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Hepatitis B genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813660/neutralizing-antibody-responses-to-viral-infections-are-linked-to-the-non-classical-mhc-class-ii-gene-h2-ob
#1
Lisa K Denzin, Aly A Khan, Francesca Virdis, Jessica Wilks, Melissa Kane, Helen A Beilinson, Stanislav Dikiy, Laure K Case, Derry Roopenian, Michele Witkowski, Alexander V Chervonsky, Tatyana V Golovkina
Select humans and animals control persistent viral infections via adaptive immune responses that include production of neutralizing antibodies. The precise genetic basis for the control remains enigmatic. Here, we report positional cloning of the gene responsible for production of retrovirus-neutralizing antibodies in mice of the I/LnJ strain. It encodes the beta subunit of the non-classical major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-like molecule H2-O, a negative regulator of antigen presentation. The recessive and functionally null I/LnJ H2-Ob allele supported the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies independently of the classical MHC haplotype...
August 15, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807841/racial-disparity-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-risk
#2
REVIEW
Hassan Ashktorab, Sonia S Kupfer, Hassan Brim, John M Carethers
Cancer from the gastrointestinal tract and its associated excretory organs will occur in over 300,000 Americans in 2017, with colorectal cancer responsible for over forty percent of that burden; there will be over 150,000 deaths from this group of cancers in the same time period. Disparities among subgroups related to these cancers' incidence and mortality exist. The epidemiology and risk factors associated with each cancer bear out differences for racial groups in the United States. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is more frequent in Non-Hispanic Whites, whereas esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with risk factors of tobacco and alcohol is more frequent among Blacks...
August 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797250/omega-3-fatty-acids-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-their-mechanisms-of-action-on-apolipoprotein-b-containing-lipoproteins-in-humans-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Jan Oscarsson, Eva Hurt-Camejo
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and genetic studies suggest that elevated triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein levels in the circulation increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Prescription formulations of omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), reduce plasma TG levels and are approved for the treatment of patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Many preclinical studies have investigated the TG-lowering mechanisms of action of OM3FAs, but less is known from clinical studies...
August 10, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792537/isolation-and-functional-characterization-of-hepatitis-b-virus-specific-t-cell-receptors-as-new-tools-for-experimental-and-clinical-use
#4
Karin Wisskirchen, Kai Metzger, Sophia Schreiber, Theresa Asen, Luise Weigand, Christina Dargel, Klaus Witter, Elisa Kieback, Martin F Sprinzl, Wolfgang Uckert, Matthias Schiemann, Dirk H Busch, Angela M Krackhardt, Ulrike Protzer
T-cell therapy of chronic hepatitis B is a novel approach to restore antiviral T-cell immunity and cure the infection. We aimed at identifying T-cell receptors (TCR) with high functional avidity that have the potential to be used for adoptive T-cell therapy. To this end, we cloned HLA-A*02-restricted, hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T cells from patients with acute or resolved HBV infection. We isolated 11 envelope- or core-specific TCRs and evaluated them in comprehensive functional analyses. T cells were genetically modified by retroviral transduction to express HBV-specific TCRs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775376/altered-circadian-feeding-behavior-and-improvement-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-obese-tac1-deficient-mice
#5
C A Maguire, S León, R S Carroll, U B Kaiser, V M Navarro
BACKGROUND: Metabolic function is regulated by the interplay of central and peripheral factors that ultimately regulate food intake and energy expenditure. The tachykinin substance P (SP) has been identified as a novel regulator of energy balance, however, the mechanisms underlying this effect are ill-defined and conflicting data regarding the role of SP on food intake have been reported by different groups. OBJECTIVE: To further characterize the metabolic role of the Tac1 gene products (SP and neurokinin A (NKA)) in mice through a series of genetic, metabolic and behavioral studies in Tac1 deficient mice...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775059/basal-ganglia-t1-hyperintensity-in-hereditary-hemorrhagic-telangiectasia
#6
A Parvinian, V N Iyer, B S Pannu, D R Apala, C P Wood, W Brinjikji
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The implications of basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity remain unclear in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of this imaging finding in a large cohort of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and to identify any association between this phenomenon and other disease manifestations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we identified all patients at our institution diagnosed with definite hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia from 2001 to 2017...
