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Operational research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108238/effect-of-an-evidence-based-guideline-on-the-treatment-of-maxillofacial-cancer-a-prospective-analysis
#1
Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Andrea Rau, Julia Ferencz, Thomas Langer, Marco Kesting, Markus Nieberler, Simone Wesselmann
BACKGROUND: In 2012, a guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of oral cavity cancer based on the best available evidence was implemented at certified German cancer centres for head and neck carcinomas. The present analysis was performed to determine whether the implementation of the guideline via certification improved the level of care, leading to a benefit for the patients. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed based on the annual operating figures at 31 certified head and neck cancer centres...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107311/performance-of-international-classification-of-diseases-based-injury-severity-measures-used-to-predict-in-hospital-mortality-and-intensive-care-admission-among-traumatic-brain-injured-patients
#2
Mathieu Gagné, Lynne Moore, Marie-Josée Sirois, Marc Simard, Claudia Beaudoin, Brice Lionel Batomen Kuimi
BACKGROUND: The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the main classification system used for population-based traumatic brain injury (TBI) surveillance activities but does not contain direct information on injury severity. International Classification of Diseases-based injury severity measures can be empirically derived or mapped to the Abbreviated Injury Scale, but no single approach has been formally recommended for TBI. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of different ICD-based injury severity measures for predicting in-hospital mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission in TBI patients...
February 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106553/attitudes-toward-potential-participant-registries
#3
Joshua D Grill, Andrew Holbrook, Aimee Pierce, Dan Hoang, Daniel L Gillen
Difficult participant recruitment is a consistent barrier to successful medical research. Potential participant registries represent an increasingly common intervention to overcome this barrier. A variety of models for registries exist, but few data are available to instruct their design and implementation. To provide such data, we surveyed 110 cognitively normal research participants enrolled in a longitudinal study of aging and dementia. Seventy-four (67%) individuals participated in the study. Most (78%, CI: 0...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106539/plasma-mir-92a-2-as-a-biomarker-for-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Yalan Yu, Jiangcheng Zuo, Qian Tan, Khaing Zar Thin, Ping Li, Man Zhu, Mingxia Yu, Zhenming Fu, Chunzi Liang, Jiancheng Tu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that play important roles in the carcinogenesis and progression of cancers. Aberrant expression of miRNAs in tissue and plasma has been found in various solid tumors. Our research aims to determine whether the abnormal plasma miRNA expression patterns can be used as a predictive marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Fifty SCLC patients and 30 healthy controls annotated with clinical characteristics and specific questionnaire survey for smoking history were available...
January 13, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106499/retrospective-study-of-long-term-outcome-after-brain-arteriovenous-malformation-rupture-the-rap-score
#5
Eimad Shotar, Matthieu Debarre, Nader-Antoine Sourour, Federico Di Maria, Joseph Gabrieli, Aurélien Nouet, Jacques Chiras, Vincent Degos, Frédéric Clarençon
OBJECTIVE The authors aimed to design a score for stratifying patients with brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) rupture, based on the likelihood of a poor long-term neurological outcome. METHODS The records of consecutive patients with BAVM hemorrhagic events who had been admitted over a period of 11 years were retrospectively reviewed. Independent predictors of a poor long-term outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≥ 3) beyond 1 year after admission were identified. A risk stratification scale was developed and compared with the intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) score to predict poor outcome and inpatient mortality...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106160/evaluation-of-three-block-anesthesia-methods-for-pain-management-during-mandibular-third-molar-extraction-a-meta-analysis
#6
Fanyuan Yu, Yao Xiao, Hanghang Liu, Fanzi Wu, Feng Lou, Dian Chen, Mingru Bai, Dingming Huang, Chenglin Wang, Ling Ye
A patient's pain during mandibular third molar extraction often creates problems for a dental surgeon and can also cause immense patient discomfort, such as decreased quality of life, serious complications, or even danger to the patients' lives. Effective pain management is therefore of great importance. Conventional block anesthesia method often fails to control such pain completely during an operation. Therefore, two available alternatives, Gow-Gates (G-G) and Vazirani-Akinosi (V-A) methods, have been developed...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105624/-clinical-research-of-delta-shaped-anastomosis-technology-in-laparoscopic-distal-gastrectomy-and-digestive-tract-reconstruction
#7
Bo Gao, Qingxing Huang, Jianhong Dong
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of the delta-shaped anastomosis in laparoscopic distal gastrectomy and digestive tract reconstruction. METHODS: Clinical data of 34 gastric cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with the delta-shaped anastomosis for digestive tract reconstruction (delta-shaped group) and 83 gastric cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with Billroth I( for digestive tract reconstruction (Billroth group) by same surgeon team from July 2013 to July 2015 at the Department of Digestive Surgery, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Shanxi Medical University were retrospectively analyzed...
