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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813469/phytoplasma-infection-of-a-tropical-root-crop-triggers-bottom-up-cascades-by-favoring-generalist-over-specialist-herbivores
#1
Kris A G Wyckhuys, Ignazio Graziosi, Dharani Dhar Burra, Abigail Jan Walter
Global interest on plant-microbe-insect interactions is rapidly growing, revealing the multiple ways in which microorganisms mediate plant-herbivore interactions. Phytopathogens regularly alter whole repertoires of plant phenotypic traits, and bring about shifts in key chemical or morphological characteristics of plant hosts. Pathogens can also cause cascading effects on higher trophic levels, and eventually shape entire plant-associated arthropod communities. We tested the hypothesis that a Candidatus Phytoplasma causing cassava witches' broom (CWB) on cassava (Manihot esculenta Grantz) is altering species composition of invasive herbivores and their associated parasitic hymenopterans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803113/how-a-decreased-fibrillar-interconnectivity-influences-stiffness-and-swelling-properties-during-early-cartilage-degeneration
#2
Mieke Nickien, Ashvin Thambyah, Neil D Broom
OBJECTIVE: The functional coupling between the fibrillar network and the high-swelling proteoglycans largely determines the mechanical properties of the articular cartilage matrix. The objective of this new study was to show specifically how changes in fibrillar interconnectivity arising from early cartilage degeneration influence transverse stiffness and swelling properties at the tissue level. DESIGN: Radial zone transverse layers of cartilage matrix were obtained from intact and mildly degenerate bovine patellae...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800846/saprotrophic-proteomes-of-biotypes-of-the-witches-broom-pathogen-moniliophthora-perniciosa
#3
Sandra Pierre, Gareth W Griffith, Russell M Morphew, Luis A J Mur, Ian M Scott
Nine geographically diverse Moniliophthora perniciosa (witches' broom disease pathogen) isolates were cultured in vitro. They included six C-biotypes differing in virulence on cacao (Theobroma cacao), two S-biotypes (solanaceous hosts), and an L-biotype (liana hosts). Mycelial growth rates and morphologies differed considerably, but no characters were observed to correlate with virulence or biotype. In plant inoculations using basidiospores, one C-biotype caused symptoms on tomato (an S-biotype host), adding to evidence of limited host adaptation in these biotypes...
September 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798306/hyperspectral-imaging-for-predicting-the-internal-quality-of-kiwifruits-based-on-variable-selection-algorithms-and-chemometric-models
#4
Hongyan Zhu, Bingquan Chu, Yangyang Fan, Xiaoya Tao, Wenxin Yin, Yong He
We investigated the feasibility and potentiality of determining firmness, soluble solids content (SSC), and pH in kiwifruits using hyperspectral imaging, combined with variable selection methods and calibration models. The images were acquired by a push-broom hyperspectral reflectance imaging system covering two spectral ranges. Weighted regression coefficients (BW), successive projections algorithm (SPA) and genetic algorithm-partial least square (GAPLS) were compared and evaluated for the selection of effective wavelengths...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798297/crystal-structure-of-mppr-1i-a-scp-taps-protein-from-moniliophthora-perniciosa-the-fungus-that-causes-witches-broom-disease-of-cacao
#5
Renata M Baroni, Zhipu Luo, Rabih Darwiche, Elissa M Hudspeth, Roger Schneiter, Gonçalo A G Pereira, Jorge M C Mondego, Oluwatoyin A Asojo
The pathogenic fungi Moniliophthora perniciosa causes Witches' Broom Disease (WBD) of cacao. The structure of MpPR-1i, a protein expressed by M. perniciosa when it infects cacao, are presented. This is the first reported de novo structure determined by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing upon soaking with selenourea. Each monomer has flexible loop regions linking the core alpha-beta-alpha sandwich topology that comprise ~50% of the structure, making it difficult to generate an accurate homology model of the protein...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795597/in-one-s-own-time-contesting-the-temporality-and-linearity-of-bereavement
#6
Katherine Kenny, Alex Broom, Emma Kirby, Damien Ridge
This article explores the experience and meaning of time from the perspective of caregivers who have recently been bereaved following the death of a family member. The study is situated within the broader cultural tendency to understand bereavement within the logic of stages, including the perception of bereavement as a somewhat predictable and certainly time-delimited ascent from a nadir in death to a 'new normal' once loss is accepted. Drawing on qualitative data from interviews with 15 bereaved family caregivers we challenge bereavement as a linear, temporally bound process, examining the multiple ways bereavement is experienced and how it variously resists ideas about the timeliness, desirability and even possibility of 'recovery'...