August 3, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774411/mechanism-and-prediction-of-hcc-development-in-hbv-infection
#7
REVIEW
Weiqi Xu, Jun Yu, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains one of the leading causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) globally. Over the past few decades, the risk factors of HCC in patients with chronic hepatitis B have been well characterized, and can be divided into host and viral factors. A few groups have also derived and validated HCC prediction scores based on these risk factors. In general, the scores have high negative predictive value in identifying a low risk group who may not need HCC surveillance in the next 3-5 years...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774406/natural-history-of-acute-and-chronic-hepatitis-b-the-role-of-hbv-genotypes-and-mutants
#8
REVIEW
Chih-Lin Lin, Jia-Horng Kao
Molecular epidemiologic studies reveal remarkable differences in the geographical distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes. The frequency of mutants among HBV genotypes also varies. The role of HBV genotypes/mutants in the pathogenesis of HBV infection and natural history of HBV infection has been extensively investigated. The distribution of HBV genotypes in acute hepatitis B patients reflects the predominant genotypes in a given geographic area. In chronic hepatitis B patients, genotype C and D have a higher frequency of basal core promoter A1762T/G1764A mutations than genotype A and B...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772086/highlights-of-drug-and-herb-induced-liver-injury-in-the-literature-from-2016-how-best-to-translate-new-information-into-clinical-practice
#9
Omar Shahbaz, Sandeep Mahajan, James H Lewis
INTRODUCTION: More than 1500 papers on drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and herb-induced liver injury (HILI) were published in 2016, many of which have the potential to impact clinical practice. AREAS COVERED: Clinical studies and case series that lent themselves to new concepts or directions in diagnosing, preventing, and treating DILI were selected for inclusion. Epidemiology of DILI in large prospective registries was highlighted, including the US DILIN network and Spanish DILI registry...
August 3, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769934/human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-and-immune-regulation-how-do-classical-and-non-classical-hla-alleles-modulate-immune-response-to-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-hepatitis-c-virus-infections
#10
REVIEW
Nicole B Crux, Shokrollah Elahi
The genetic factors associated with susceptibility or resistance to viral infections are likely to involve a sophisticated array of immune response. These genetic elements may modulate other biological factors that account for significant influence on the gene expression and/or protein function in the host. Among them, the role of the major histocompatibility complex in viral pathogenesis in particular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), is very well documented. We, recently, added a novel insight into the field by identifying the molecular mechanism associated with the protective role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27/B57 CD8(+) T cells in the context of HIV-1 infection and why these alleles act as a double-edged sword protecting against viral infections but predisposing the host to autoimmune diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764121/ahr-and-cyp1a-expression-link-historical-contamination-events-to-modern-day-developmental-effects-in-the-american-alligator
#11
Matthew D Hale, Thomas M Galligan, Thomas R Rainwater, Brandon C Moore, Philip M Wilkinson, Louis J Guillette, Benjamin B Parrott
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that initiates a transcriptional pathway responsible for the expression of CYP1A subfamily members, key to the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. Toxic planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, including dioxin and PCBs, are capable of activating the AHR, and while dioxin and PCB inputs into the environment have been dramatically curbed following strict regulatory efforts in the United States, they persist in the environment and exposures remain relevant today...
July 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759025/diagnosis-and-severity-criteria-for-sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome-veno-occlusive-disease-in-pediatric-patients-a-new-classification-from-the-european-society-for-blood-and-marrow-transplantation
#12
S Corbacioglu, E Carreras, M Ansari, A Balduzzi, S Cesaro, J-H Dalle, F Dignan, B Gibson, T Guengoer, B Gruhn, A Lankester, F Locatelli, A Pagliuca, C Peters, P G Richardson, A S Schulz, P Sedlacek, J Stein, K-W Sykora, J Toporski, E Trigoso, K Vetteranta, J Wachowiak, E Wallhult, R Wynn, I Yaniv, A Yesilipek, M Mohty, P Bader
The advances in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) over the last decade have led to a transplant-related mortality below 15%. Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome/veno-occlusive disease (SOS/VOD) is a life-threatening complication of HCT that belongs to a group of diseases increasingly identified as transplant-related, systemic endothelial diseases. In most cases, SOS/VOD resolves within weeks; however, severe SOS/VOD results in multi-organ dysfunction/failure with a mortality rate >80%. A timely diagnosis of SOS/VOD is of critical importance, given the availability of therapeutic options with favorable tolerability...
July 31, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757048/a-long-term-multicenter-study-entecavir-versus-tenofovir-in-treatment-of-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-naive-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#13
Bircan Kayaaslan, Esragul Akinci, Alpay Ari, Zeliha Kocak Tufan, Saygın Nayman Alpat, Ozgur Gunal, Selma Tosun, Rahmet Guner, Fehmi Tabak
BACKGROUND: Entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarat (TDF) are the two first-line therapies recommended in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B because of having potent antiviral effect and high genetic barriers against resistance. We aimed to compare efficacy of these drugs and to evaluate predictors of viral suppression. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study was conducted in nucleos(t)ide analogue-naive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients from different 6 centers...
July 27, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754883/the-prognostic-impacts-of-tea-domain-tead-transcription-factor-polymorphisms-in-chinese-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients
#14
Haiyan Xia, Juan Wen, Weiyong Zhao, Dongying Gu, Zhibin Hu, Jinfei Chen, Zhi Xu
TEA domain (TEAD) transcription factors play an important role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and progression by regulating the expression of a number of genes. However, the association of their genetic variations with HCC prognosis remains elusive. Seven potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in TEAD1-4 (rs2304733, rs10831923, rs12104362, rs3745305, rs11756089, rs2076173, rs7135838) were genotyped from 331 hepatitis B virus positive HCC patients using the Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX platform...
