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Hepatitis B genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917431/a-novel-miniaturized-biofilter-based-on-silicon-micropillars-for-nucleic-acid-extraction
#1
Salvatore Petralia, Emanuele Luigi Sciuto, Sabrina Conoci
New miniaturised microfluidic biofilter (BF) devices based on silicon micropillars have been developed and tested regarding their ability to extract HBV (Hepatitis B Virus) bacterial DNA from biological sample solutions. The device is composed of a silicon microchannel in which the pillars are distributed at the bottom surface. The extracted DNA solutions were analysed by real time PCR amplification and the biofilter performance was evaluated. The results obtained show that the DNA binding to the biofilters and the elution efficiency strictly depend on the pillars' geometrical dimensions and increase proportionally with the surface/volume ratio...
December 5, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903722/adenosine-kinase-deficiency-in-the-brain-results-in-maladaptive-synaptic-plasticity
#2
Ursula S Sandau, Mariana Colino-Oliveira, Abbie Jones, Bounmy Saleumvong, Shayla Q Coffman, Long Liu, Catarina Miranda-Lourenço, Cátia Palminha, Vânia L Batalha, Yiming Xu, Yuqing Huo, Maria J Diógenes, Ana M Sebastião, Detlev Boison
: Adenosine kinase (ADK) deficiency in human patients (OMIM:614300) disrupts the methionine cycle and triggers hypermethioninemia, hepatic encephalopathy, cognitive impairment, and seizures. To identify whether this neurological phenotype is intrinsically based on ADK deficiency in the brain or if it is secondary to liver dysfunction, we generated a mouse model with a brain-wide deletion of ADK by introducing a Nestin-Cre transgene into a line of conditional ADK deficient Adk(fl/fl) mice...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903358/-comparison-of-genotypes-of-hepatitis-c-virus-between-chinese-and-burmese-drug-users-living-in-dehong-prefecture-yunnan-province
#3
Y K Wang, K D Feng, J B Wang, Z M Zhang, R H Tang, R H Ye, J N Zhang, Y C Yang, M F Qiu, S Duan
Objective: To analyze the distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes among Chinese and Burmese drug users in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province. Methods: Plasma specimens and relevant epidemiological data were collected from 7 545 drug users attending rehabilitation centers and methadone clinics in Dehong Prefecture from January to September in 2015, of which 752 were positive for HCV antibodies. HCV RNA was then extracted from 139 random specimens (64 Burmese and 75 Chinese) and the CE1 and NS5B regions were amplified by nested PCR...
November 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896895/five-year-efficacy-and-safety-of-tenofovir-based-salvage-therapy-for-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-who-previously-failed-lam-adv-therapy
#4
Lucy Lim, Alexander Thompson, Scott Patterson, Jacob George, Simone Strasser, Alice Lee, William Sievert, Amanda Nicoll, Paul Desmond, Stuart Roberts, Kaye Marion, Scott Bowden, Stephen Locarnini, Peter Angus
BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistant HBV continues to be an important clinical problem. The TDF-109 study demonstrated that TDF±LAM is effective salvage therapy through 96 weeks for LAM resistant patients who previously failed ADV add-on or switch therapy. We evaluated the 5 year efficacy and safety outcomes in patients receiving long-term TDF±LAM in the TDF-109 study. METHODS: 59 patients completed the first phase of the TDF-109 study and 54/59 were rolled over into a long-term prospective open-label study of TDF±LAM 300mg daily...
