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Cervical spinal cord injury

Antigona Ulndreaj, Apostolia Tzekou, Andrea J Mothe, Ahad Siddiqui, Rachel Dragas, Charles Tator, Emina Torlakovic, Michael Fehlings
The immune system plays a critical and complex role in the pathobiology of spinal cord injury (SCI), exerting both beneficial and detrimental effects. Increasing evidence suggests that there are injury level-dependent differences in the immune response to SCI. Patients with traumatic SCI have elevated levels of circulating autoantibodies against components of the central nervous system (CNS), but the role of these antibodies in SCI outcomes remains unknown. In rodent models of mid-thoracic SCI, antibody-mediated autoimmunity appears to be detrimental to recovery...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Özlem Kirazlı, Bilgehan Solmaz, Safiye Çavdar
The dorsal column tracts (fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus) are concerned with discriminative qualities of sensation. There are controversial descriptions related to the relations of dorsal column tracts with the dorsal horn laminae in text-books. The present study aims to define the laminae of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord that contribute fibers to the dorsal column tracts in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal level. Series paraffin spinal cords sections of six formalin-embalmed adult human cadavers were evaluated...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Christopher Eric McCoy, Angelica Loza-Gomez, James Lee Puckett, Samantha Costantini, Patrick Penalosa, Craig Anderson, Carl Schultz
BACKGROUND: The association between ambulation at the scene of a motor vehicle collision (MVC) and spinal injury has never been quantified. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between ambulation and spinal injury in patients involved in a MVC. METHODS: Prospective analytical-observational cohort study. Inclusion: patients sustaining traumatic injury in a MVC. Exclusion: < 18 years old, pregnancy. PRIMARY OUTCOME: spinal injury defined as injury to the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spinal cord, bones, or ligaments...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Özlem Taşoğlu, Engin Koyuncu, Rabia Daylak, Derya Yumuşak Karacif, Zerrin I Nce, Didem Yenigün, Neşe Özgirgin
OBJECTIVE: To define the demographic and clinical characteristics of persons with spinal cord injury, rehabilitated in a primary referral rehabilitation center in Turkey. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Ankara Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Methods: Medical records of all patients with spinal cord injury (acute-subacute-chronic) at a single academic referral center over the course of one year were reviewed...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
Meagan E Ita, Nathan D Crosby, Ben A Bulka, Beth A Winkelstein
STUDY DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry labeled pre- and post-synaptic structural markers to quantify excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the spinal superficial dorsal horn at 14 days after painful facet joint injury in the rat. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between pain and synapse density in the spinal cord after facet injury. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Neck pain is a major contributor to disability and often becomes chronic...
October 17, 2016: Spine
Lynn Babcock, Cody S Olsen, David M Jaffe, Julie C Leonard
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to ascertain potential factors associated with cervical spine injuries in children injured during sports and recreational activities. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter retrospective case-control study involving children younger than 16 years who presented to emergency departments after blunt trauma and underwent cervical spine radiography. Cases had cervical spine injury from sports or recreational activities (n = 179)...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Naohiko Okabe, Takashi Shiromoto, Naoyuki Himi, Feng Lu, Emi Maruyama-Nakamura, Kazuhiko Narita, Nobuhisa Iwachidou, Yoshiki Yagita, Osamu Miyamoto
Motor map reorganization is believed to be one mechanism underlying rehabilitation-induced functional recovery. Although the ipsilesional secondary motor area has been known to reorganize motor maps and contribute to rehabilitation-induced functional recovery, it is unknown how the secondary motor area is reorganized by rehabilitative training. In the present study, using skilled forelimb reaching tasks, we investigated neural network remodeling in the rat rostral forelimb area (RFA) of the secondary motor area during 4 weeks of rehabilitative training...
October 7, 2016: Neuroscience
Benjamin De Leener, Simon Lévy, Sara M Dupont, Vladimir S Fonov, Nikola Stikov, D Louis Collins, Virginie Callot, Julien Cohen-Adad
For the past 25 years, the field of neuroimaging has witnessed the development of several software packages for processing multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to study the brain. These software packages are now routinely used by researchers and clinicians, and have contributed to important breakthroughs for the understanding of brain anatomy and function. However, no software package exists to process mpMRI data of the spinal cord. Despite the numerous clinical needs for such advanced mpMRI protocols (multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, cervical spondylotic myelopathy, etc...
October 5, 2016: NeuroImage
Hideki Shigematsu, Jason Pui Yin Cheung, Kin-Cheung Mak, Mauro Bruzzone, Keith D K Luk
PURPOSE: Patients with pre-existing cervical spinal canal stenosis (CSCS) may have minimal or no symptoms. However, performing preventive decompression is controversial as the incidence of CSCS leading to severe cord injury is unknown. Hence, this study aims to revisit the threshold for surgery in "silent" CSCS by reviewing the neurologic outcomes of patients with undiagnosed CSCS who sustained a cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI). METHODS: Two groups of subjects were recruited for analysis...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Christopher R West, Jordan W Squair, Laura McCracken, Katharine D Currie, Rishi Somvanshi, Violet Yuen, Aaron A Phillips, Ujendra Kumar, John H McNeill, Andrei V Krassioukov
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD), which describes episodic hypertension, is highly prevalent in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). In non-SCI, primary hypertension depresses cardiac contractile reserve via β-adrenergic mechanisms. In this study, we investigated whether AD contributes to the impairment in cardiac contractile function that accompanies SCI. We induced SCI in rodents and stratified them into sham, SCI, or SCI plus repetitive induction of AD. At 6-week post-SCI, we assessed cardiac function using in vivo (speckle-tracking echocardiography), ex vivo (working heart), and molecular approaches (Western blot)...