August 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791480/a-more-realistic-disc-herniation-model-incorporating-compression-flexion-and-facet-constrained-shear-a-mechanical-and-microstructural-analysis-part-ii-high-rate-or-surprise-loading
#7
Zhi Shan, Kelly R Wade, Meredith L Schollum, Peter A Robertson, Ashvin Thambyah, Neil D Broom
PURPOSE: Part I of this study explored mechanisms of disc failure in a complex posture incorporating physiological amounts of flexion and shear at a loading rate considerably lower than likely to occur in a typical in vivo manual handling situation. Given the strain-rate-dependent mechanical properties of the heavily hydrated disc, loading rate will likely influence the mechanisms of disc failure. Part II investigates the mechanisms of failure in healthy discs subjected to surprise-rate compression while held in the same complex posture...
August 8, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789692/diversity-of-use-and-local-knowledge-of-wild-and-cultivated-plants-in-the-eastern-cape-province-south-africa
#8
Alfred Maroyi
BACKGROUND: Traditional ecological knowledge among indigenous communities plays an important role in retaining cultural identity and achieving sustainable natural resource management. Hundreds of millions of people mostly in developing countries derive a substantial part of their subsistence and income from plant resources. The aim of this study was to assess useful plant species diversity, plant use categories and local knowledge of both wild and cultivated useful species in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772287/a-systematic-review-of-speech-assessments-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-recommendations-for-best-practice
#9
Kate Broome, Patricia McCabe, Kimberley Docking, Maree Doble
Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to provide a summary and evaluation of speech assessments used with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A subsequent narrative review was completed to ascertain the core components of an evidence-based pediatric speech assessment, which, together with the results of the systematic review, provide clinical and research guidelines for best practice. Method: A systematic search of eight databases was used to find peer-reviewed research articles published between 1990 and 2014 assessing the speech of children with ASD...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766707/taking-root-a-grounded-theory-on-evidence-based-nursing-implementation-in-china
#10
L Cheng, M E Broome, S Feng, Y Hu
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based nursing is widely recognized as the critical foundation for quality care. AIM: To develop a middle-range theory on the process of evidence-based nursing implementation in Chinese context. METHODS: A grounded theory study using unstructured in-depth individual interviews was conducted with 56 participants who were involved in 24 evidence-based nursing implementation projects in Mainland China from September 2015 to September 2016...
August 2, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758630/-candidatus-phytoplasma-luffae-a-novel-taxon-associated-with-witches-broom-disease-of-loofah-luffa-aegyptica-mill
#11
Robert E Davis, Yan Zhao, Wei Wei, Ellen L Dally, Ing-Ming Lee
The phytoplasma associated with witches' broom disease of loofah [Luffa aegyptica Mill., syn. Luffa cylindrica (L.) M.J. Roem.] in Taiwan was classified in group 16SrVIII, subgroup A (16SrVIII-A), based on results from actual and in silico RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Nucleotide sequencing of PCR-amplified, cloned DNA segments revealed rrn interoperon sequence heterogeneity in the loofah witches' broom (LfWB) phytoplasma. Whereas the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region of rrnA contained a complete tRNA-Ile gene, the spacer of rrnB contained a nonfunctional remnant of a tRNA gene...
July 31, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754676/nsd1-inactivation-and-setd2-mutation-drive-a-convergence-toward-loss-of-function-of-h3k36-writers-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinomas
#12
Xiaoping Su, Jianping Zhang, Roger Mouawad, Eva Compérat, Morgan Roupret, Frederick Allanic, Jérôme Parra, Marc-Olivier Bitker, Erika J Thompson, Banumathy Gowrishankar, Jane Houldsworth, John N Weinstein, Jörg Tost, Bradley M Broom, David Khayat, Jean-Philippe Spano, Nizar M Tannir, Gabriel G Malouf
Extensive dysregulation of chromatin-modifying genes in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) has been uncovered through next-generation sequencing. However, a scientific understanding of the crosstalk between epigenetic and genomic aberrations remains limited. Here we identify three ccRCC epigenetic clusters, including a clear-cell CpG island methylator phenotype (C-CIMP) subgroup associated with promoter methylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor genes (FLT4, FLT1 and KDR). C-CIMP was furthermore characterized by silencing of genes related to vasculature development...