November 29, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883070/ph-responsive-virus-like-nanoparticles-with-enhanced-tumour-targeting-ligands-for-cancer-drug-delivery
#5
Roya Biabanikhankahdani, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed Alitheen, Kok Lian Ho, Wen Siang Tan
Multifunctional nanocarriers harbouring specific targeting moieties and with pH-responsive properties offer great potential for targeted cancer therapy. Several synthetic drug carriers have been studied extensively as drug delivery systems but not much information is available on the application of virus-like nanoparticles (VLNPs) as multifunctional nanocarriers. Here, we describe the development of pH-responsive VLNPs, based on truncated hepatitis B virus core antigen (tHBcAg), displaying folic acid (FA) for controlled drug delivery...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882682/prevalence-of-equine-hepacivirus-infections-in-france-and-evidence-for-two-viral-subtypes-circulating-worldwide
#6
S Pronost, E Hue, C Fortier, M Foursin, G Fortier, F Desbrosse, F A Rey, P-H Pitel, E Richard, B Saunier
Like hepatitis C virus (HCV) in humans, the newly identified equine hepacivirus (NPHV) displays a predominating liver tropism that may evolve into chronic infections. The genomes of the two viruses share several organizational and functional features and are phylogenetically closest amongst the Hepacivirus genus. A limited amount of data is available regarding the spread of hepacivirus infections in horses. In this study, we asked whether in a more representative sample the prevalence and distribution of NPHV infections in France would resemble that reported so far in other countries...
November 24, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881614/performance-characteristics-of-a-new-consensus-commercial-kit-for-hepatitis-d-virus-rna-viral-load-quantification
#7
Frédéric Le Gal, Samira Dziri, Athenaïs Gerber, Chakib Alloui, Zahia Ben Abdesselam, Dominique Roulot, Ségolène Brichler, Emmanuel Gordien
Hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) is responsible for fulminant hepatitis and liver failure, and accelerates evolution towards cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B virus-infected patients. To date treatment relies upon long-term administration of pegylated alpha-interferon with sustained virological response in 30% of the patients. Very recently, new promising anti HDV therapies have been developed and are already used in clinical trials. HDV-RNA viral load (HDVL) monitoring must be an integral part of the management of the infected-patients...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878103/role-of-rna-secondary-structure-in-emergence-of-compartment-specific-hepatitis-b-virus-immune-escape-variants
#8
Sibnarayan Datta, Runu Chakravarty
AIM: To investigate the role of subgenotype specific RNA secondary structure in the compartment specific selection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) immune escape mutations. METHODS: This study was based on the analysis of the specific observation of HBV subgenotype A1 in the serum/plasma, while subgenotype A2 with G145R mutation in the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). Genetic variability found among the two subgenotypes was used for prediction and comparison of the full length pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) secondary structure and base pairings...
November 12, 2016: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876615/a-novel-avian-like-hepatitis-e-virus-in-wild-aquatic-bird-little-egret-egretta-garzetta-in-hungary
#9
Gábor Reuter, Ákos Boros, Róbert Mátics, Beatrix Kapusinszky, Eric Delwart, Péter Pankovics
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), family Hepeviridae, has public health concerns because of its zoonotic potential; however, the host species spectrum, animal to animal transmissions, the natural chain of hepevirus infections and the genetic diversity of HEV in wildlife especially in birds are less known. Using random amplification and next generation sequencing technology a genetically divergent avian HEV was serendipitously identified in wild bird in Hungary. HEV RNA was detected with high faecal viral load (1.33×10(8)genomiccopies/ml) measured by real-time PCR in faecal sample from a little egret (Egretta garzetta)...
December 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870801/relationship-between-uveitis-different-types-of-viral-hepatitis-and-liver-cirrhosis-a-12-year-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#10
Peng-Tai Tien, Chun-Ju Lin, Yi-Yu Tsai, Huan-Sheng Chen, De-Kuang Hwang, Chih-Hsin Muo, Jane-Ming Lin, Wen-Lu Chen
PURPOSE: This study investigates whether patients with viral hepatitis and cirrhosis are at risk of uveitis in the years following hepatitis. METHODS: We used data from Taiwan National Health Insurance system. The cases were patients newly diagnosed with viral hepatitis from 2000 to 2011. The end point of interest was a diagnosis of uveitis. A chi-square test was used for the difference of demographic characteristics between viral hepatitis and comparison. The risk of uveitis in hepatitis was stratified using Cox proportional hazard regression...
December 2016: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860197/crispr-cas9-the-ultimate-weapon-to-battle-infectious-diseases
#11
REVIEW
M Doerflinger, W Forsyth, G Ebert, M Pellegrini, M J Herold
Infectious diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide. Novel therapeutics are urgently required to treat multidrug-resistant organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to mitigate morbidity and mortality caused by acute infections such as malaria and dengue fever virus as well as chronic infections such as human immunodeficiency virus-1 and hepatitis B virus. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system, which has revolutionized biomedical research, holds great promise for the identification and validation of novel drug targets...
