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Sodium chloride

Mariana Matias, Samuel Silvestre, Amílcar Falcão, Gilberto Alves
Purpose - During the discovery and development of new drugs, compounds with low aqueous solubility pose special challenges in their pharmacological evaluation and, therefore, the selection of appropriate vehicles to administer the compounds of interest is determinant for the quality of the results generated during the in vivo non-clinical studies. This work aimed to evaluate the motor deficit (as a surrogate of neurotoxicity) of several administration/delivery vehicles through the rotarod performance test. Methods - Trained male CD-1 mice were intraperitoneally administered with the following vehicles: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) 0...
2018: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Yongho Shin, Jonghwa Lee, Ji-Ho Lee, Junghak Lee, Eunhye Kim, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Hye Suk Lee, Jeong-Han Kim
A screening method for simultaneous analysis of 379 pesticides in human serum was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Electrospray ionization with positive/negative switching mode of LC-MS/MS was adopted and scheduled multiple reaction monitoring for each target compound was established. The limit of quantitation was 10 ng/mL for 94.5% of the total pesticides and the correlation coefficients of calibration were ≥0.990 for 93.9% of the pesticides. For the sample preparation, scaled-down QuEChERS were used...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Claudia Brockmann, Norbert Kociok, Sabrina Dege, Anja-Maria Davids, Tobias Brockmann, Kelly R Miller, Antonia M Joussen
PURPOSE: To assess the influence of retinal macrophages and microglia on the formation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Therefore, we used a transgenic mouse (CD11b-HSVTK) in which the application of ganciclovir (GCV) results in a depletion of CD11b+ cells. METHODS: We first investigated if a local depletion of CD11b+ macrophages and microglia in the retina is feasible. In a second step, the influence of CD11b+ cell depletion on CNV formation was analysed...
March 14, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Petra Schwendner, Maria Bohmeier, Petra Rettberg, Kristina Beblo-Vranesevic, Frédéric Gaboyer, Christine Moissl-Eichinger, Alexandra K Perras, Pauline Vannier, Viggó T Marteinsson, Laura Garcia-Descalzo, Felipe Gómez, Moustafa Malki, Ricardo Amils, Frances Westall, Andreas Riedo, Euan P Monaghan, Pascale Ehrenfreund, Patricia Cabezas, Nicolas Walter, Charles Cockell
Growth in sodium chloride (NaCl) is known to induce stress in non-halophilic microorganisms leading to effects on the microbial metabolism and cell structure. Microorganisms have evolved a number of adaptations, both structural and metabolic, to counteract osmotic stress. These strategies are well-understood for organisms in NaCl-rich brines such as the accumulation of certain organic solutes (known as either compatible solutes or osmolytes). Less well studied are responses to ionic environments such as sulfate-rich brines which are prevalent on Earth but can also be found on Mars...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nova Nexhmije Ajeti, Teuta Pustina-Krasniqi, Sonja Apostolska
OBJECTIVES: During the treatment of chronic apical periodontitis and pulp necrosis the main role is to irrigate the root canal. AIM: The aim of this in vivo study was to irrigate with 0.9% NaCl (Natrium Chloride), 2.5 % NaOCl (Sodium Hypochlorite Solution, Sigma Aldrich - Germany) and 2% CHX (Chlorhexidine Digluconate Solution, Sigma Aldrich - Spain) combined with Gaseous Ozone (Prozone WH, Austria). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was realised in the University Dentistry Clinical Centre of Kosovo (UDCCK), respectively in the Department of Endodontic and Dental Pathology, Dental Branch, Faculty of Medicine, Prishtina, Kosovo...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Rainer U Pliquett, Arno Noll, Richard Ibe, Alexandra Katz, Charlotte Ackmann, Alexandra Schreiber, Matthias Girndt
BACKGROUND: Here, we report a case of central pontine demyelinization in a type-2 diabetes patient with hyperglycemia after a binge-eating attack in the absence of a relevant hyponatremia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55-year-old, male type-2 diabetic patient with liver cirrhosis stage Child-Pugh B was admitted due to dysmetria of his right arm, gait disturbance, dizziness, vertigo, and polyuria, polydipsia after a binge-eating attack of sweets (a whole fruit cake and 2 Liters of soft drinks)...
