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Hepatitis B genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331562/polymorphism-of-ifn-%C3%AE-874-t-a-in-syrian-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#1
Mohamad Al Kadi, Fawza Monem
AIM: This study aimed to investigate the association of IFN- γ +874 (T/A) polymorphism with susceptibility to chronic HBV infection in the Syrian population. BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicate that the inadequate immune responses are responsible for HBV persistency. Therefore, polymorphisms in genes encoding the cytokines, which are responsible for regulation of the immune response, can affect the course and outcome of the infection. The IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphism affects the expression of IFN-γ, which has been shown to be crucial to HBV clearance...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328801/influence-of-polymorphisms-in-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-genes-on-hepatocellular-carcinoma-risk-in-a-chinese-han-population
#2
Qing-Min Li, Feng-Qin Zhang, Ya-Feng Li, Qing-Jie Xian, Yan-Qiang Zhang, Peng Li
The Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays a vital role in initiating and sustaining hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, few studies have investigated polymorphisms in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway genes in the Chinese Han population. The aim of the present retrospective study was to investigate the correlations between polymorphisms of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway genes (CTNNB1 and WNT2) and HCC susceptibility, development, and progression.Twenty tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms were chosen from HapMap data and genotyped in 320 patients with HCC, 320 chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients without HCC (N-HCC, including 95 liver cirrhosis, 164 chronic hepatitis B, and 61 asymptomatic HBV carriers), and 320 healthy controls...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325923/clinical-features-and-viral-quasispecies-characteristics-associated-with-infection-by-the-hepatitis-b-virus-g145r-immune-escape-mutant
#3
Yuan Xue, Ming-Jie Wang, Zhi-Tao Yang, De-Min Yu, Yue Han, Dao Huang, Dong-Hua Zhang, Xin-Xin Zhang
Coexistence of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) is an uncommon phenomenon, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Amino-acid (aa) substitution from glycine to arginine at aa 145 (G145R), in the major hydrophilic region, has been reported in patients with HBsAg and anti-HBs coexistence. However, there is limited knowledge about the clinical features and viral quasispecies characteristics associated with G145R mutant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection...
March 22, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316253/predominance-of-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-a-among-treated-hiv-infected-patients-experiencing-high-hbv-drug-resistance-in-nairobi-kenya
#4
Sepha Nyatichi Mabeya, Caroline Wangari Ngugi, Raphael W Lihana, Samoel Ashimosi Khamadi, Anthony Kebira Nyamache
HBV/HIV coinfections are becoming common with information on HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance still remaining elusive. To evaluate the HBV genetic diversity and drug resistance associated mutations among drug experienced HIV patients, the genetic analysis of the partial HBV-pol-reverse trancriptase gene was successfully sequenced from 13 samples. Analysis of the sequences showed that all (13) the sequences belonged to genotype A. Nucleos(t)ide drug resistance mutations were found in six (6) patients...
March 19, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300824/association-between-the-telomerase-rs2736098_tt-genotype-and-a-lower-risk-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-cirrhosis-in-chinese-males
#5
Guanghui Cheng, Xiaotian Yuan, Fang Wang, Qing Sun, Qian Xin, Kailin Li, Chao Sun, Zhaomin Lin, Yun Luan, Yiteng Xu, Ping Li, Feng Kong, Dawei Xu
OBJECTIVES: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is caused by infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and liver cirrhosis (LC) is its most common complication. The accumulated evidence indicates a genetic context of HBV infection phenotypes. Here we determine a potential association of CHB/LC with the genetic variant of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), a key player in aging including immune-senescence. METHODS: The study included 227 Chinese CHB patients and 315 sex/age-matched healthy controls...
