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Melatonin and cancer

Francisco S Barreto, Adriano J M Chaves Filho, Márcia C C R de Araújo, Manoel O de Moraes, Maria E A de Moraes, Michael Maes, David F de Lucena, Danielle S Macedo
Both depression and cancer are related to a dysregulation of inflammatory and immune pathways. Indeed, depression is associated with increased expression of interferon-γ, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). In contrast, reductions of the activity of major histocompatibility complex protein molecules - class I and class II and natural killer cells are also observed. Similarly, cancers present elevated levels of TNF-α, reduced major histocompatibility complex class I and II, and natural killer cells...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
M G Carta, A Preti, H S Akiskal
Human population is increasing in immense cities with millions of inhabitants, in which life is expected to run 24 hours a day for seven days a week (24/7). Noise and light pollution are the most reported consequences, with a profound impact on sleep patterns and circadian biorhythms. Disruption of sleep and biorhythms has severe consequences on many metabolic pathways. Suppression of melatonin incretion at night and the subsequent effect on DNA methylation may increase the risk of prostate and breast cancer...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Zhen-Wei Zou, Ting Liu, Yong Li, Peng Chen, Xin Peng, Charlie Ma, Wen-Jie Zhang, Pin-Dong Li
Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine carcinoma with increasing incidence worldwide and anaplastic subtypes are frequently associated with cancer related death. Radioresistance of thyroid cancer often leads to therapy failure and cancer-related death. In this study, we found that melatonin showed potent suppressive roles on NF-κB signaling via inhibition of p65 phosphorylation and generated redox stress in thyroid cancer including the anaplastic subtypes. Our data showed that melatonin significantly decreased cell viability, suppressed cell migration and induced apoptosis in thyroid cancer cell lines in vitro and impaired tumor growth in the subcutaneous mouse model in vivo...
March 1, 2018: Redox Biology
Fiona Griffin, Laure Marignol
Melatonin is an endogenous hormone primirarily known for its action on the circadian rhythms. But preclinical studies are reporting both its radioprotective and radiosensitising properties, possibly mediated through an interaction between melatonin and the regulation of estrogens. Melatonin pre-treatment prior to ionising radiation was associated with a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in p53 mRNA expression, leading to an increase in the radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells. At the same time, a decrease in radiation- induced side effects was described in breast cancer patients and in rodent models...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Karolina Kucharewicz, Magdalena Dudkowska, Anna Zawadzka, Mikolaj Ogrodnik, Andrzej A Szczepankiewicz, Zbigniew Czarnocki, Ewa Sikora
Besides cell death, autophagy and cell senescence are the main outcomes of anticancer treatment. We demonstrate that tacrine-melatonin heterodimer C10, a potent anti-Alzheimer's disease drug, has an antiproliferative effect on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The main cell response to a 24 h-treatment with C10 was autophagy enhancement accompanied by inhibition of mTOR and AKT pathways. Significantly increased autophagy markers, such as LC3B- and ATG16L-positive vesicles, confirmed autophagy induction by C10. However, analysis of autophagic flux using mCherry-GFP-LC3B construct revealed inhibition of autophagy by C10 at the late-stage...
March 2, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Wamidh H Talib
Melatonin is a natural indoleamine produced by the pineal gland that has many functions, including regulation of the circadian rhythm. Many studies have reported the anticancer effect of melatonin against a myriad of cancer types. Cancer hallmarks include sustained proliferation, evading growth suppressors, metastasis, replicative immortality, angiogenesis, resisting cell death, altered cellular energetics, and immune evasion. Melatonin anticancer activity is mediated by interfering with various cancer hallmarks...
February 26, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jun Song, Sai-Jun Ma, Jian-Hua Luo, Hui Zhang, Ri-Xiong Wang, Hui Liu, Li Li, Zhi-Guang Zhang, Rui-Xiang Zhou
Globally, gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common types of cancer and the third leading cause of cancer‑related death. In China, gastric and liver cancers have the highest mortality rates. Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl‑5-methoxytryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness. Melatonin has been shown to inhibit various carcinomas, including GC. There are many different hypotheses to explain the anticancer effects of melatonin, including stimulation of apoptosis, inhibition of cell growth, regulation of anticancer immunity, induction of free-radical scavenging, and the competitive inhibition of estrogen...
