-of-the-cerebral-vasodilating-potency-of-volatile-anesthetic-agents
#3
John C Drummond
Halothane is commonly viewed as a more potent cerebral vasodilator than isoflurane. It was speculated that the lesser vasodilation caused by isoflurane might be the result of the greater reduction in cerebral metabolic rate (CMR) that it causes, and that the relative vasodilating potencies of halothane and isoflurane would be similar if the two agents were administered in a situation that precluded volatile-agent-induced depression of CMR. To test this hypothesis, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2) were measured in two groups of rabbits before and after the administration of 0...
April 9, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627934/inhibition-of-microrna-23-contributes-to-the-isoflurane-mediated-cardioprotection-against-oxidative-stress
#4
Hai-Jian Liu, Bin Liu
Isoflurane is one of the most frequently used volatile anesthetics in clinical practice for inhalational anesthesia. It is widely studied that isoflurane mediates cardioprotection during multiple pathological processes. However, the precise mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Neonatal cardiomyocytes were isolated and cultured, followed by treatments with isoflurane at 0, 50, 100 or 200 µM. Rat cardiomyoblast cell line, H9c2, was treated with H2 O2 . Expression of miR-23 was measured by qRT-PCR. The cell survival rate of H9c2 in response to H2 O2 treatments was evaluated by MTT assay...
April 7, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588028/high-throughput-screening-to-identify-anesthetic-ligands-using-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles
#5
Kellie A Woll, Roderic G Eckenhoff
General anesthetics are considered among the most significant advances in modern medicine; however, they are also some of the most dangerous commonly administered drugs. Despite this, the discovery of novel anesthetics has been slow, with few clinically used agents regardless of their nearly 200-year history. Xenopus laevis frogs have a long history as a model organism and provide a vital bridge between in vitro and preclinical mammalian assays. The provided protocols are efficient and cost-effective and therefore readily amendable for high-throughput evaluation of novel anesthetic ligands...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588026/approaches-to-anesthetic-mechanisms-the-c-elegans-model
#6
Louise M Steele, Margaret M Sedensky
Understanding the mechanisms of volatile anesthetics has been a complex problem that has intrigued investigators for decades. Through the use of relatively simple model organisms-including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans-progress has been made. Like any model system, C. elegans has both advantages and disadvantages, which are discussed in this chapter. Methods are provided for exposing worms to volatile anesthetics in airtight glass chambers, and for measuring the concentrations of anesthetic in the chambers by gas chromatography...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576786/malignant-hyperthermia-report-of-two-cases-with-a-neglected-complication-in-cardiac-surgery
#7
Mahdi Neshati, Manizheh Azadeh, Parinaz Neshati, Tyrone Burnett, Ryan Saenz, Bahman Karbasi, Ghader Shahmohammadi, Eskandar Nourizadeh, Mohsen Rostamzadeh
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) can develop after contact with volatile anesthetics (halothane, enflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane) as well as succinylcholine and cause hypermetabolism during anesthesia, which is associated with high mortality when untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment could be life-saving. During cardiac surgery, hypothermia and cardiopulmonary bypass make the diagnosis of MH extremely challenging compared with other settings such as general surgery. We herein report 2 cases of MH, graded as "very likely" or "almost certain" based on the MH clinical grading scale...
October 2017: Journal of Tehran Heart Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574103/sevoflurane-exaggerates-cognitive-decline-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-by-aggravating-microglia-mediated-neuroinflammation-via-downregulation-of-ppar-%C3%AE-in-the-hippocampus
#8
Ping Dong, Jian Zhao, Ning Li, Lu Lingling, Liang Li, Xiyan Zhang, Yang Bo, Zhang Li, Dongliang Li
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is a common complication associated with anesthesia and surgery. Sevoflurane is a widely used volatile anesthetic in the clinical setting. Preclinical studies show that sevoflurane alone does not appear to cause cognitive dysfunction. Here, we examined whether sevoflurane induces cognitive decline under chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) conditions. Rats were exposed to CIH or control for 4 weeks. Two weeks after starting intermittent hypoxia, these animals underwent either 2...
