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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684915/histological-analysis-of-term-placentas-from-hyperimmune-globulin-treated-and-untreated-mothers-with-primary-cytomegalovirus-infection
#1
Liliana Gabrielli, Maria Paola Bonasoni, Maria Pia Foschini, Enrico Maria Silini, Arsenio Spinillo, Maria Grazia Revello, Angela Chiereghin, Giulia Piccirilli, Evangelia Petrisli, Gabriele Turello, Giuliana Simonazzi, Dino Gibertoni, Tiziana Lazzarotto
BACKGROUND: The Congenital Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Prevention (CHIP) study, a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial, demonstrated that the efficacy of hyperimmune globulin (HIG) was not different from that of placebo regarding transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV) from mothers to newborns. Our aim was to analyze histologically HIG effects on placentas collected for the CHIP study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Virological and histological analyses were performed on 40 placentas from transmitter and nontransmitter HIG-treated and untreated mothers by assessing the number of CMV-positive cells, tissue viral load, tissue damage, and compensatory mechanisms...
April 23, 2018: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684832/effect-of-non-nutritive-sucking-and-sucrose-alone-and-in-combination-for-repeated-procedural-pain-in-preterm-infants-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Haixia Gao, Mei Li, Honglian Gao, Guihua Xu, Fang Li, Jing Zhou, Yunsu Zou, Honghua Jiang
BACKGROUND: Sucrose combined with non-nutritive sucking provided better pain relief than sucrose or non-nutritive sucking alone in a single painful procedure. However, whether the combination of non-nutritive sucking with sucrose could obtain a significant difference in analgesic effect of the repeated procedural pain than any single intervention has not been established. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of non-nutritive sucking and sucrose alone and in combination of repeated procedural pain in preterm infants...
April 7, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684829/the-effect-of-a-training-programme-on-school-nurses-knowledge-attitudes-and-depression-recognition-skills-the-quest-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Mark Haddad, Vanessa Pinfold, Tamsin Ford, Brendan Walsh, Andre Tylee
BACKGROUND: Mental health problems in children and young people are a vital public health issue. Only 25% of British school children with diagnosed mental health problems have specialist mental health services contact; front-line staff such as school nurses play a vital role in identifying and managing these problems, and accessing additional services for children, but there appears limited specific training and support for this aspect of their role. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of a bespoke short training programme, which incorporated interactive and didactic teaching with printed and electronic resources...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684666/systematic-review-of-preservation-solutions-for-allografts-for-liver-transplantation-based-on-a-network-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Fengying Rao, Jian Yang, Cheng Gong, Rong Huang, Qi Wang, Jun Shen
AIMS: The aim of this work was to determine the best preservation solutions for allografts for liver transplantation by quantitative network meta-analysis. METHODS: Global electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials. Seven pieces of parametric data were extracted from included studies for pooled estimation. A consistency model was used for direct and indirect comparisons. The cumulative probability P value was utilized to rank the solutions...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684661/effects-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-adherence-to-and-persistence-with-long-term-statin-therapy-secondary-analysis-from-the-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-vida-study
#5
Zhenqiang Wu, Carlos A Camargo, Kay-Tee Khaw, Debbie Waayer, Carlene M M Lawes, Les Toop, Robert Scragg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Long-term statin use increases survival. However, the adherence to and persistence with statin use are challenging and this influences the success of statin treatment. Our aim was to explore if monthly vitamin D supplementation (100,000-IU) improves the adherence to and persistence with long-term statin use in older adults. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a trial comparing data on dispensed statin prescriptions, between participants allocated to vitamin D supplementation or placebo, for those taking statin therapy...
April 7, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684633/efficacy-of-a-carrageenan-gel-against-transmission-of-cervical-hpv-catch-interim-analysis-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-2b-trial
#6
Sindy Magnan, Joseph E Tota, Mariam El-Zein, Ann N Burchell, John T Schiller, Alex Ferenczy, Pierre-Paul Tellier, François Coutlée, Eduardo L Franco
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy of a carrageenan-based lubricant gel in reducing the risk of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in women. METHODS: We conducted a planned interim analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2B trial. Women aged 18 years and older were randomly assigned (1:1) to a carrageenan-based or a placebo gel to be self-applied every other day for the first month and prior to and following each intercourse during follow-up...