March 16, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300059/genetic-basis-for-variation-in-plasma-il-18-levels-in-persons-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infections
#6
C Vergara, C Thio, R Latanich, A L Cox, G D Kirk, S H Mehta, M Busch, E L Murphy, M C Villacres, M G Peters, A L French, E Golub, J Eron, C D Lahiri, S Shrestha, D Gustafson, M Young, K Anastos, B Aouizerat, A Y Kim, G Lauer, D L Thomas, P Duggal
Inflammasomes are multi-protein complexes integrating pathogen-triggered signaling leading to the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-18 (IL-18). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are associated with elevated IL-18, suggesting inflammasome activation. However, there is marked person-to-person variation in the inflammasome response to HCV and HIV. We hypothesized that host genetics may explain this variation. To test this, we analyzed the associations of plasma IL-18 levels and polymorphisms in 10 genes in the inflammasome cascade...
March 16, 2017: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296915/genetic-variation-in-the-vitamin-d-pathway-cyp2r1-gene-predicts-sustained-hbeag-seroconversion-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-treated-with-pegylated-interferon-a-multicenter-study
#7
Kessarin Thanapirom, Sirinporn Suksawatamnuay, Wattana Sukeepaisarnjareon, Tawesak Tanwandee, Phunchai Charatcharoenwitthaya, Satawat Thongsawat, Apinya Leerapun, Teerha Piratvisuth, Rattana Boonsirichan, Chalermrat Bunchorntavakul, Chaowalit Pattanasirigool, Bubpha Pornthisarn, Supot Tantipanichtheerakul, Ekawee Sripariwuth, Woramon Jeamsripong, Teeranan Sanpajit, Yong Poovorawan, Piyawat Komolmit
Evidence of a role of vitamin D in the immune system is increasing. Low serum vitamin D is associated with increased hepatitis B virus replication. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) data has revealed a number of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the vitamin D synthetic pathway that affect vitamin D functions. We aimed to determine the association between SNPs in the vitamin D gene cascade and response to pegylated interferon (PegIFN) therapy in hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293244/efficient-transient-expression-of-recombinant-proteins-in-plants-by-the-novel-peff-vector-based-on-the-genome-of-potato-virus-x
#8
Eugenia S Mardanova, Elena A Blokhina, Liudmila M Tsybalova, Hadrien Peyret, George P Lomonossoff, Nikolai V Ravin
Agroinfiltration of plant leaves with binary vectors carrying a gene of interest within a plant viral vector is a rapid and efficient method for protein production in plants. Previously, we constructed a self-replicating vector, pA7248AMV, based on the genetic elements of potato virus X (PVX), and have shown that this vector can be used for the expression of recombinant proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. However, this vector is almost 18 kb long and therefore not convenient for genetic manipulation. Furthermore, for efficient expression of the target protein it should be co-agroinfiltrated with an additional binary vector expressing a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293236/interferon-lambda-modulating-immunity-in-infectious-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Mohammedyaseen Syedbasha, Adrian Egli
Interferon lambdas (IFN-λs; IFNL1-4) modulate immunity in the context of infections and autoimmune diseases, through a network of induced genes. IFN-λs act by binding to the heterodimeric IFN-λ receptor (IFNLR), activating a STAT phosphorylation-dependent signaling cascade. Thereby hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes are induced, which modulate various immune functions via complex forward and feedback loops. When compared to the well-characterized IFN-α signaling cascade, three important differences have been discovered...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291736/association-of-vitamin-d-related-genetic-variations-and-treatment-response-to-pegylated-interferon-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#10
Umaporn Limothai, Natthaya Chuaypen, Apichaya Khlaiphuengsin, Salyavit Chittmittraprap, Yong Poovorawan, Pisit Tangkijvanich
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D, a potent immune-modulator, has been linked to the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This study was aimed at investigating the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in vitamin D-related genes and treatment response to pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) in patients with CHB. METHODS: A total 275 Thai patients (122 HBeAg-positive and 153 HBeAg-negative CHB) treated with 48-week PEG-IFN were recruited. Virological response (VR) at 48 weeks post treatment was defined as HBeAg seroconversion plus HBV DNA <2,000 IU/mL for HBeAg-positive CHB and HBV DNA <2,000 IU/mL for HBeAg-negative CHB...
