Read by QxMD icon Read


M Hiligsmann, N Burlet, P Fardellone, N Al-Daghri, J-Y Reginster
: The recommended intake of vitamin D-fortified dairy products can substantially decrease the burden of osteoporotic fractures and seems an economically beneficial strategy in the general French population aged over 60 years. INTRODUCTION: This study aims to assess the public health and economic impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products in the general French population aged over 60 years. METHODS: We estimated the lifetime health impacts expressed in number of fractures prevented, life years gained, and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained of the recommended intake of dairy products in the general French population over 60 years for 1 year (2015)...
October 18, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Paula A van Luijt, Eveline Am Heijnsdijk, Nicolien T van Ravesteyn, Solveig Hofvind, Harry J de Koning
OBJECTIVE: Fluctuations in the incidence of breast cancer in Norway in the last three decades are partly explained by the use of hormone replacement therapy and mammography screening, but overdiagnosis has also been suggested as a cause. We assessed the trends in breast cancer incidence and overdiagnosis in Norway. METHODS: We calibrated our microsimulation model to Norwegian Cancer Registration data. The model takes into account the use of mammography (both within and outside the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme) and of hormone replacement therapy...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Screening
T Mori, C J Crandall, D A Ganz
: We developed a Markov microsimulation model among hypothetical cohorts of community-dwelling US white women without prior major osteoporotic fractures over a lifetime horizon. At ages 75 and 80, adding 1 year of exercise to 5 years of oral bisphosphonate therapy is cost-effective at a conventionally accepted threshold compared with bisphosphonates alone. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of the combined strategy of oral bisphosphonate therapy for 5 years and falls prevention exercise for 1 year compared with either strategy in isolation...
October 11, 2016: Osteoporosis International
P M Down, A J Bradley, J E Breen, W J Browne, T Kypraios, M J Green
Importance of the dry period with respect to mastitis control is now well established although the precise interventions that reduce the risk of acquiring intramammary infections during this time are not clearly understood. There are very few intervention studies that have measured the clinical efficacy of specific mastitis interventions within a cost-effectiveness framework so there remains a large degree of uncertainty about the impact of a specific intervention and its costeffectiveness. The aim of this study was to use a Bayesian framework to investigate the cost-effectiveness of mastitis controls during the dry period...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Sanjay Basu, Vishnu Shankar, John S Yudkin
BACKGROUND: Optimal prescription of blood pressure, lipid, and glycaemic control treatments for adults with type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We aimed to compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two treatment approaches for diabetes management in five low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS: We developed a microsimulation model to compare a treat-to-target (TTT) strategy, aiming to achieve target levels of biomarkers (blood pressure <130/80 mm Hg, LDL <2·59 mmol/L, and HbA1c <7% [ie, 53·0 mmol/mol]), with a benefit-based tailored treatment (BTT) strategy, aiming to lower estimated risk for complications (to a 10 year cardiovascular risk <10% and lifetime microvascular risk <5%) on the basis of age, sex, and biomarker values...
October 4, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Melanie Tomintz, Bernhard Kosar, Graham Clarke
BACKGROUND: Reducing the smoking population is still high on the policy agenda, as smoking leads to many preventable diseases, such as lung cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and more. In Austria, data on smoking prevalence only exists at the federal state level. This provides an interesting overview about the current health situation, but for regional planning authorities these data are often insufficient as they can hide pockets of high and low smoking prevalence in certain municipalities...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Nicole G Campos, Monisha Sharma, Andrew Clark, Jane J Kim, Stephen C Resch
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women, with 85% of cases and deaths occurring in developing countries. While organized screening programs have reduced cervical cancer incidence in high-income countries through detection and treatment of precancerous lesions, the implementation of organized screening has not been effective in low-resource settings due to lack of infrastructure and limited budgets. Our objective was to estimate the cost of comprehensive primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention in low- and middle-income countries...