July 28, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750015/accuracy-of-self-collected-vaginal-dry-swabs-using-the-xpert-human-papillomavirus-assay
#13
Rosa Catarino, Pierre Vassilakos, Aline Bilancioni, Stéphanie Bougel, Meriem Boukrid, Ulrike Meyer-Hamme, Patrick Petignat
BACKGROUND: Polymerase chain reaction-based Xpert human papillomavirus (HPV) assay is a rapid test that detects high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection. This point-of-care test is usually performed by collecting a cervical specimen in a vial of PreservCyt® transport medium. We compared HPV test positivity and accuracy between self-collected sample with a dry swab (s-DRY) versus physician-collected cervical sampling using a broom like brush and immediate immersion in PreservCyt (dr-WET). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 150 women ≥ 18 years old attending the colposcopy clinic in the University Hospital of Geneva...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748801/antipsychotics-in-adolescent-onset-psychosis-a-work-in-progress
#14
Anthony C James, Matthew R Broome
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737082/myth-manners-and-medical-ritual-defensive-medicine-and-the-fetish-of-antibiotics
#15
Alex Broom, Emma Kirby, Alexandra F Gibson, Jeffrey J Post, Jennifer Broom
Given the global crisis of antimicrobial resistance, the continued misuse of antibiotics is perplexing, particularly despite persistent attempts to curb usage. This issue extends beyond traditional "wastage" areas, of livestock and community medicine, to hospitals, raising questions regarding the current principles of hospital practice. Drawing on five focus group discussions, we explore why doctors act in the ways they do regarding antibiotics, revealing how practices are done, justified, and perpetuated. We posit that antibiotic misuse is better understood in terms of social relations of fear, survival and a desire for autonomy; everyday rituals, performances, and forms of professional etiquette; and the mixed obligations evident in the health sector...
July 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734274/genetic-analysis-of-iranian-patients-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#16
Mahdis Ekrami, Maryam Torabi, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard, Javad Mowla, Bahram Mohammad Soltani, Feyzollah Hashemi-Gorji, Zahra Mohebbi, Mohammad Miryounesi
Background: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a frequent autosomal dominant disorder of lipoprotein metabolism. This disorder is generally caused by mutations in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B 100 (APOB), and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) genes. In the present study, we aimed at identifying the common LDLR and APOB gene mutations in an Iranian population. Methods: Eighty unrelated Iranian patients with FH entered the study, based on Simon Broome diagnostic criteria...
July 23, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732477/a-web-based-clinical-decision-tool-to-support-treatment-decision-making-in-psychiatry-a-pilot-focus-group-study-with-clinicians-patients-and-carers
#17
Catherine Henshall, Lisa Marzano, Katharine Smith, Mary-Jane Attenburrow, Stephen Puntis, Jakov Zlodre, Kathleen Kelly, Matthew R Broome, Susan Shaw, Alvaro Barrera, Andrew Molodynski, Alastair Reid, John R Geddes, Andrea Cipriani
BACKGROUND: Treatment decision tools have been developed in many fields of medicine, including psychiatry, however benefits for patients have not been sustained once the support is withdrawn. We have developed a web-based computerised clinical decision support tool (CDST), which can provide patients and clinicians with continuous, up-to-date, personalised information about the efficacy and tolerability of competing interventions. To test the feasibility and acceptability of the CDST we conducted a focus group study, aimed to explore the views of clinicians, patients and carers...
July 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726346/imaging-characteristics-and-treatment-of-a-penetrating-brain-injury-caused-by-an-oropharyngeal-foreign-body-in-a-dog
#18
Jennifer McKenzie, Megan Cooper Murphy, Cameron Broome, Hamaseh Tayari, Rodrigo Gutierrez-Quintana
A 4-year-old Border collie was presented with one episode of collapse, altered mentation, and a suspected pharyngeal stick injury. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography showed a linear foreign body penetrating the right oropharynx, through the foramen ovale and the brain parenchyma. The foreign body was surgically removed and medical treatment initiated. Complete resolution of clinical signs was noted at recheck 8 weeks later. Repeat MRI showed chronic secondary changes in the brain parenchyma...
July 20, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719550/does-an-annular-puncture-influence-the-herniation-path-an-in-vitro-mechanical-and-structural-investigation
#19
Vonne M van Heeswijk, Ashvin Thambyah, Peter A Robertson, Neil D Broom
STUDY DESIGN: A study of mechanically-induced herniation in punctured ovine discs followed by structural analysis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether an annular puncture influences the path that herniation takes by providing direct passage for nucleus through the annulus and therefore whether it increases the risk of acute herniation from overload at the site of damage independent of any longer-term degeneration. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: 10 years after treatment with discography both degenerative changes and frequency of herniation have been shown to increase compared to untreated discs...
July 17, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710274/computational-tools-help-improve-protein-stability-but-with-a-solubility-tradeoff
#20
Aron Broom, Zachary Jacobi, Kyle Trainor, Elizabeth M Meiering
Accurately predicting changes in protein stability upon amino acid substitution is a much sought after goal. Destabilizing mutations are often implicated in disease, while stabilizing mutations are of great value for industrial and therapeutic biotechnology. Increasing protein stability is an especially challenging task, with random substitution yielding stabilizing mutations in only ~2% of cases. To overcome this bottleneck, computational tools that aim to predict the effect of mutations have been developed; however, achieving accuracy and consistency remains challenging...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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