March 14, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267888/role-of-hla-dp-and-hla-dq-on-the-clearance-of-hepatitis-b-virus-and-the-risk-of-chronic-infection-in-a-multiethnic-population
#11
Julieta Trinks, Nao Nishida, María Laura Hulaniuk, Mariela Caputo, Takayo Tsuchiura, Sebastián Marciano, Leila Haddad, Jorgelina Blejer, Sonia Bartoli, Beatriz Ameigeiras, Silvia E Frías, Cecilia Vistarini, Fabiana Heinrich, Carlos Remondegui, Susana Ceballos, Gustavo Echenique, Miguel Charre Samman, Claudia D'Amico, Amalia Rojas, Alfredo Martínez, Ezequiel Ridruejo, Roberto J Fernández, Leandro Burgos Pratx, Horacio Salamone, Félix Nuñez, Omar Galdame, Adrián Gadano, Daniel Corach, Masaya Sugiyama, Diego Flichman, Katsushi Tokunaga, Masashi Mizokami
BACKGROUND & AIMS: HBV infection exhibits geographical variation in its distribution in South America. While HBV rates are low in Central Argentina, the North-western region exhibits intermediate HBV rates. Unfortunately, the reasons that could explain this difference are still unknown. METHODS: 1440 Argentines were recruited and grouped into HBV patients, HBV resolved individuals and healthy controls. Genetic ancestry was assessed by analysis of bi-parental lineages and ancestry autosomal typing...
March 7, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266264/development-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection-in-a-hepatitis-b-vaccine-responder
#12
Corinna Sadlier, Keeva Madden, Sean O'Gorman, Brendan Crowley, Colm Bergin
The Hepatitis B vaccine is highly effective for the prevention of hepatitis B (HBV) infection. We report the development of chronic HBV infection (Genotype F) in a vaccinated immunocompetent individual with an anti-HBsAb of 35 mIU/mL post completion of vaccine series. HBV vaccine is based on recombinant proteins of genotype-A and D (predominant genotypes in Europe). It may not be as effective for the prevention of more genetically diverse viruses such as genotype F (predominant genotype in Central and South America)...
April 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251116/pediatric-hepatitis-b-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Haruki Komatsu, Ayano Inui, Tomoo Fujisawa
Although the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine has been contributing to the reduction in the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide, the treatment of children with chronic HBV infection is a challenge to be addressed. HBeAg seroconversion, which induces low replication of HBV, is widely accepted as the first goal of antiviral treatment in children with chronic hepatitis B. However, spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion is highly expected in children with chronic HBV infection. Therefore, the identification of children who need antiviral treatment to induce HBeAg seroconversion is essential in the management of chronic HBV infection...
February 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242759/obesity-challenges-the-hepatoprotective-function-of-the-integrated-stress-response-to-asparaginase-exposure-in-mice
#14
Inna A Nikonorova, Rana J T Al-Baghdadi, Emily T Mirek, Yongping Wang, Michael P Goudie, Berish B Wetstein, Joseph L Dixon, Christopher Hine, James R Mitchell, Christopher M Adams, Ronald C Wek, Tracy G Anthony
Obesity increases risk for liver toxicity by the anti-leukemic agent asparaginase but the mechanism is unknown. Asparaginase activates the integrated stress response (ISR) via sensing of amino acid depletion by the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) kinase GCN2. The goal of this work was to discern the impact of obesity, alone versus alongside genetic disruption of the ISR, on mechanisms of liver protection during chronic asparaginase exposure in mice. Following diet-induced obesity, biochemical analysis of livers revealed that asparaginase provoked hepatic steatosis that coincided with activation of another eIF2 kinase PERK, a major ISR transducer to ER stress...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240317/non-invasive-mri-biomarkers-for-the-early-assessment-of-iron-overload-in-a-humanized-mouse-model-of-%C3%AE-thalassemia
#15
Laurence H Jackson, Evangelia Vlachodimitropoulou, Panicos Shangaris, Thomas A Roberts, Thomas M Ryan, Adrienne E Campbell-Washburn, Anna L David, John B Porter, Mark F Lythgoe, Daniel J Stuckey
β-thalassemia (βT) is a genetic blood disorder causing profound and life threatening anemia. Current clinical management of βT is a lifelong dependence on regular blood transfusions, a consequence of which is systemic iron overload leading to acute heart failure. Recent developments in gene and chelation therapy give hope of better prognosis for patients, but successful translation to clinical practice is hindered by the lack of thorough preclinical testing using representative animal models and clinically relevant quantitative biomarkers...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237319/epilepsy-treatment-in-adults-and-adolescents-expert-opinion-2016
#16
REVIEW
Jerry J Shih, Julia B Whitlock, Nicole Chimato, Emily Vargas, Steven C Karceski, Ryan D Frank
INTRODUCTION: There are over twenty anti-seizure medications and anti-seizure devices available commercially in the United States. The multitude of treatment options for seizures can present a challenge to clinicians, especially those who are not subspecialists in the epilepsy field. Many clinical questions are not adequately answered in double-blind randomized controlled studies. In the presence of a knowledge gap, many clinicians consult a respected colleague with acknowledged expertise in the field...