March 12, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Emmanuel Ademola Anigilaje
The survival of a child with severe volume depletion at the emergency department depends on the competency of the first responder to recognize and promptly treat hypovolemic shock. Although the basic principles on fluid and electrolytes therapy have been investigated for decades, the topic remains a challenge, as consensus on clinical management protocol is difficult to reach, and more adverse events are reported from fluid administration than for any other drug. While the old principles proposed by Holliday and Segar, and Finberg have stood the test of time, recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have highlighted the risk of hyponatraemia, and hyponatraemic encephalopathy in some children treated with hypotonic fluids...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Anja Schiffmann, Gerald Gimpl
The oxytocin receptor, a class A G protein coupled receptor (GPCR), is essentially involved in the physiology of reproduction. Two parameters are crucially important to support high-affinity agonist binding of the receptor: Mg2+ and cholesterol, both acting as positive modulators. Using displacement assays with a high-affinity fluorescent antagonist (OTAN-A647), we now show that sodium functions as a negative allosteric modulator of the oxytocin receptor. In membranes from HEK293 cells stably expressing the oxytocin receptor, oxytocin binding occurred with about 15-fold lower affinity when sodium chloride was increased from 0 to 300 mM, whereas antagonist binding remained largely unchanged...
March 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Peng Chen, Yueming Zhu, Yan Men, Yan Zeng, Yuanxia Sun
Alginate oligosaccharides with different bioactivities can be prepared through the specific degradation of alginate by alginate lyases. Therefore, alginate lyases that can be used to degrade alginate under mild conditions have recently attracted public attention. Although various types of alginate lyases have been discovered and characterized, few can be used in industrial production. In this study, AlgA, a novel alginate lyase with high specific activity, was purified from the marine bacterium Bacillus sp...
March 9, 2018: Marine Drugs
Nina K Bersenkowitsch, Milan Ončák, Christian van der Linde, Andreas Herburger, Martin K Beyer
Although marine aerosols undergo extensive photochemical processing in the troposphere, a molecular level understanding of the elementary steps involved in these complex reaction sequences is still missing. As a defined laboratory model system, the photodissociation of sea salt clusters doped with glyoxylate, [Nan Cln-2 (C2 HO3 )]+ , n = 5-11, is studied by a combination of mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. Glyoxylate acts as a chromophore, absorbing light below 400 nm via two absorption bands centered at about 346 and 231 nm...
March 8, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Cora L Singleton, Michelle L Sauther, Frank P Cuozzo, Ibrahim Antho Youssouf Jacky
The health of 44 wild ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve was assessed across three age classes: <5 yr (young), 5-9 yr (adult), and ≥10 yr (old). Hematology and biochemistry tests were performed manually (leukocyte count and differential, packed cell volume, total protein) and using a point-of-care analyzer (hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride, ionized calcium, total carbon dioxide, anion gap), respectively. Urine specific gravity was measured via refractometry...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Steven Caskey, John E Moore, Jacqueline C Rendall
Background: Mycobacterium abscessus pulmonary infection has recently emerged as a significant pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is associated with significant morbidity and accelerated pulmonary decline. There is a paucity of data describing the activity of hospital biocides against this organism. Methods: M. abscessus isolates (n = 13) were recovered from CF and non-CF respiratory specimens. Seven commonly employed hospital biocides with generic ingredients as follows: acetone, propan-2-ol, diethylene glycol, 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, chlorine dioxide, 4% chlorhexidine, alcohol, and disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide, 10% sodium hypochlorite were assayed for their biocidal activity against M...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Mary J Scourboutakos, Sarah A Murphy, Mary R L'Abbé
BACKGROUND: Restaurant foods have high sodium levels, and efforts have been made to promote reductions. The objective of this study was to understand if salt substitutes and enhancers are associated with changes in sodium levels in fast-food restaurants. METHODS: A longitudinal database (MENU-FLIP) containing nutrition information for Canadian chain restaurants with 20 or more locations nationally was created in 2010 and updated in 2013 and 2016. In 2016, when available, ingredient lists were collected from restaurant websites and searched for the presence of salt substitutes/enhancers...
