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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351436/therapeutic-attenuation-of-the-epithelial-sodium-channel-with-a-splunc1-derived-peptide-in-airway-diseases
#1
James F Collawn, Rafal Bartoszewski, Ahmad Lazrak, Sadis Matalon
The airway surface liquid (ASL) coats the lining of the airways and allows for efficient cilial movement and therefore effective mucociliary transport. Cell surface channels regulate the hydration status of the ASL and the two critical channels in the process are the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). In cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) there is loss of CFTR function or compromised CFTR function in chronic bronchitis, respectively...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345400/fludrocortisone-a-treatment-for-tubulopathy-post-paediatric-renal-transplantation-a-national-paediatric-nephrology-unit-experience
#2
S R Ali, I Shaheen, D Young, I Ramage, H Maxwell, D A Hughes, D Athavale, M G Shaikh
Calcineurin inhibitors post-renal transplantation are recognized to cause tubulopathies in the form of hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and acidosis. Sodium supplementation may be required, increasing medication burden and potentially resulting in poor compliance. Fludrocortisone has been beneficial in addressing tubulopathies in adult studies, with limited paediatric data available. A retrospective review of data from an electronic renal database from December 2014 to January 2016 was carried out. Forty-seven post-transplant patients were reviewed with 23 (49%) patients on sodium chloride or bicarbonate...
January 18, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345057/sodium-chloride-inhibits-ifn-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-but-not-il-4-production-by-invariant-nkt-cells
#3
Dongjin Jeong, Hye Young Kim, Doo Hyun Chung
Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are a distinct subset of T cells that exert Janus-like functions in vivo by producing IFN-γ and IL-4. Sodium chloride modulates the functions of various immune cells, including conventional CD4+ T cells and macrophages. However, it is not known whether sodium chloride affects iNKT cell function, so we addressed this issue. Sodium chloride inhibited IFN-γ, but not IL-4, production by iNKT cells upon TCR or TCR-independent (IL-12 and IL-18) stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. Consistently, sodium chloride reduced the expression level of tbx21, but not gata-3, in iNKT cells stimulated with TCR engagement or IL-12 + IL-18...
January 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344729/sodium-bicarbonate-supplementation-improves-severe-intensity-intermittent-exercise-under-moderate-acute-hypoxic-conditions
#4
Sanjoy K Deb, Lewis A Gough, S Andy Sparks, Lars R McNaughton
Acute moderate hypoxic exposure can substantially impair exercise performance, which occurs with a concurrent exacerbated rise in hydrogen cation (H+) production. The purpose of this study was therefore, to alleviate this acidic stress through sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation and determine the corresponding effects on severe-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Eleven recreationally active individuals participated in this randomised, double-blind, crossover study performed under acute normobaric hypoxic conditions (FiO2% = 14...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342895/optimization-of-extraction-conditions-and-characterization-of-pepsin-solubilised-collagen-from-skin-of-giant-croaker-nibea-japonica
#5
Fangmiao Yu, Chuhong Zong, Shujie Jin, Jiawen Zheng, Nan Chen, Ju Huang, Yan Chen, Fangfang Huang, Zuisu Yang, Yunping Tang, Guofang Ding
In the present study, response surface methodology was performed to investigate the effects of extraction parameters on pepsin-solubilised collagen (PSC) from the skin of the giant croaker Nibea japonica. The optimum extraction conditions of PSC were as follows: concentration of pepsin was 1389 U/g, solid-liquid ratio was 1:57 and hydrolysis time was 8.67 h. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of PSC was up to 84.85%, which is well agreement with the predict value of 85.03%. The PSC from Nibea japonica skin was then characterized as type I collagen by using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)...
January 14, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342833/structural-determination-of-ruthenium-complexes-containing-bi-dentate-pyrrole-ketone-ligands
#6
Ya-Wen Tsai, Yun-Fan Chen, Yong-Jie Li, Kuan-Hung Chen, Chia-Her Lin, Jui-Hsien Huang
A series of ruthenium compounds containing a pyrrole-ketone bidentate ligand, 2-(2'-methoxybenzoyl)pyrrole (1), have been synthesized and characterized. Reacting 1 with [(η⁶-cymene)RuCl₂]₂ and RuHCl(CO)(PPh₃)₃ generated Ru(η⁶-cymene)[C₄H₃N-2-(CO-C₆H₄-2-OMe)]Cl (2) and {RuCl(CO)(PPh₃)₂[C₄H₃N-2-(COC₆H₄-2-OMe)]} (3), respectively, in moderate yields. Successively reacting 2 with sodium cyanate and sodium azide gave {Ru(η⁶-cymene)[C₄H₃N-2-(CO-C₆H₄-2-OMe)]X} (4, X=OCN; 5, X=N₃) with the elimination of sodium chloride...