April 20, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684610/fishmeal-replacement-by-rice-protein-concentrate-with-xylooligosaccharides-supplement-benefits-the-growth-performance-antioxidant-capability-and-immune-responses-against-aeromonas-hydrophila-in-blunt-snout-bream-megalobrama-amblycephala
#7
Kenneth Prudence Abasubong, Wen-Bin Liu, Ding-Dong Zhang, Xiang-Yang Yuan, Si-Lei Xia, Chao Xu, Xiang-Fei Li
This study aimed to investigate the effects of fishmeal (FM) replacement by rice protein concentrate (RPC) with a xylooligosaccharides supplement on the growth performance, antioxidant capability and immune response against Aeromonas hydrophila in blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Fish (46.85 ± 0.34 g) were randomly assigned to one of 6 diets, namely the control diet (containing FM), the RPC diet (FM replaced by RPC) and RPC diet supplemented with 0.5, 1.5, 2.3 and 3% XOS respectively, for 8 weeks...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684467/vitamin-c-for-the-treatment-of-sepsis-the-scientific-rationale
#8
REVIEW
Paul E Marik
Most vertebrates can synthesize vitamin C with synthesis increasing during stress. Humans, however, have lost the ability to synthesize vitamin C. Vitamin C is an important anti-oxidant and an enzyme cofactor for many important biological reactions. Sepsis results in the overwhelming production of reactive oxygen species with widespread endothelial, cellular and mitochondrial injury leading to progressive organ failure. Sepsis is associated with an acute deficiency of vitamin C. In experimental sepsis models, intravenous vitamin C reduces organ injury and improves survival...
April 20, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684391/a-randomized-control-trial-of-preoperative-prophylactic-antibiotics-prior-to-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-in-low-infectious-risk-population-a-report-from-the-edge-consortium
#9
Ben H Chew, Nicole L Miller, Joel E Abbott, Dirk Lange, Mitchell R Humphreys, Vernon M Pais, Manoj Monga, Amy E Krambeck, Roger L Sur
INTRODUCTION: Single institution studies suggest a benefit of a week of preoperative antibiotics prior to percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). These studies are limited by lower quality methodology such as the inclusion of heterogeneous populations or the use of non-standard definitions of sepsis. The American Urological Association (AUA) Best Practice Statement recommends <24 hours of IV antibiotics, but no other data exist about the duration/benefit of preoperative antibiotics. We sought to perform a rigorous (using CONSORT guidelines), multi-institutional trial to assess preoperative antibiotics in PCNL patients at low risk of developing infections...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684316/continuous-positive-airway-pressure-adherence-predictors-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-enriched-with-women-and-minorities
#10
Anna M May, Tarek Gharibeh, Lu Wang, Amanda Hurley, Harneet Walia, Kingman P Strohl, Reena Mehra
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) clinical trials involving predominantly Caucasian males limits interpretability and generalizability. We examined predictors of CPAP adherence in a clinical trial enriched with minorities. METHODS: The Sleep Apnea Stress Study - a randomized double-blind, sham-controlled trial of moderate-severe OSA patients - included participants with complete 8-week adherence data (n=138)...
April 20, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684306/does-sphenopalatine-ganglion-block-improve-pain-control-and-intraoperative-hemodynamics-in-children-undergoing-palatoplasty-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Anantanarayanan Parameswaran, Muruganand V Ganeshmurthy, Yashoda Ashok, Manikandhan Ramanathan, Anthony F Markus, Hermann F Sailer
PURPOSE: Children undergoing cleft palate repair have pain, dysphagia, and wound irritation in the immediate postoperative phase that may compromise surgical outcomes. This trial evaluates the efficacy of the sphenopalatine ganglion block (SPGB) in optimizing intraoperative hemodynamics and postoperative analgesia in children undergoing primary palatoplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing the use of SPGB with general anesthesia (GA) (study group) versus the use of only GA (control group)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684256/reirradiation-of-head-and-neck-cancer-using-modern-highly-conformal-techniques
#12
REVIEW
Jennifer C Ho, Jack Phan
Locoregional disease recurrence or development of a second primary cancer after definitive radiotherapy for head and neck cancers remains a treatment challenge. Reirradiation utilizing traditional techniques has been limited by concern for serious toxicity. With the advent of newer, more precise radiotherapy techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), proton radiotherapy, and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), there has been renewed interest in curative-intent head and neck reirradiation...
April 23, 2018: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684136/effects-of-a-group-mediated-exercise-and-dietary-intervention-in-the-treatment-of-prostate-cancer-patients-undergoing-androgen-deprivation-therapy-results-from-the-idea-p-trial
#13
Brian C Focht, Alexander R Lucas, Elizabeth Grainger, Christina Simpson, Ciaran M Fairman, Jennifer M Thomas-Ahner, Jackie Buell, J Paul Monk, Amir Mortazavi, Steven K Clinton
Background: Although androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is the foundation of treatment for prostate cancer, the physiological impacts of ADT result in functional decline and enhanced risk of chronic disease and metabolic syndrome. Purpose: The Individualized Diet and Exercise Adherence Pilot Trial (IDEA-P) is a single-blind, randomized, pilot trial comparing the effects of a group-mediated, cognitive-behavioral (GMCB) exercise and dietary intervention (EX+D) with those of a standard-of-care (SC) control during the treatment of prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT...