March 7, 2018: CMAJ Open
Vahid Vosooghi-Postindoz, Abdol Mansour Tahmasbi, Abbas Ali Naserian, Reza Valizadeh, Seyed Hadi Ebrahimi
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intermittent watering on Baluchi lambs, regarding their performance, blood metabolites, and nutrient digestibility. Methods: Twenty male Baluchi lambs, 120 ± 5 days of age and 29 ±2.2 kg body weight were randomly assigned to four watering treatments: (T1) free access to water during the day, (T2) watered ad libitum twice a day, (T3) watered ad libitum once a day, (T4) watered ad libitum once every two days...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Katherine Z Sanidad, Haixia Yang, Weicang Wang, E Ilker Ozay, Jun Yang, Min Gu, Emmet Karner, Jianan Zhang, Daeyoung Kim, Lisa M Minter, Hang Xiao, Guodong Zhang
Benzalkonium chloride (BAC), benzethonium chloride (BET), and chloroxylenol (PCMX) are antimicrobial ingredients used in many consumer products and are frequently detected in the environment. In 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) removed 19 antimicrobial ingredients from consumer antiseptic wash products, but deferred rulemaking for BAC, BET, and PCMX to allow additional time to develop new safety and efficacy data for these three antimicrobials. Therefore, it is important and timely to better understand the effects of these three compounds on human health...
March 5, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Hideki Kandori, Keiichi Inoue, Satoshi P Tsunoda
Ion pumps perform active transport of ions by using energy. The active transport mechanism can be illustrated by the Panama Canal model, which considers two gates and a gain in energy. The Panama Canal model is consistent with the alternating access model that is used to describe active transport, in which the substrate ion is bound, energized, and released. It was generally accepted that energization occurs only for an ion-bound protein but not for an ion-unbound protein. Light-driven proton and chloride pumps, two of the best studied pumps, are represented by the Panama Canal model...
March 7, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Mariela A Yevenes, Ricardo Figueroa, Oscar Parra
Quantifying the effect of droughts on ecosystem functions is essential to the development of coastal zone and river management under a changing climate. It is widely acknowledged that climate change is increasing the frequency and intensity of droughts, which can affect important ecosystem services, such as the regional supply of clean water. Very little is understood about how droughts affect the water quality of Chilean high flow rivers. This paper intends to investigate the effect of an, recently identified, unprecedented drought in Chile (2010-2015), on the Biobío River water quality, (36°45'-38°49' S and 71°00'-73°20' W), Central Chile...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lena L Rosenbaek, Federica Rizzo, Qi Wu, Lorena Rojas-Vega, Gerardo Gamba, Nanna MacAulay, Olivier Staub, Robert A Fenton
A correction has been published and is appended to both the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stefanie Klinger, Gerhard Breves
BACKGROUND: Beneficial effects of Resveratrol (RSV) have been demonstrated, including effects on transporters and channels. However, little is known about how RSV influences intestinal transport. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effects of RSV on intestinal transport and the respective mechanisms. METHODS: Porcine jejunum and ileum were incubated with RSV (300 µM, 30 min) in Ussing chambers (functional studies) and tissue bathes (detection of protein expression, phosphorylation, association with detergent resistant membranes (DRMs))...
March 3, 2018: Nutrients
Zahra H Mohammad, Amer A Hasan, Chris R Kerth, David G Riley, T Matthew Taylor
Sanitizer neutralizers can assist foodborne pathogen detection during routine testing by counteracting sanitizer residues carried over into fluids collected and tested from food samples. This study tested sanitizer-matched neutralizers applied at increasing concentrations to facilitate Salmonella enterica survival following exposure to cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) or peracetic acid (PAA), identifying minimum required concentrations of neutralizers to facilitate pathogen survival. Salmonella isolates were individually inoculated into a non-selective medium followed immediately by CPC (0...
March 3, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
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