2016: PloS One
Roy Lay-Yee, Janet Pearson, Peter Davis, Martin von Randow, Ngaire Kerse, Laurie Brown
The demographic ageing of New Zealand society, as elsewhere in the developed world, has dramatically increased the proportion of older people (aged 65 years and over) in the population. This has major policy implications for the future organisation of social care. Our objective was to test the effects on social care use, first, of putative changes in the overall disability profile of older people, and second, of alterations to the balance of their care, i.e. whether it was community-based or residential. In order to undertake these experiments, we developed a microsimulation model of the later life course using individual-level data from two official national survey series on health and disability, respectively, to generate a synthetic version which replicated original data and parameter settings...
October 6, 2016: Health & Social Care in the Community
Fang Chen, Wenqing Su, Shawn H Becker, Mike Payne, Cynthia M Castro Sweet, Anne L Peters, Timothy M Dall
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease impose substantial clinical and economic burdens for seniors (age 65 and above) and the Medicare program. Intensive Behavioral Counseling (IBC) interventions like the National Diabetes Prevention Program (NDPP), have demonstrated effectiveness in reducing excess body weight and lowering or delaying morbidity onset. This paper estimated the potential health implications and medical savings of a digital version of IBC modeled after the NDPP...
2016: PloS One
Peggy Vadillo Orenstein, Lu Shi
We use microsimulation to forecast changes in coronary heart disease (CHD) among adults 45 or above over a 20-year time horizon in Los Angeles County (N = 3.4 million), a county with 12 635 CHD deaths in 2010. We simulate individuals' life course and calibrate CHD trends to observed trends in the past. Using the Health Forecasting Community Health Simulation Model, we simulate CHD prevalence and CHD mortality in 2 CHD prevention scenarios: (1) "comprehensive hypertension intervention" and (2) "gradual reduction of the average adult body mass index back to the year 2000 level...
2016: Inquiry: a Journal of Medical Care Organization, Provision and Financing
F Schwendicke, W M Thomson, J M Broadbent, M Stolpe
Caries increment is affected by sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Taxing SSBs could reduce sugar consumption and caries increment. The authors aimed to estimate the impact of a 20% SSB sales tax on caries increment and associated treatment costs (as well as the resulting tax revenue) in the context of Germany. A model-based approach was taken, estimating the effects for the German population aged 14 to 79 y over a 10-y period. Taxation was assumed to affect beverage-associated sugar consumption via empirical demand elasticities...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
B Sharif, R Garner, D Hennessy, C Sanmartin, W M Flanagan, D A Marshall
OBJECTIVE: To estimate and project the productivity costs of work loss (PCWL) associated with osteoarthritis (OA) in Canada using a population-based health microsimulation model (POHEM). DESIGN: We integrated an employment module based on 2006 Canadian Census into the previously developed microsimulation model of OA. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) Cycle 2.1 with an OA sample aged 25-64 (n = 7067) was used to calibrate the results of the employment module and to estimate the fraction of non-employment associated with OA...
September 23, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Deborah Schofield, Rupendra N Shrestha, Michelle M Cunich, Robert Tanton, Lennert Veerman, Simon J Kelly, Megan E Passey
OBJECTIVES: To project the number of older workers with lost productive life years (PLYs) due to chronic disease and resultant lost income; and lost taxes and increased welfare payments from 2015 to 2030. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Using a microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD2030, the costs of chronic disease in Australians aged 45-64 were projected to 2030. The model integrates household survey data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Surveys of Disability, Ageing and Carers (SDACs) 2003 and 2009, output from long-standing microsimulation models (STINMOD (Static Incomes Model) and APPSIM (Australian Population and Policy Simulation Model)) used by various government departments, population and labour force growth data from Treasury, and disease trends data from the Australian Burden of Disease and Injury Study (2003)...