November 16, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858889/correlates-of-infection-and-molecular-characterization-of-blood-borne-hiv-hcv-and-hbv-infections-in-hiv-1-infected-inmates-in-italy-an-observational-cross-sectional-study
#12
Nunzia Sanarico, Stefania D'Amato, Roberto Bruni, Claudia Rovetto, Emanuela Salvi, Patrizia Di Zeo, Paola Chionne, Elisabetta Madonna, Giulio Pisani, Angela Costantino, Michele Equestre, Maria E Tosti, Alessandra Cenci, Maria T Maggiorella, Leonardo Sernicola, Emanuele Pontali, Alfredo Pansera, Rocco Quattrocchi, Sergio Carbonara, Fabio Signorile, Lorenzo Antonio Surace, Guido Federzoni, Elisa Garlassi, Giulio Starnini, Roberto Monarca, Sergio Babudieri, Maria Rapicetta, Maria G Pompa, Anna Caraglia, Barbara Ensoli, Anna R Ciccaglione, Stefano Buttò
Coinfection of blood-borne hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HBV and HCV, respectively) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-positive individuals frequently occurs in inmate population and peculiar viral strains and patterns of virological markers may be observed.Plasma from 69 HIV-1-positive inmates was obtained from 7 clinical centers connected with correctional centers in different towns in Italy. HIV, HBV, and HCV markers were tested by commercial assays. Virus genotyping was carried out by sequencing the protease and reverse transcriptase-encoding region (PR-RT region) for HIV and a region encompassing the NS5B gene for HCV and subsequent phylogenetic analysis...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844104/primary-hyperoxaluria-spectrum-of-clinical-and-imaging-findings
#13
Sara B Strauss, Temima Waltuch, William Bivin, Frederick Kaskel, Terry L Levin
Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism with three known subtypes. In primary hyperoxaluria type 1, the most common of the subtypes, a deficiency in the hepatic enzymes responsible for the metabolism of glycoxylate to glycine, leads to excessive levels of glyoxylate, which is converted to oxalate. The resultant elevation in serum and urinary oxalate that characterizes primary hyperoxaluria leads to calcium oxalate crystal deposition in multiple organ systems (oxalosis)...
November 14, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834158/investigating-genetic-characteristics-of-hepatitis-b-virus-associated-and-non-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Xi-Hua Fu, Min Li, Hai-Bo Lou, Ming-Shou Huang, Chun-Long Liu
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver malignancy that mainly occurs in patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Risk factors for HCC include hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the specific role of HBV infection in HCC development is not yet completely understood. In order to reveal the effects of HBV on HCC, we compare the genes of HCC patients infected with HBV with those who are not infected. METHODS: We encoded the genes of these two types of HCC in databases using enrichment scores of Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway terms...
November 11, 2016: Genetics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830995/oncogenic-role-of-tumor-viruses-in-humans
#15
Nimrah Akram, Muhammad Imran, Mamoona Noreen, Fayyaz Ahmed, Muhammad Atif, Zareen Fatima, Ahmed Bilal Waqar
Viruses are the intracellular pathogens that reproduce only in the living cell and manipulate the cellular machinery to produce more viruses. Viral replications can affect cellular genes of the host in multiple cancerous ways. Approximately, 20% of all human oncogenesis is caused by cancer-causing viruses known as oncoviruses. Viral infection causes chronic inflammation leading to cell death, uncontrollable proliferation, and modulated expression of some of the regulatory proteins. Oncogenesis is a multistep phenomenon in which normal host cells are transformed into cancerous cells on the basis of host genetic variability...
