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Splenic injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529765/signals-of-vagal-circuits-engaging-with-akt1-in-%C3%AE-7-nachr-cd11b-cells-lessen-e-coli-and-lps-induced-acute-inflammatory-injury
#1
Caiqi Zhao, Xi Yang, Emily M Su, Yuanyuan Huang, Ling Li, Michael A Matthay, Xiao Su
Vagal circuits-α7 nAChR (α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, coded by Chrna7) signaling utilizes spleen as a hub to dampen systemic inflammatory responses. Vagal innervations also extend to the distal airways and alveoli. Vagotomy and deficiency of α7 nAChR deteriorate E. coli and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung inflammatory responses; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we hypothesized that vagal circuits would limit splenic release and lung recruitment of α7 nAChR(+)CD11b(+) cells (CD11b is coded by Itgam, a surface marker of monocytes and neutrophils) via phosphorylation of AKT1 and that this process would define the severity of lung injury...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508279/the-coexistence-of-both-replaced-proper-hepatic-and-gastroduodenal-arteries-due-to-the-common-hepatic-artery-absence
#2
Konstantinos Natsis, Maria Piagkou, Nikolaos Lazaridis, Georgios Koimtzis, Stylianos Apostolidis
Anatomical variants of the celiac trunk (CT) branches and especially these of hepatic arteries (HAs) are among the most common variants of the arterial tree. The knowledge of the wide variability in hepatic arterial supply is of paramount importance in hepatobiliary, pancreatic, gastric, and esophageal surgery, as well as in liver transplantations. The purpose of this case report is to describe a rare variant discovered during abdominal dissection of a 74-year-old male cadaver of Greek origin, in which the common hepatic artery was absent and its branches, the proper hepatic artery (PHA) and the gastroduodenal artery (GDA) had an aberrant and separate origin...
May 15, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504685/spleen-derived-lipocalin-2-in-the-portal-vein-regulates-kupffer-cells-activation-and-attenuates-the-development-of-liver-fibrosis-in-mice
#3
Tomonori Aoyama, Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai, Akira Uchiyama, Kazuyoshi Kon, Hironao Okubo, Shunhei Yamashina, Kenichi Ikejima, Shigehiro Kokubu, Akihisa Miyazaki, Sumio Watanabe
The liver has an immune tolerance against gut-derived products from the portal vein (PV). A disruption of the gut-liver axis leads to liver injury and fibrosis. The spleen is connected to the PV and regulates immune functions. However, possible splenic effects on liver fibrosis development are unclear. Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) is an antimicrobial protein that regulates macrophage activation. To clarify the role of the spleen in liver fibrosis development, we induced liver fibrosis in mice after splenectomy, and investigated liver fibrosis development...
May 15, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501136/delayed-splenic-vascular-injury-after-nonoperative-management-of-blunt-splenic-trauma
#4
Alessandro Furlan, Mitchell E Tublin, Mitchell A Rees, Dederia H Nicholas, Jason L Sperry, Louis H Alarcon
BACKGROUND: Delayed splenic vascular injury (DSVI) is traditionally considered a rare, often clinically occult, harbinger of splenic rupture in patients with splenic trauma that are managed conservatively. The purpose of our study was to assess the incidence of DSVI and associated features in patients admitted with blunt splenic trauma and managed nonoperatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted over a 4-y time. Patients admitted with blunt splenic trauma, managed no-operatively and with a follow-up contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan study during admission were included...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498097/the-asplenic-patient-post-insult-immunocompetence-infection-and-vaccination
#5
Brandon Dionne, Walter Dehority, Meghan Brett, Thomas R Howdieshell
BACKGROUND: Splenic injury can occur through multiple mechanisms and may result in various degrees of residual immunocompetence. Functionally or anatomically asplenic patients are at higher risk for infection, particularly with encapsulated bacteria. Vaccination is recommended to prevent infection with these organisms; however, the recommendations are routinely updated, and vaccine selection and timing are complex. METHODS: Review of the pertinent English-language literature, including the recommendations of the U...
May 12, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492407/the-spleen-not-taken-differences-in-management-and-outcomes-of-blunt-splenic-injuries-in-teenagers-cared-for-by-adult-and-pediatric-trauma-teams-in-a-single-institution
#6
Sean O'Connor, Andrea N Doud, Leah M Sieren, Preston R Miller, Kristen A Zeller
BACKGROUND: Non-operative management (NOM) of blunt splenic injury, initially touted for the care of pediatric patients, has become the standard of care for stable trauma patients of all ages. In our institution, trauma patients <16 years old are managed by the pediatric surgery service and patients ≥16 years are managed by the adult trauma service. Angioembolization is routinely employed for adults with blunt splenic injury but rarely used for pediatric patients. A retrospective chart review was performed to determine if more liberal use of angioembolization increases the success rate of NOM of blunt splenic injury in adolescents...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491197/traumatic-rupture-of-a-giant-congenital-splenic-cyst-presenting-as-peritonitis
#7
Alexander Tassopoulos, Melissa Wein, Annette Segura
Splenic cysts are uncommon, with large cysts and complications being rare. We describe a 6-year-old patient who initially presented 1 day after falling onto her abdomen at the playground with worsening abdominal pain and distention. An ultrasound of the abdomen demonstrated free abdominal fluid in all four quadrants. A subsequent contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed which showed a large splenic cyst with open communication to the peritoneal cavity. A congenital primary cyst was confirmed on pathology after partial splenectomy was performed...