February 26, 2018: Oncology Reports
Claudio Vernieri, Federico Nichetti, Alessandra Raimondi, Sara Pusceddu, Marco Platania, Franco Berrino, Filippo de Braud
In recent years, calorie-restricted dietary regimens and compounds such as vitamins, curcumin, green tea extracts and omega-3 fatty acids have attracted attention for their potential anticancer effects. While definitive conclusions cannot be drawn in this field, many patients adopt complementary antitumor therapies aiming to improve efficacy or reduce toxicity of chemotherapy, with uncertain benefits and the risk of additional toxicities or antagonistic interactions with standard therapies. In this manuscript, we review the different levels of available evidence to suggest or discourage specific dietary changes or supplement use in the context of cancer prevention, reduction of tumor recurrences and survival prolongation in advanced cancers...
March 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Jing Gao, Kang Xu, Hongnan Liu, Gang Liu, Miaomiao Bai, Can Peng, Tiejun Li, Yulong Yin
The gut microbiota influences the health of the host, especially with regard to gut immune homeostasis and the intestinal immune response. In addition to serving as a nutrient enhancer, L-tryptophan (Trp) plays crucial roles in the balance between intestinal immune tolerance and gut microbiota maintenance. Recent discoveries have underscored that changes in the microbiota modulate the host immune system by modulating Trp metabolism. Moreover, Trp, endogenous Trp metabolites (kynurenines, serotonin, and melatonin), and bacterial Trp metabolites (indole, indolic acid, skatole, and tryptamine) have profound effects on gut microbial composition, microbial metabolism, the host's immune system, the host-microbiome interface, and host immune system-intestinal microbiota interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Peter Kubatka, Pavol Zubor, Dietrich Busselberg, Taeg Kyu Kwon, Mariusz Adamek, Daniel Petrovic, Radka Opatrilova, Katarina Gazdikova, Martin Caprnda, Luis Rodrigo, Jan Danko, Peter Kruzliak
The breast cancer affects women with high mortality and morbidity worldwide. The risk is highest in the most developed world but also is markedly rising in the developing countries. It is well documented that melatonin has a significant anti-tumor activities demonstrated on various cancer types in a plethora of preclinical studies. In breast cancer, melatonin is capable to disrupt estrogen-dependent cell signaling, resulting in a reduction of estrogen-stimulated cells, moreover, it's obvious neuro-immunomodulatory effect in organism was described...
February 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Seyed Ali Reza Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women, both in the developed and developing countries. Women with mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancers. Recent studies show that short-wavelength visible light disturb the secretion of melatonin and causes circadian rhythm disruption. We have previously studied the health effects of exposure to different levels of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) such as mobile phones, mobile base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, and radars...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Zhenlong Yu, Xiangge Tian, Yuling Peng, Zheng Sun, Chao Wang, Ning Tang, Bin Li, Yuqing Jian, Wei Wang, Xiaokui Huo, Xiaochi Ma
Melatonin is an endogenous indoleamine with a wide range of biological functions in the various organisms from bacteria to mammals. Evidence indicates that melatonin facilitates apoptosis in cancer cells and enhances the anti-tumor activity of chemotherapy in animals and clinical studies. However, the melatonin metabolism and the key metabolic targets in cancer cells still remain unknown. In this study, U118 and SH-SY5Y tumor cell lines were used to investigate the metabolic pathways of melatonin in cancer cells...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Andrzej T Slominski, Ruediger Hardeland, Michal A Zmijewski, Radomir M Slominski, Russel J Reiter, Ralf Paus
Melatonin, an evolutionarily ancient derivative of serotonin with hormonal properties, is the main neuroendocrine secretory product of the pineal gland. Although melatonin is best known to regulate circadian rhythmicity and lower vertebrate skin pigmentation, the full spectrum of functional activities of this free radical-scavenging molecule, which also induces/promotes complex antioxidative and DNA repair systems, includes immunomodulatory, thermoregulatory, and antitumor properties. Because this plethora of functional melatonin properties still awaits to be fully appreciated by dermatologists, the current review synthesizes the main features that render melatonin a promising candidate for the management of several dermatoses associated with substantial oxidative damage...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Alicia González-González, María Dolores Mediavilla, Emilio J Sánchez-Barceló
The objective of this article is to review the basis supporting the usefulness of melatonin as an adjuvant therapy for breast cancer (BC) prevention in several groups of individuals at high risk for this disease. Melatonin, as a result of its antiestrogenic and antioxidant properties, as well as its ability to improve the efficacy and reduce the side effects of conventional antiestrogens, could safely be associated with the antiestrogenic drugs presently in use. In individuals at risk of BC due to night shift work, the light-induced inhibition of melatonin secretion, with the consequent loss of its antiestrogenic effects, would be countered by administering this neurohormone...