March 21, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570154/isoflurane-impacts-murine-melanoma-growth-in-a-sex-specific-immune-dependent-manner-a-brief-report
#9
Angela Meier, Emilie T E Gross, Jan M Schilling, Ruth Seelige, Yujin Jung, Endi Santosa, Stephen Searles, Tuo Lin, Xin M Tu, Hemal H Patel, Jack D Bui
The impact of volatile anesthetics on cancer progression has been observed for decades, but sex differences have not been described. Male and female immune systems vary considerably, and the immune system plays an important role in limiting cancer growth. Currently, mouse models describing the impact of volatile anesthetics on cancer growth are limited to same-sex models. In this brief report, we describe a sex-specific impact of isoflurane on melanoma growth observed in wild-type but not in immune-deficient mice...
March 21, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569577/effects-of-volatile-anesthetic-preconditioning-on-expression-of-nfkb-regulated-genes-in-aged-rat-myocardium
#10
Zhong Cai-Yun, Qiu Hong, Chen Jun, Liu Hong
Volatile anesthetic preconditioning has been shown to be a potent way to provide myocardium protection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury; however, this cardioprotection is lost in senescent animal models and elderly patients. NFkB-regulated genes have been linked to myocardial I/R injury and anesthetic preconditioning. Here, we investigated NFkB activation related to anesthetic preconditioning in aging rat myocardium. Isolated, Langendorff perfused rat hearts from Fischer 344 male rats, 24 months old, were randomly assigned to one of the three groups...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554593/mir-34a-5p-mediates-sevoflurane-preconditioning-induced-inhibition-of-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury-through-stx1a-in-cardiomyocytes
#11
Li Wenlan, Xia Zhongyuan, Lei Shaoqing, Zhan Liying, Zhao Bo, Liu Min
Anesthetic preconditioning is a cellular protective approach whereby exposure to a volatile anesthetic renders cardio injury. Sevoflurane preconditioning has been shown to exhibit cardio protective effect on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Syntaxin 1A (STX1A), an important regulator in cardio disease, was predicted to be the target gene of microRNA-34a-5p (miR-34a-5p). The current research was designed to delineate the role of miR-34a-5p in regulating sevoflurane preconditioning in cardiomyocytes injury...
March 16, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554264/isoflurane-but-not-halothane-prevents-and-reverses-helpless-behavior-a-role-for-eeg-burst-suppression
#12
P Leon Brown, Panos Zanos, Leiming Wang, Greg I Elmer, Todd D Gould, Paul D Shepard
Background: The volatile anesthetic isoflurane may exert a rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effect in patients with medication-resistant depression. The mechanism underlying the putative therapeutic actions of the anesthetic have been attributed to its ability to elicit cortical burst suppression, a distinct EEG pattern with features resembling the characteristic changes that occur following electroconvulsive therapy. It is currently unknown whether the antidepressant actions of isoflurane are shared by anesthetics that do not elicit cortical burst suppression...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550808/phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor-roflumilast-protects-rat-hippocampal-neurons-from-sevoflurane-induced-injury-via-modulation-of-mek-erk-signaling-pathway
#13
Sheng Peng, Hong-Zhu Yan, Pei-Rong Liu, Xiao-Wei Shi, Chun-Liang Liu, Qi Liu, Yu Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sevoflurane, a commonly used volatile anesthetic, recently has been found has neurotoxicity in the central nervous system of neonatal rodents. This study aimed to reveal whether phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE-4) inhibitor roflumilast has protective functions in sevoflurane-induced nerve damage. METHODS: Hippocampal neurons were isolated from juvenile rats, and were exposed to sevoflurane with or without roflumilast treatment. Cell viability and apoptosis were respectively assessed by CCK-8 and flow cytometry...
March 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509579/does-equi-minimum-alveolar-concentration-value-ensure-equivalent-analgesic-or-hypnotic-potency-a-comparison-between-desflurane-and-sevoflurane
#14
Kyoung-Ho Ryu, Keulame Song, Tae-Young Lim, Won-Jun Choi, Yun-Hong Kim, Hyun-Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) has traditionally been used to compare the potency of volatile anesthetics. However, as it reflects the spinal mechanism of immobility rather than the cerebral mechanism of analgesia and hypnosis, it is doubtful that equi-MAC connotes equivalent analgesic or hypnotic potency. The level of analgesia and hypnosis can be assessed using surgical pleth index and bispectral index (BIS) values, respectively. This study was designed to compare the surgical pleth index and BIS values produced by equi-MAC of desflurane and sevoflurane in patients undergoing single-agent volatile anesthesia...