January 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339149/use-of-skinethic%C3%A2-rhe-for-in-vitro-evaluation-of-skin-irritation-of-medical-device-extracts
#7
Christian Pellevoisin, Christelle Videau, Damien Briotet, Corinne Grégoire, Carine Tornier, Alain Alonso, Anne Sophie Rigaudeau, Charbel Bouez, Nathalie Seyler
According to ISO 10993 standards for biocompatibility of medical devices, skin irritation is one of the three toxicological endpoints to be always addressed in a biological risk assessment. This work presents a new protocol to assess this endpoint in vitro rather than in vivo. The protocol was adapted to medical devices extracts from the OECD TG 439 with the SkinEthic™ RHE model as test system. It was challenged with irritant chemicals, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate, Lactic Acid and Heptanoic Acid spiked in polar solvents, sodium chloride solution or phosphate buffer saline and non-polar solvent, Sesame Oil...
January 12, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339078/analytical-and-pre-analytical-performance-characteristics-of-a-novel-cartridge-type-blood-gas-analyzer-for-point-of-care-and-laboratory-testing
#8
Matthijs Oyaert, Tom Van Maerken, Silke Bridts, Silvi Van Loon, Heleen Laverge, Veronique Stove
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care blood gas test results may benefit therapeutic decision making by their immediate impact on patient care. We evaluated the (pre-)analytical performance of a novel cartridge-type blood gas analyzer, the GEM Premier 5000 (Werfen), for the determination of pH, partial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2), partial oxygen pressure (pO2), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), ionized calcium (iCa2+), glucose, lactate, and total hemoglobin (tHb). METHODS: Total imprecision was estimated according to the CLSI EP5-A2 protocol...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338740/is-sweat-testing-for-cystic-fibrosis-feasible-in-patients-with-down-syndrome
#9
Katharina Ruf, Antonia Demerath, Helge Hebestreit, Steffen Kunzmann
BACKGROUND: Recurrent airway infections are common in patients with Down's syndrome (DS). Hence, ruling out Cystic Fibrosis (CF) in these patients is often required. In the past, the value of sweat testing - the gold standard to diagnose CF - has been questioned in DS as false positive results have been reported. However, these reports are based on measurements of sweat osmolality or sodium concentrations, not chloride concentrations. This study analyses sweat secretion rate and chloride concentration in sweat samples of patients with DS in comparison to healthy controls...
January 16, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337089/thermal-field-distributions-of-ablative-experiments-using-cyst-mimicking-phantoms-comparison-of-microwave-and-radiofrequency-ablation
#10
Xiao-Wen Huang, Fang Nie, Zeng-Cheng Wa, Hang-Tong Hu, Qing-Xiu Huang, Huan-Ling Guo, Qiao Zheng, Xiao-Yan Xie, Wei Wang, Ming-De Lu
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the thermal field distribution of cystic lesions undergoing microwave ablation (MWA) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using in vitro phantoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cyst-mimicking lesions filled with sodium chloride (NaCl) solution in acrylamide phantoms were treated with MWA and RFA in vitro. The radiofrequency electrodes or MWA antennas were implanted in the centers of the artificial cystic lesions...
January 11, 2018: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333707/impact-of-gastric-acid-induced-surface-changes-on-mechanical-behavior-and-optical-characteristics-of-dental-ceramics
#11
Aditi Kulkarni, James Rothrock, Jeffery Thompson
PURPOSE: To test the impact of exposure to artificial gastric acid combined with toothbrush abrasion on the properties of dental ceramics. Earlier research has indicated that immersion in artificial gastric acid has caused increased surface roughness of dental ceramics; however, the combined effects of acid immersion and toothbrush abrasion and the impact of increased surface roughness on mechanical strength and optical properties have not been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three commercially available ceramics were chosen for this study: feldspathic porcelain, lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, and monolithic zirconium oxide...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332388/immersion-and-contact-efflorescence-induced-by-mineral-dust-particles
#12
Shuichi B Ushijima, Ryan D Davis, Margaret A Tolbert
The phase state of inorganic salt aerosols impacts their properties including the ability to undergo hygroscopic growth, catalyze heterogeneous reactions, and act as cloud condensation nuclei. Here, we report the first observation of contact efflorescence by mineral dust aerosol. The efflorescence of aqueous ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and sodium chloride (NaCl) droplets by contact with three types of mineral dust particles (illite, montmorillonite, and NX Illite), were examined using an optical levitation chamber...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331840/post-mortem-vitreous-magnesium-in-adult-population
#13
R Tse, J Garland, K Kesha, P Morrow, L Lam, H Elstub, A D Cala, C Palmiere, S Stables
BACKGROUND: The study of post mortem vitreous magnesium (Mg) is less common than sodium (Na), chloride (Cl) and potassium (K) in the forensic literature. There is no accepted normal range for post mortem vitreous Mg and the relationship between post mortem vitreous Mg levels and post mortem interval (PMI), other electrolyte levels, disease conditions, age and sex have not been fully established. AIM: To investigate the relationship of post mortem vitreous Mg with age, sex, PMI, vitreous electrolyte levels and diabetic status...