February 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Pawel P Posadzki, Ram Bajpai, Bhone Myint Kyaw, Nicola J Roberts, Amnon Brzezinski, George I Christopoulos, Ushashree Divakar, Shweta Bajpai, Michael Soljak, Gerard Dunleavy, Krister Jarbrink, Ei Ei Khaing Nang, Chee Kiong Soh, Josip Car
BACKGROUND: Our aims were to evaluate critically the evidence from systematic reviews as well as narrative reviews of the effects of melatonin (MLT) on health and to identify the potential mechanisms of action involved. METHODS: An umbrella review of the evidence across systematic reviews and narrative reviews of endogenous and exogenous (supplementation) MLT was undertaken. The Oxman checklist for assessing the methodological quality of the included systematic reviews was utilised...
February 5, 2018: BMC Medicine
Jucimara Colombo, Bruna Victorasso Jardim-Perasssi, Joao Paulo Senna Ferreira, Cristine Zampieri Braga, Nathalia Martins Sonehara, Rubens de Paula Júnior, Marina Gobbe Moschetta, Ana Paula Girol, Debora Aparecida Pires de Campos Zuccari
Background NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa B) is a transcription factor composed of two subunits, p50 and p65, which plays a key role in the inflammatory process. Melatonin has oncostatic, antiangiogenic and antimetastatic properties, and some recent studies have indicated an inhibitory effect of melatonin on NF-kB in some types of cancer. This work aims to investigate the effects of melatonin treatment on the expression of NF-kB in breast and liver cancer models. Methods The breast cancer xenographic model was performed using female Balb/c nude athymic mice injected with MDA-MB-231 cells...
January 30, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Emad Ghobadi, Milad Moloudizargari, Marjan Fallah, Mohammad Abdollahi
Our knowledge regarding the implications of melatonin in the therapy of numerous medical conditions, including cancer is constantly expanding. Melatonin can variably affect cancer pathology via targeting several key aspects of any neoplastic condition, including the very onset of carcinogenesis as well as tumor growth, differentiation, and dissemination. Numerous studies have examined the effects of melatonin in the context of various cancers reporting the enhanced efficacy of chemo/radiotherapy in combination with this compound...
January 25, 2018: Life Sciences
Nanfu Deng, Taylor P Kohn, Larry I Lipshultz, Alexander W Pastuszak
BACKGROUND: More than 21 million Americans and nearly 20% of the U.S. workforce are shift workers. Non-standard shift work, defined as work that falls outside of 6 am-6 pm, can lead to poor diet, exercise, and sleep habits that lead to decreased productivity, increased workplace accidents, and a variety of negative health outcomes. AIM: To investigate the associations between shift work exposure and chronic medical conditions such as metabolic syndromes, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disturbances, and depression as well as urologic complications including hypogonadism, male infertility, lower urinary tract symptoms, and prostate cancer with a focus on the effects of shift work sleep disorder (SWSD) on the severity of these negative health outcomes...
January 19, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
(no author information available yet)
Melatonin has shown the potential to inhibit growth of different tumors, both in vitro and in vivo. There is clear evidence that the administration of melatonin alone or in combination with chemo and radiotherapy in cancer patients with advanced solid tumors has been associated with improved outcomes of tumor regression and survival. Moreover, chemotherapy has been shown to be better tolerated in patients treated with melatonin. However, there are different ways of preparation and administration of melatonin to the patient...
December 25, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Chenyu Zhu, Qun Huang, Hongyu Zhu
The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer is steadily increasing annually around the world, which required further investigation about alternative therapy strategies. Melatonin, an indoleamine synthesized in the pineal gland, has shown dramatic anticancer effect in several cancers, however, the function of melatonin in gastric cancer needs to be characterized. In this study, we found that melatonin inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. microRNAs (miRNAs) have been attractive targets for many anticancer drugs...
January 23, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
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