November 2016: Hypertension
Aurora Messina, Natasha Van Zyl, Michael Weymouth, Stephen Flood, Andrew Nunn, Catherine Cooper, Jodie Hahn, Mary P Galea
Loss of hand function after cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) impacts heavily on independence. Multiple nerve transfer surgery has been applied successfully after cervical SCI to restore critical arm and hand functions, and the outcome depends on nerve integrity. Nerve integrity is assessed indirectly using muscle strength testing and intramuscular electromyography, but these measures cannot show the manifestation that SCI has on the peripheral nerves. We directly assessed the morphology of nerves biopsied at the time of surgery, from three patients within 18 months post injury...
2016: Brain Sciences
Michael B Jirjis, Chris Valdez, Aditya Vedantam, Brian D Schmit, Shekar N Kurpad
OBJECTIVE The aims of this study were to determine if the morphological and functional changes induced by neural stem cell (NSC) grafts after transplantation into the rodent spinal cord can be detected using MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and, furthermore, if the DTI-derived mean diffusivity (MD) metric could be a biomarker for cell transplantation in spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS A spinal contusion was produced at the T-8 vertebral level in 40 Sprague Dawley rats that were separated into 4 groups, including a sham group (injury without NSC injection), NSC control group (injury with saline injection), co-injection control group (injury with Prograf), and the experimental group (injury with NSC and Prograf injection)...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Md Shah Alam, Kevin Phan, Rezaul Karim, Sharif Ahmed Jonayed, Hasan Khalid Md Munir, Shubhendu Chakraborty, Tashfique Alam
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) of the spine is a common site of osseous TB, accounting for 50%-60% of cases. Spinal TB still occurs in both developed and developing countries. The diagnosis of spinal TB is difficult and it commonly presents at an advanced stage. Delays in establishing diagnosis and management result in complications such as spinal cord compression and spinal deformity. METHODS: A total of 582 patients with TB of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine with moderate to severe cord compression were studied...
December 2015: J Spine Surg
Chong Tae Kim, James R Wilson, Deborah Mowery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
J W Simcock, J A Dunn, N T Buckley, K D Mohammed, G P Beadel, A G Rothwell
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective audit. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify the proportion of patients with cervical spinal cord injury who would potentially benefit from nerve transfer surgery to gain active hand opening, and to determine when a safe nerve transfer decision can be made. SETTING: Christchurch, New Zealand. METHODS: Case note review of the first 12 months following acute cervical spinal cord injury (2007-2012)...
September 27, 2016: Spinal Cord
Ji-Hey Lim, Natasha J Olby
OBJECTIVE To identify an optimal technique for isolation, purification, and amplification of Schwann cells (SCs) from biopsy specimens of the dorsal cutaneous branches of the cervical nerves of dogs. SAMPLE Biopsy specimens of dorsal cervical cutaneous nerves from the cadavers of three 1- to 2-year-old dogs. PROCEDURES Nerve specimens were dissected, predegenerated, and dissociated to isolate single cells. After culture to enhance SC growth, cells were immunopurified by use of magnetic beads. Cell purity was evaluated by assessing expression of cell surface antigens p75 (to detect SCs) and CD90 (to detect fibroblasts)...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Hadis Sabour, Abbas Norouzi-Javidan, Zahra Soltani, Seyede Azemat Mousavifar, Sahar Latifi, Seyed Hassan Emami-Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Ghodsi
BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated the effect of different dietary fats on blood pressure (BP) in general population. However, these associations have not yet been described in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Referred patients to Brain and SCI Research Center between 2011 and 2014 have been invited to participate. Only paraplegic individuals were recruited and patients with injury at cervical or higher thoracic sections were excluded to omit the bias effect of autonomic dysreflexia...
July 6, 2016: Iranian Journal of Neurology
Varun Puvanesarajah, Rabia Qureshi, Jourdan M Cancienne, Hamid Hassanzadeh
Cervical spine trauma in the athlete is not an insignificant occurrence with possibly catastrophic results. Football remains one of the most common and most well studied sporting activities associated with spine injuries. Transient spinal cord and peripheral nerve injuries may manifest as quadriparesis or burners/stingers with symptoms that resolve completely. More severe spinal cord injuries, typically from axial loading on the cervical spine, will cause bilateral symptoms with residual neurological deficit...
September 16, 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Greg M Harris, Nicolas N Madigan, Karen Z Lancaster, Lynn W Enquist, Anthony J Windebank, Jeffrey Schwartz, Jean E Schwarzbauer
Spinal cord and peripheral nerve injuries require the regeneration of nerve fibers across the lesion site for successful recovery. Providing guidance cues and soluble factors to promote neurite outgrowth and cell survival can enhance repair. The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a key role in tissue repair by controlling cell adhesion, motility, and growth. In this study, we explored the ability of a mesenchymal ECM to support neurite outgrowth from neurons in the superior cervical ganglia (SCG). Length and morphology of neurites extended on a decellularized fibroblast ECM were compared to those on substrates coated with laminin, a major ECM protein in neural tissue, or fibronectin, the main component of a mesenchymal ECM...
September 15, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Tigran R Petrosyan, Anna S Ter-Markosyan, Anna S Hovsepyan
The study aims to confirm the neuroregenerative effects of bacterial melanin (BM) on central nervous system injury using a special staining method based on the detection of Ca(2+)-dependent acid phosphatase activity. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to undergo either unilateral destruction of sensorimotor cortex (group I; n = 12) or unilateral rubrospinal tract transection at the cervical level (C3-4) (group II; n = 12). In each group, six rats were randomly selected after surgery to undergo intramuscular injection of BM solution (BM subgroup) and the remaining six rats were intramuscularly injected with saline (saline subgroup)...
July 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
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