2016: BMJ Open
Kalatu R Davies, Abenaa M Brewster, Isabelle Bedrosian, Patricia A Parker, Melissa A Crosby, Susan K Peterson, Yu Shen, Robert J Volk, Scott B Cantor
BACKGROUND: Family history of breast cancer is associated with an increased risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) even in the absence of mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1/2. We compared quality-adjusted survival after contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) with surveillance only (no CPM) among women with breast cancer incorporating the degree of family history. METHODS: We created a microsimulation model for women with first-degree, second-degree, and no family history treated for a stage I, II, or III estrogen receptor (ER)-positive or ER-negative breast cancer at the ages of 40, 50, 60, and 70...
2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Aisha Khattak, Ernest I Mandel, Matthew R Reynolds, David M Charytan
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) use is low in the setting of stable symptomatic angina in individuals with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) despite high cardiovascular risk in this population, and PCI is frequently deferred out of concern for precipitating dialysis therapy. Whether this is appropriate is uncertain, and patient-centered data comparing the relative risks and benefits of continued medical therapy versus PCI in patients with advanced CKD and stable angina are scarce...
September 16, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Sanjay Basu, Russell S Phillips, Zirui Song, Bruce E Landon, Asaf Bitton
PURPOSE: We assess the financial implications for primary care practices of participating in patient-centered medical home (PCMH) funding initiatives. METHODS: We estimated practices' changes in net revenue under 3 PCMH funding initiatives: increased fee-for-service (FFS) payments, traditional FFS with additional per-member-per-month (PMPM) payments, or traditional FFS with PMPM and pay-for-performance (P4P) payments. Net revenue estimates were based on a validated microsimulation model utilizing national practice surveys...
September 2016: Annals of Family Medicine
Peter A Muennig, Babak Mohit, Jinjing Wu, Haomiao Jia, Zohn Rosen
INTRODUCTION: Lower-income Americans are suffering from declines in income, health, and longevity over time. Income and employment policies have been proposed as a potential non-medical solution to this problem. METHODS: An interrupted time series analysis of state-level incremental supplements to the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) program was performed using data from 1993 to 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys and state-level life expectancy...
August 26, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Arindam Nandi, Itamar Megiddo, Ashvin Ashok, Amit Verma, Ramanan Laxminarayan
Each year, more than 300,000 children in India under the age of five years die from diarrheal diseases. Clean piped water and improved sanitation are known to be effective in reducing the mortality and morbidity burden of diarrhea but are not yet available to close to half of the Indian population. In this paper, we estimate the health benefits (reduced cases of diarrheal incidence and deaths averted) and economic benefits (measured by out-of-pocket treatment expenditure averted and value of insurance gained) of scaling up the coverage of piped water and improved sanitation among Indian households to a near-universal 95% level...
August 31, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Marco Ajelli, Stefano Merler, Laura Fumanelli, Ana Pastore Y Piontti, Natalie E Dean, Ira M Longini, M Elizabeth Halloran, Alessandro Vespignani
BACKGROUND: Among the three countries most affected by the Ebola virus disease outbreak in 2014-2015, Guinea presents an unusual spatiotemporal epidemic pattern, with several waves and a long tail in the decay of the epidemic incidence. METHODS: Here, we develop a stochastic agent-based model at the level of a single household that integrates detailed data on Guinean demography, hospitals, Ebola treatment units, contact tracing, and safe burial interventions. The microsimulation-based model is used to assess the effect of each control strategy and the probability of elimination of the epidemic according to different intervention scenarios, including ring vaccination with the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-vectored vaccine...
2016: BMC Medicine
Thomas G Poder
RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Water immersion during labor and birth is growing in popularity, and many hospitals are now considering offering this service to laboring women. Some advantages of water immersion are demonstrated, but others remain uncertain, and particularly, few studies have examined the financial impact of such a device on hospitals. This study simulated what could be the extra cost of water immersion for hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical outcomes were drawn from the results of systematic reviews already published, and cost units were those used in the Quebec health network...
September 4, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"