November 10, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830547/propagation-of-human-hepatocytes-in-upa-scid-mice-producing-chimeric-mice-with-humanized-liver
#16
Hiroki Ohshita, Chise Tateno
Primary or cryopreserved human hepatocytes (h-heps) have been used as the gold standard for in vitro metabolism and hepatotoxicity studies; however, the supply of h-heps is limited and they cannot grow in vitro. We achieved approximately 1000-fold propagation of h-heps in the liver of albumin promoter/enhancer-driven urokinase-type plasminogen activator transgenic/severe combined immunodeficiency disease (uPA/SCID) mice with genetically induced liver disease and immunodeficiency. When h-heps are transplanted into the uPA/SCID mouse liver via the spleen, the h-heps engraft in the mouse liver, resulting in its repopulation with h-heps...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822554/farnesoid-x-receptor-signaling-shapes-the-gut-microbiota-and-controls-hepatic-lipid-metabolism
#17
Limin Zhang, Cen Xie, Robert G Nichols, Siu H J Chan, Changtao Jiang, Ruixin Hao, Philip B Smith, Jingwei Cai, Margaret N Simons, Emmanuel Hatzakis, Costas D Maranas, Frank J Gonzalez, Andrew D Patterson
The gut microbiota modulates obesity and associated metabolic phenotypes in part through intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling. Glycine-β-muricholic acid (Gly-MCA), an intestinal FXR antagonist, has been reported to prevent or reverse high-fat diet (HFD)-induced and genetic obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver; however, the mechanism by which these phenotypes are improved is not fully understood. The current study investigated the influence of FXR activity on the gut microbiota community structure and function and its impact on hepatic lipid metabolism...
September 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816425/association-of-hfe-gene-c282y-and-h63d-mutations-with-liver-cirrhosis-in-the-lithuanian-population
#18
Simonas Juzėnas, Juozas Kupčinskas, Irena Valantienė, Jolanta Šumskienė, Vitalija Petrenkienė, Jūrate Kondrackienė, Laimutis Kučinskas, Gediminas Kiudelis, Jurgita Skiecevičienė, Limas Kupčinskas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Liver cirrhosis is the end-stage disease of chronic liver injury. Due to differences in the natural course of chronic liver diseases, identification of genetic factors that influence individual outcomes is warranted. HFE-linked hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) predisposes disease progression to cirrhosis; however, the role of heterozygous C282Y or H63D mutations in the development of cirrhosis in the presence of other etiological factors is still debated. The aim of this study was to determine the association between heterozygous C282Y and H63D mutations and non-HH liver cirrhosis in Lithuanian population...
2016: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808472/a-novel-hepatitis-b-virus-subgenotype-d10-circulating-in-ethiopia
#19
G B Hundie, V Stalin Raj, D Gebre Michael, S D Pas, M P Koopmans, A D M E Osterhaus, S L Smits, B L Haagmans
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is genetically highly divergent and classified in ten genotypes and forty subgenotypes in distinct ethno-geographic populations worldwide. Ethiopia is a country with high HBV prevalence; however, little is known about the genetic variability of HBV strains that circulate. Here, we characterize the complete genome of 29 HBV strains originating from five Ethiopian regions, by 454 deep sequencing and Sanger sequencing. Phylogenetically, ten strains were classified as genotype A1 and nineteen as genotype D...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808392/retraction-retraction-of-efficacy-and-safety-of-nucleoside-analogues-in-preventing-vertical-transmission-of-the-hepatitis-b-virus-from-father-to-infant-by-l-h-cao-p-l-zhao-z-m-liu-s-c-sun-d-b-xu-j-d-zhang-and-z-h-shao-genet-mol-res-14-4-15539-15546-2015
#20
L-H Cao, P-L Zhao, Z-M Liu, S-C Sun, D-B Xu, J-D Zhang, Z-H Shao
The retracted article is: Cao L-H, Zhao P-L, Liu Z-M, Sun S-C, et al. (2015). Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogues in preventing vertical transmission of the hepatitis B virus from father to infant. Genet. Mol. Res. 14: 15539-15546. The article published in Genetics and Molecular Research 14 (4): 15539-15546 (2015) is a very good paper, but it appears that the authors' group submitted this manuscript to multiple journals, which is ethical misconduct. This manuscript (similar language and identical data) was published in the Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine Journal prior to being submitted to GMR...
October 7, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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