December 30, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331105/dietary-factors-modulate-colonic-tumorigenesis-through-the-interaction-of-gut-microbiota-and-host-chloride-channels
#14
Yong Zhang, Chao Kang, Xiao-Lan Wang, Min Zhou, Meng-Ting Chen, Xiao-Hui Zhu, Kai Liu, Bin Wang, Qian-Yong Zhang, Jun-Dong Zhu, Man-Tian Mi
SCOPE: In recent decades, the association between diet, gut microbiota and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been established. Gut microbiota and associated metabolites, such as bile acids and butyrate, are now known to play a key role in CRC development. The aim of this study was to identify the progression to CRC is influenced by cholic acid, sodium butyrate, a high-fat diet or different dose of dihydromyricetin (DMY) interacted with gut microbiota. METHODS AND RESULTS: An AOM/DSS (azoxymethan/dextran sodium sulfate) model was established to study the gut microbiota compsition before and after tumor formation during colitis-induced tumorigenesis...
January 13, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330622/association-of-soil-potassium-and-sodium-concentrations-with-spatial-disparities-of-prevalence-and-mortality-rates-of-hypertensive-diseases-in-the-usa
#15
Hongbing Sun
Crop available soil potassium is generally low and on the decline in the southeastern states of the USA because of the increasing crop and runoff removal and decreasing application of potassium fertilizer. Hypertension-related mortality rates are also high in the southeastern states and are on the rise. Among 41 elements analyzed from 4856 sites across all 48 states, potassium is identified as the only independent element whose soil concentration has significant association with spatial disparities of essential hypertension and hypertension-related mortality rates in the 48 states between 1999 and 2014...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328061/spontaneous-nano-gap-formation-in-ag-film-using-nacl-sacrificial-layer-for-raman-enhancement
#16
Kyungchan Min, Wook Jin Jeon, Youngho Kim, Jae-Young Choi, Hak Ki Yu
We report the method of fabrication of nano-gap (known as hot spots) in Ag thin film using sodium chloride (NaCl) sacrificial layer for Raman enhancement. The Ag thin film (20 ~ 50 nm) on the NaCl sacrificial layer undergoes an interfacial reaction due to the AgCl formed at the interface during water molecule intercalation. The intercalated water molecules can dissolve the NaCl molecules at interfaces and form the ionic state of Na+ and Cl-, promoting the AgCl formation. The Ag atoms can migrate by the driving force of this interfacial reaction, resulting in the formation of nano-size gaps in the film...
January 12, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328017/-hydration-to-prevent-contrast-induced-nephropathy
#17
E J Hoorn, R Zietse
In 2007, a national guideline was issued in the Netherlands to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy. This guideline recommended preventive hydration with 0.9% NaCl in patients with reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR 30-69 ml/min/1.73 m2) prior to administration of contrast. The recent AMACING study compared hydration versus no hydration, and found that hydration did not prevent contrast-induced nephropathy but did lead to complications and higher costs. The latest 2017 guideline recommends hydration only for patients with eGFR < 30 ml/min/1...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326302/role-of-clc-k-and-barttin-in-low-potassium-induced-sodium-chloride-cotransporter-activation-and-hypertension-in-mouse-kidney
#18
Naohiro Nomura, Wakana Shoda, Yuanlong Wang, Shintaro Mandai, Taisuke Furusho, Daiei Takahashi, Moko Zeniya, Eisei Sohara, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida
The sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) has been identified as a key molecule regulating potassium balance. The mechanisms of NCC regulation during low extracellular potassium concentrations have been studied in vitro. These studies have shown that hyperpolarization increased chloride efflux, leading to the activation of chloride-sensitive WNK kinases and their downstream molecules, including STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and NCC. However, this mechanism was not studied in vivo Previously, we developed the barttin hypomorphic mouse ( Bsndneo/neo mice), expressing very low levels of barttin and ClC-K channels, because barttin is an essential ß-subunit of ClC-K...
January 11, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323612/pharmacokinetic-analysis-of-intraocular-penetration-of-latanoprost-solutions-with-different-preservatives-in-human-eyes
#19
Yuko Sekine, Marie Shimada, Shoko Satake, Masato Okubo, Akihiro Hisaka, Tadashi Hara, Megumi Honjo, Makoto Aihara
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of excipients on latanoprost penetration into the aqueous humor with clinically available 6 products with different solutions mainly in the types and concentrations of preservatives. METHODS: In 363 patients with cataracts, we instilled 1 latanoprost drop in 1 eye before surgery. The drop was randomly selected by brand name product (A) and 5 generic products (B-F) composed with different excipients. B contains similar excipients to A...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319514/characterization-of-bacteriocin-producing-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-native-fruits-of-ecuadorian-amazon
#20
Karina Garzón, Clara Ortega, Gabriela N Tenea
Tropical, wild-type fruits are considered biodiverse "hotspots" of microorganisms with possible functional characteristics to be investigated. In this study, several native lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of Ecuadorian Amazon showing highly inhibitory potential were identified and characterized. Based on carbohydrate fermentation profile and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, seven strains were assigned as Lactobacillus plantarum and one strain as Weissella confusa. Using agar-well diffusion method the active synthetized components released in the neutralized and hydroxide peroxide eliminated cell-free supernatant were inhibited by proteolytic enzymes, while the activity was maintained stable after the treatment with catalase, lysozyme, α-amylase and lipase suggesting their proteinaceous nature...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
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