July 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753615/clustering-infection-of-hepatitis-b-virus-genotype-b4-among-residents-in-vietnam-and-its-genomic-characters-both-intra-and-extra-family
#15
Junko Matsuo, Son Huy Do, Chikako Yamamoto, Shintaro Nagashima, Channarena Chuon, Keiko Katayama, Kazuaki Takahashi, Junko Tanaka
Vietnam has a high rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and a high mortality rate from hepatocellular carcinoma. We performed a detailed genetic analysis of 48 residents and four families from Binh Thuan Province, a southern coastal area of Vietnam. The route of infection and genomic characteristics related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were studied in HBV spread among carriers that we detected in our previous hepatitis survey. The HBV genotype was B4 in 91.7% and C1 in 8.3% of the cases. The intra-family's HBV sequence homology was high at 96...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753243/a-sero-epidemiological-survey-of-the-effect-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-and-hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infections-among-elementary-school-students-in-siem-reap-province-cambodia
#16
Mayumi Fujimoto, Channarena Chuon, Shintaro Nagashima, Chikako Yamamoto, Ko Ko, Sonama Svay, Sirany Hok, Olline Lim, Masayuki Ohisa, Tomoyuki Akita, Keiko Katayama, Junko Matsuo, Kazuaki Takahashi, Junko Tanaka
AIM: This study aimed to survey the prevalence and incidence of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among elementary school students in Siem Reap province, Cambodia and to evaluate the effects of a national infant HBV vaccination program introduced in 2001. METHODS: The 3(rd) grade students during 2011, 2012 and 2013 Academic years were enrolled in this study and they became 5(th) or 6(th) grade students in 2014-2015 Academic year at their second time examination...
July 28, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752768/effects-of-antiviral-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-and-cirrhosis
#17
Masako Okada, Masaru Enomoto, Norifumi Kawada, Mindie H Nguyen
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the major cause of cirrhosis worldwide. The ultimate goal of current antiviral treatments for chronic hepatitis B (nucleos(t)ide analogs and interferon-α) is to prevent the development of end-stage liver diseases. Areas covered: We present a review of the current literature on antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis. Medline search was performed to identify relevant literature from 1993 through January of 2017. Expert commentary: One randomized controlled trial and a number of observational studies have shown that nucleos(t)ide analogs can decrease the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis B patients with advanced fibrosis...
July 28, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736138/how-viral-genetic-variants-and-genotypes-influence-disease-and-treatment-outcome-of-chronic-hepatitis-b-time-for-an-individualized-approach
#18
REVIEW
Neil Rajoriya, Christophe Combet, Fabien Zoulim, Harry L A Janssen
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global problem. Several HBV (sub)genotypes exist with different biology and geographical preponderances. While the future aim of HBV treatment remains virus eradication, current strategies of treatment aim to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of liver disease. Current strategies also involve identification of patients for treatment - those at risk of progressive liver disease. Identification of HBV genotype, HBV mutants and other predictive factors allow for tailored treatments, and also risk-surveillance pathways such as for hepatocellular cancer screening...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711021/sensitizing-effects-of-an-organovanadium-compound-during-adjuvant-therapy-with-cyclophosphamide-in-a-murine-tumor-model
#19
Abhishek Basu, Arin Bhattacharjee, Prosenjit Ghosh, Amalesh Samanta, Sudin Bhattacharya
Various epidemiological and preclinical studies have already established the cancer chemopreventive potential of vanadium. In addition, recent studies have also indicated the abilities of vanadium-based compounds to induce cell death selectively towards malignant cells. Therefore, the objective of the present investigation is to improve the therapeutic efficacy and toxicity profile of an alkylating agent, cyclophosphamide, by the concurrent use of an organovanadium compound, oxovanadium(IV)-l-cysteine methyl ester complex (VC-IV)...
September 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709006/compartmental-hbv-evolution-and-replication-in-liver-and-extrahepatic-sites-after-nucleos-tide-analogue-therapy-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-carriers
#20
Shan Gao, Zhong-Ping Duan, Yu Chen, Frank van der Meer, Samuel S Lee, Carla Osiowy, Guido van Marle, Carla S Coffin
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants are associated with nucleos/tide analogue (NA) response and liver disease but it is unknown whether NA influences extrahepatic HBV persistence. OBJECTIVES: To investigate HBV replication and genetic evolution in hepatic and extrahepatic sites of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) before and after NA therapy. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 13 paired plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), were collected from chronic HBV carriers at baseline and after a median 53 weeks NA therapy as well as liver biopsy (N=7 baseline, N=5 follow-up)...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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