March 6, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505303/identification-of-binding-sites-contributing-to-volatile-anesthetic-effects-on-gaba-type-a-receptors
#15
Kellie A Woll, Xiaojuan Zhou, Natarajan V Bhanu, Benjamin A Garcia, Manuel Covarrubias, Keith W Miller, Roderic G Eckenhoff
Most general anesthetics enhance GABA type A (GABAA ) receptor activity at clinically relevant concentrations. Sites of action of volatile anesthetics on the GABAA receptor remain unknown, whereas sites of action of many intravenous anesthetics have been identified in GABAA receptors by using photolabeling. Here, we used photoactivatable analogs of isoflurane (AziISO) and sevoflurane (AziSEVO) to locate their sites on α1 β3 γ2L and α1 β3 GABAA receptors. As with isoflurane and sevoflurane, AziISO and AziSEVO enhanced the currents elicited by GABA...
March 5, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459111/a-trial-of-two-anesthetic-regimes-for-minimally-invasive-mitral-valve-repair
#16
Marco Moscarelli, Nora Terrasini, Anna Nunziata, Prakash Punjabi, Gianni Angelini, Marco Solinas, Alba Buselli, Paolo Del Sarto, Dorela Haxhiademi
OBJECTIVE: Minimally invasive mitral valve repair may be associated with prolonged cardioplegic arrest times and ischemic reperfusion injury. Intravenous (propofol) and volatile (sevoflurane) anesthesia are used routinely during cardiac surgery and are thought to provide cardioprotection; however, the individual contribution of each regimen to cardioprotection is unknown. Therefore, the authors sought to compare the cardioprotective effects of propofol and sevoflurane anesthesia in patients undergoing minimally invasive mitral valve repair...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458412/comparison-of-volatile-anesthetic-induced-preconditioning-in-cardiac-and-cerebral-system-molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-aspects
#17
REVIEW
Shasha Chen, Christopher Lotz, Norbert Roewer, Jens-Albert Broscheit
Volatile anesthetic-induced preconditioning (APC) has shown to have cardiac and cerebral protective properties in both pre-clinical models and clinical trials. Interestingly, accumulating evidences demonstrate that, except from some specific characters, the underlying molecular mechanisms of APC-induced protective effects in myocytes and neurons are very similar; they share several major intracellular signaling pathways, including mediating mitochondrial function, release of inflammatory cytokines and cell apoptosis...
February 20, 2018: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452603/the-effects-of-desflurane-and-sevoflurane-on-nesfatin-1-levels-in-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
A T D Ozcan, C B Altin, S Erdogan, M Ergin, A Çiftçi, H Kara, S M Aksoy, A But
BACKGROUND: Nesfatin-1 is involved in cardiovascular regulation, stress-related responses. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of volatile anesthetics on Nesfatin-1 levels. METHOD: Fourty-two patients aged 30-65 years with the American Society Anesthesiology (ASA) Class I-II who were scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study Patients were randomized into two group; desflurane administered group (Group I, n = 21) and sevoflurane administered group (Group II, n = 21)...
February 16, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434807/influence-of-sevoflurane-exposure-on-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-and-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-crmp-2-signaling-pathways-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#19
Yafang Liu, Chuiliang Liu, Minting Zeng, Xue Han, Kun Zhang, Yanni Fu, Jue Li, Yujuan Li
Prolonged exposure to volatile anesthetics causes neurodegeneration in developing animal brains. However, their underlying mechanisms of action remain unclear. The current study investigated the expression of proteins associated with the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and protein kinase B (Akt)/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)/collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) signaling pathways in the cortices of neonatal mice following exposure to sevoflurane. Seven-day-old (P7) neonatal C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 2 groups and either exposed to 2...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402974/genetic-variability-affects-absolute-and-relative-potencies-and-kinetics-of-the-anesthetics-isoflurane-and-sevoflurane-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Zachariah P G Olufs, Carin A Loewen, Barry Ganetzky, David A Wassarman, Misha Perouansky
Genetic variability affects the response to numerous xenobiotics but its role in the clinically-observed irregular responses to general anesthetics remains uncertain. To investigate the pharmacogenetics of volatile general anesthetics (VGAs), we developed a Serial Anesthesia Array apparatus to expose multiple Drosophila melanogaster samples to VGAs and behavioral assays to determine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of VGAs. We studied the VGAs isoflurane and sevoflurane in four wild type strains from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel, two commonly used laboratory strains (Canton S and w 1118 ), and a mutant in Complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ND23 60114 )...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
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