June 2017: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473360/emergency-splenectomy-postelective-colonoscopy
#8
Carolyn Cullinane, Jaroslaw Gudyma, Gerarde McArdle
Colonoscopy is the gold standard for investigation of colorectal carcinoma and inflammatory bowel disease. Splenic injury is a rare but potentially fatal complication of colonoscopy. The present case study outlines the early clinical presentation and rapid deterioration of a patient with a splenic injury after an elective colonoscopy. A 70-year-old female underwent a colonoscopy for investigation of altered bowel habit. The procedure was documented as difficult due to the presence of 'stiff loopy colon'. In recovery, patient's condition deteriorated and she was moved to the ward for further assessment...
May 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468726/erratum-to-postdischarge-complications-following-nonoperative-management-of-blunt-splenic-injury-am-j-surg-211-4-2016-744-749
#9
Gil Freitas, Olubode A Olufajo, Khaled Hammouda, Elissa Lin, Zara Cooper, Joaquim M Havens, Reza Askari, Ali Salim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464541/accuracy-of-dual-bolus-single-acquisition-computed-tomography-in-the-diagnosis-and-grading-of-adult-traumatic-splenic-parenchymal-and-vascular-injury
#10
Paul Marovic, Paul Anthony Beech, Jim Koukounaras, Helen Kavnoudias, Gerard S Goh
INTRODUCTION: Dual Bolus Single Acquisition Computed Tomography (DBSA-CT) has been advocated for use in trauma imaging through its ability to concurrently optimise abdominal arterial and visceral parenchymal enhancement while minimising scan times and radiation dose. However, concerns have been raised regarding excessive splenic parenchymal heterogeneity using this technique. The purpose of this study is to establish and compare the accuracy of DBSA-CT to traditional sequential multiphase scanning techniques in the diagnosis and grading of traumatic adult splenic injury...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459796/splenic-artery-embolization-versus-splenectomy-analysis-for-early-in-hospital-infectious-complications-and-outcomes
#11
Alberto Aiolfi, Kenji Inaba, Aaron Strumwasser, Kazuhide Matsushima, Daniel Grabo, Elizabeth R Benjamin, Lydia Lam, Demetrios Demetriades
BACKGROUND: Splenic artery embolization has gained increasing acceptance as an important adjunct in the treatment of splenic injuries. Residual immunologic function of the spleen after embolization and its consequences on early infectious complications still remain intensely debated. The purpose of this study was to compare splenic artery embolization and splenectomy in terms of early in-hospital infectious complications and outcomes. METHODS: Two year retrospective Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) database prognostic study...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452894/severe-trauma-and-chronic-stress-activates-extramedullary-erythropoiesis
#12
Ines G Alamo, Kolenkode B Kannan, Tyler J Loftus, Harry Ramos, Philip A Efron, Alicia M Mohr
BACKGROUND: Severe traumatic injury is associated with bone marrow dysfunction that manifests as impaired erythropoiesis and prolonged hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) mobilization from the bone marrow. Extramedullary erythropoiesis, the development of red blood cells outside the bone marrow, has not been studied following severe injury and critical illness. This study examined the influence of lung contusion/hemorrhagic shock (LCHS) followed by chronic stress (CS) on the rodent spleen and to investigate the involvement of the splenic erythropoietin/erythropoietin receptor and BMP4 signaling...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431280/interleukin-1-receptor-associated-kinase-1-is-a-potential-therapeutic-target-of-anti-inflammatory-therapy-for-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#13
Mingfang Li, Datang Yu, Bing Ni, Fei Hao
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease and currently has no effective therapy. The genome-wide analyses indicate that interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) is associated with the susceptibility of SLE in humans. In the present study, we identified that IRAK1 was overexpressed and hyper-activated in splenic mononuclear cells from B6.MRL-Fas(lpr)/Nju (B6.lpr) mice and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from SLE patients. Intraperitoneal treatment with a small molecular inhibitor of IRAK1 (IRAK1/4 inhibitor or IRAK-Inh) significantly mitigated inflammatory responses and renal injury in B6...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426710/change-in-iron-metabolism-in-rats-after-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Guang-Liang Xie, Lin Zhu, Yan-Min Zhang, Qian-Nan Zhang, Qing Yu
Previous studies have indicated that hepcidin, which can regulate iron efflux by binding to ferroportin-1 (FPN1) and inducing its internalization and degradation, acts as the critical factor in the regulation of iron metabolism. However, it is unknown whether hepcidin is involved in acute renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). In this study, an IRI rat model was established via right renal excision and blood interruption for 45 min in the left kidney, and iron metabolism indexes were examined to investigate the change in iron metabolism and to analyze the role of hepcidin during IRI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422834/feasibility-and-safety-of-emergency-laparoscopic-partial-splenectomy-a-retrospective-analysis