April 19, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684104/maternal-vitamin-d-supplementation-during-pregnancy
#14
Elizabeth M Curtis, Rebecca J Moon, Nicholas C Harvey, Cyrus Cooper
Introduction: Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy has been linked to many health outcomes in mother and offspring. A wealth of observational studies have reported on both obstetric outcomes and complications, including pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, mode and timing of delivery. Many foetal and childhood outcomes are also linked to vitamin D status, including measures of foetal size, body composition and skeletal mineralization, in addition to later childhood outcomes, such as asthma...
April 19, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684028/does-chlorhexidine-reduce-bacteremia-following-tooth-extraction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Iciar Arteagoitia, Carlos Rodriguez Andrés, Eva Ramos
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Scientific evidence is not clear regarding the use of antimicrobial mouth rinse before dental extraction to reduce bacteremia. We tested the null hypothesis that there would be no difference in the incidence of bacteremia following dental extractions in patients treated with or without chlorhexidine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis following the recommendations proposed by PRISMA Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683997/pancreaticojejunostomy-versus-pancreaticogastrostomy-after-pancreaticoduodenectomy-an-up-to-date-meta-analysis-of-rcts-applying-the-isgps-2016-criteria
#16
Yunxiao Lyu, Ting Li, Yunxiao Cheng, Bin Wang, Liang Chen, Sicong Zhao
The goal of our study was to compare the impact of pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) versus pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) on the incidence of complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy. A systematic search was performed using RevMan 5.3 software. A meta-analysis showed that PG was not superior to PJ in terms of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). In multicenter randomized controlled trials, the incidence of POPF was lower in patients undergoing PG than in those undergoing PJ. However, PG was associated with an increased risk of postoperative intraluminal hemorrhage, but no significant difference was observed between 2-layer PG and PJ...
April 20, 2018: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683979/lifestyle-interventions-for-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-network-meta-analysis
#17
Tian-Tian Zou, Chao Zhang, Yi-Fan Zhou, Yi-Jing Han, Jiao-Jiao Xiong, Xi-Xi Wu, Yong-Ping Chen, Ming-Hua Zheng
Lifestyle interventions remain the first-line therapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aims to evaluate the individual impact of exercise and/or dietary interventions on the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), and BMI. Randomized-controlled trials from patients diagnosed with NAFLD were included in the meta-analysis if they reported the associations between changes in ALT, AST, HOMA-IR, or BMI and types of lifestyle interventions...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683943/pentoxifylline-added-to-steroid-window-treatment-phase-modified-apoptotic-gene-expression-in-pediatric-patients-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#18
Jesus Meza-Arroyo, Alejandro Bravo-Cuellar, Luis Felipe Jave-Suárez, Georgina Hernández-Flores, Pablo Ortiz-Lazareno, Adriana Aguilar-Lemarroy, Marlin Padilla-Corona, Fernando Sanchez-Zubieta, Oscar Gonzalez-Ramella
Pentoxifylline is a xanthine that possesses antitumor properties and that can induce higher apoptosis in the leukemic cells of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during treatment with prednisone. We conducted a phase 1 pilot, controlled, randomized trial to evaluate the gene expression modified by pentoxifylline during the steroid window of induction to remission phase in patients newly diagnosed with ALL. Experimental and control treatments induced broad changes in the gene expression profile...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683855/a-week-48-randomized-phase-3-trial-of-darunavir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir-alafenamide-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-1-patients
#19
Joseph J Eron, Chloe Orkin, Joel Gallant, Jean-Michel Molina, Eugenia Negredo, Andrea Antinori, Anthony Mills, Jacques Reynes, Erika Van Landuyt, Erkki Lathouwers, Veerle Hufkens, John Jezorwski, Simon Vanveggel, Magda Opsomer
OBJECTIVES: To investigate efficacy and safety of a single-tablet regimen of darunavir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (D/C/F/TAF) 800/150/200/10 mg vs. darunavir/cobicistat plus emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxyl fumarate (TDF) (control) in antiretroviral-treatment-naïve, HIV-1-infected adults. DESIGN: Phase-3, randomized, active-controlled, double-blind, international, multicenter, noninferiority study (NCT02431247). METHODS: Seven hundred and twenty-five participants were randomized (1 : 1) to D/C/F/TAF (362) or control (363)...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683850/comparative-effectiveness-of-novel-non-monetary-incentives-to-promote-hiv-testing-a-randomized-trial
#20
Gabriel Chamie, Elisabeth M Schaffer, Alex Ndyabakira, Devy M Emperador, Dalsone Kwarisiima, Carol S Camlin, Diane V Havlir, James G Kahn, Moses R Kamya, Harsha Thirumurthy
OBJECTIVE: To assess the comparative effectiveness of alternative incentive-based interventions to promote HIV testing among men. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. METHODS: We enumerated four Ugandan parishes and enrolled men at least 18 years. Participants were randomized to six groups that received incentives of varying type and amount for HIV testing at a 13-day community health campaign. Incentive types were: gain-framed (control): participants were told they would receive a prize for testing; loss-framed: participants were told they had won a prize, shown several prizes, asked to select one, then told they would lose the prize if they did not test; lotteries: those who tested had a chance to win larger prizes...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
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