February 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223732/effects-of-sex-and-generation-on-hepatitis-b-viral-load-in-families-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
Ai-Ru Hsieh, Cathy Sj Fann, Chau-Ting Yeh, Hung-Chun Lin, Shy-Yi Wan, Yi-Cheng Chen, Chia-Lin Hsu, Jennifer Tai, Shi-Ming Lin, Dar-In Tai
AIM: To explore factors associated with persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a cohort of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-affected families and then investigate factors that correlate with individual viral load among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive relatives. METHODS: We evaluated non-genetic factors associated with HBV replication in relatives of patients with HCC. Relatives of 355 HCC cases were interviewed using a structured questionnaire...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223722/to-screen-or-not-to-screen-celiac-antibodies-in-liver-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Janaína Luz Narciso-Schiavon, Leonardo Lucca Schiavon
Celiac disease (CD) is a systemic immune-mediated disorder triggered by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. The typical symptoms are anemia, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and abdominal pain. CD has been reported in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cholangitis, autoimmune hepatitis, aminotransferase elevations, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis. We evaluate recommendations for active screening for CD in patients with liver diseases, and the effect of a gluten-free diet in these different settings...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213165/hbvcircle-a-novel-tool-to-investigate-hepatitis-b-virus-covalently-closed-circular-dna
#19
Zhipeng Yan, Jing Zeng, Youjun Yu, Kunlun Xiang, Hui Hu, Xue Zhou, Lili Gu, Li Wang, Jie Zhao, John A T Young, Lu Gao
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) persists as a stable episome in infected hepatocytes and serves as a template for the transcription of all viral genes. Due to the narrow host range of HBV, the development of a robust mouse model that supports cccDNA-dependent viral replication is a key hurdle in the development of novel HBV therapeutics. This study aimed to develop a novel tool to investigate HBV cccDNA. METHODS: Through minicircle technology, HBVcircle, a recombinant cccDNA, was easily generated and extracted from a genetically engineered E...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208753/possible-impact-of-190g-a-ccr2-and-%C3%AE-32-ccr5-mutations-on-decrease-of-the-hbv-vaccine-immunogenicity-a-preliminary-report
#20
Maria Ganczak, Karolina Skonieczna-Żydecka, Marzena Drozd-Dąbrowska, Grażyna Adler
Background: Chemokine genetic variations are involved in infectious diseases such as hepatitis B virus (HBV). Several allelic variants might, in theory, affect the outcome of vaccination. Objectives: This study was carried out to examine the associations of Δ32 CCR5 and 190G > A CCR2 polymorphisms with a response to a primary course of three HBV vaccinations. Methods: Between December 2014 and December 2016, patients from three randomly selected primary care clinics in the West Pomeranian region (Poland), 1 month after receiving the third dose of HBV vaccine, were enrolled...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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