#15
Hongyu Li, Yonggang Wei, Bing Peng, Bo Li, Fei Liu
The increased awareness of asplenia-related life-threatening complications has led to the development of parenchyma sparing splenic resections in past few years. The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic partial splenectomy (LPS) in selected emergency patients.From January 2013 to December 2015, there were 46 emergency patients, diagnosed with splenic rupture, admitted in our department. Selection criteria for LPS: (1) Preoperative CT scan revealed single pole rupture without spleen pedicle injury; (2) BP>90/60 mm Hg and heart rates <120 bpm; (3) No sigh of multiple organ injury...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417489/management-of-septic-emboli-in-patients-with-infectious-endocarditis
#16
Seyed Hossein Aalaei-Andabili, Tomas Martin, Phillip Hess, Brian Hoh, Meshka Anderson, Charles T Klodell, Thomas M Beaver
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Septic emboli (SE) associated with infectious endocarditis (IE) can result in splenic abscesses and infectious intracranial aneurysms (IIA). We investigated the impact of SE on patient outcomes following surgery for IE. METHOD: From January-2000 to October-2015, all patients with surgical IE (n = 437) were evaluated for incidence and management of SE. RESULTS: Overall SE was found in 46/437 (10.52%) patients (n = 17 spleen, 13 brain, and 16 both)...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416717/essential-neuroscience-in-immunology
#17
REVIEW
Sangeeta S Chavan, Kevin J Tracey
The field of immunology is principally focused on the molecular mechanisms by which hematopoietic cells initiate and maintain innate and adaptive immunity. That cornerstone of attention has been expanded by recent discoveries that neuronal signals occupy a critical regulatory niche in immunity. The discovery is that neuronal circuits operating reflexively regulate innate and adaptive immunity. One particularly well-characterized circuit regulating innate immunity, the inflammatory reflex, is dependent upon action potentials transmitted to the reticuloendothelial system via the vagus and splenic nerves...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413469/repairing-effects-of-icam-1-expressing-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-mice-with-autoimmune-thyroiditis
#18
Shifeng Ma, Xiuhui Chen, Lihui Wang, Ying Wei, Yongqing Ni, Yanan Chu, Yuanlin Liu, Heng Zhu, Rongxiu Zheng, Yi Zhang
The aim of the present study was to determine the repairing effects of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1-expressing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in mice with autoimmune thyroiditis. Following induction of an experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) model, mice were randomly divided into the following groups (n=10 each): i) Normal control; and experimental groups that were subject to EAT induction, including ii) EAT model; and iii) primary MSC; iv) C3H10T1/2/MSC; v) C3H10T1/2-MIGR1/MSC; and vi) C3H10T1/2-MIGR1-ICAM-1/MSC, which were all administered the relevant cells...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408232/a-novel-case-of-splenic-injury-after-shockwave-lithotripsy
#19
David Zodda, Meta Haley, Rocky Sayegh
BACKGROUND: Emergency departments (EDs) are gateways for patients presenting after minor surgical procedures, particularly shockwave lithotripsy. Complications include renal and extrarenal tissue injuries, with the latter having potentially serious consequences if not detected early. CASE REPORT: We describe a 70-year-old male presenting to the ED for syncope. The patient underwent shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) for left kidney stones 1 day prior. Upon initial evaluation, the patient had normal vital signs and a normal physical examination, without complaints of abdominal pain...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404218/association-between-pediatric-blunt-splenic-injury-volume-and-the-splenectomy-rate
#20
Shin Miyata, Jayun Cho, Kazuhide Matsushima, Olga Lebedevskiy, Hanna Park, Courtney A Fortner, David W Bliss
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: While pediatric trauma centers are shown to have lower splenectomy rate as compared to adult trauma centers, it remains unknown whether other institutional factors such as case volumes would have an impact on the splenectomy rate in pediatric blunt splenic injury (BSI). METHODS: Pediatric patients who sustained BSI were identified from the National Trauma Data Bank 2007-2014. A hierarchical logistic regression model was built to evaluate differences in risk-adjusted splenectomy rate and in-hospital mortality in between trauma centers with different pediatric BSI case volumes...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
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