January 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104710/protocol-of-a-feasibility-study-for-cognitive-assessment-of-an-ageing-cohort-within-the-southeast-asia-community-observatory-seaco-malaysia
#8
Devi Mohan, Blossom C M Stephan, Pascale Allotey, Carol Jagger, Mark Pearce, Mario Siervo, Daniel D Reidpath
INTRODUCTION: There is a growing proportion of population aged 65 years and older in low-income and middle-income countries. In Malaysia, this proportion is predicted to increase from 5.1% in 2010 to more than 15.4% by 2050. Cognitive ageing and dementia are global health priorities. However, risk factors and disease associations in a multiethnic, middle-income country like Malaysia may not be consistent with those reported in other world regions. Knowing the burden of cognitive impairment and its risk factors in Malaysia is necessary for the development of management strategies and would provide valuable information for other transitional economies...
January 19, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104571/non-violent-threats-and-promises-among-closed-market-drug-dealers
#9
Timothy Dickinson
BACKGROUND: An unintended consequence of drug prohibitions is that they often fail to absolutely deter potential drug dealers and users and instead restrictively deter them. One way in which dealers sometimes alter their behaviour in response to these prohibitions is by using violent forms of social control to prevent their customers from committing careless behaviour or from becoming police informants. Many dealers, however, are reluctant to use violent forms of social control for various reasons...
January 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103829/a-comparison-of-the-effects-of-oral-vs-intravenous-hydration-on-subclinical-acute-kidney-injury-in-living-kidney-donors-a-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Shona Mackinnon, Emma Aitken, Ryan Ghita, Marc Clancy
BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment for established renal failure is living donor kidney transplantation. However this pathway exposes healthy individuals to significant reduction in nephron mass via major surgical procedure. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is now the most common method for live donor transplantation, reducing both donor post-operative pain and recovery time. However this procedure exposes kidneys to additional haemodynamic stresses. It has been suggested that donor hydration-particularly the use of preoperative intravenous fluids-may counteract these stresses, reducing subclinical acute kidney injury and ultimately improving long-term renal function...
January 19, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103561/statistical-shape-modeling-of-the-left-ventricle-myocardial-infarct-classification-challenge
#11
Avan Suinesiaputra, Pierre Ablin, Xenia Alba, Martino Alessandrini, Jack Allen, W Bai, Serkan Cimen, Peter Claes, Brett R Cowan, Jan D'hooge, Nicolas Duchateau, Jan Ehrhardt, Alejandro F Frangi, Ali Gooya, Vicente Grau, Karim Lekadir, Allen Lu, Anirban Mukhopadhyay, Ilkay Oksuz, Xavier Pennec, Marco Pereanez, Catarina Pinto, Paolo Piras, Marc-Michel Rohe, Daniel Rueckert, Maxime Sermesant, Kaleem Siddiqi, Mahdi Tabassian, Luciano Teresi, Sotirios A Tsaftaris, Matthias Wilms, Alistair A Young, Xingyu Zhang, Pau Medrano-Gracia
Statistical shape modeling is a powerful tool for visualizing and quantifying geometric and functional patterns of the heart. After myocardial infarction (MI), the left ventricle typically remodels in response to physiological challenges. Several methods have been proposed in the literature to describe statistical shape changes. Which method best characterizes left ventricular remodeling after MI is an open research question. A better descriptor of remodeling is expected to provide a more accurate evaluation of disease status in MI patients...
January 17, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103278/systematic-influence-of-perceived-grasp-shape-on-speech-production
#12
Lari Vainio, Aleksi Rantala, Mikko Tiainen, Kaisa Tiippana, Naeem Komeilipoor, Martti Vainio
Previous research has shown that precision and power grip performance is consistently influenced by simultaneous articulation. For example, power grip responses are performed relatively fast with the open-back vowel [a], whereas precision grip responses are performed relatively fast with the close-front vowel [i]. In the present study, the participants were presented with a picture of a hand shaped to the precision or power grip. They were required to pronounce speech sounds according to the front/above perspective of the hand...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103066/practice-based-evidence-in-community-guide-systematic-reviews
#13
Namita Vaidya, Anilkrishna B Thota, Krista K Proia, Sara Jamieson, Shawna L Mercer, Randy W Elder, Paula Yoon, Rachel Kaufmann, Stephanie Zaza
OBJECTIVES: To assess the relative contributions and quality of practice-based evidence (PBE) and research-based evidence (RBE) in The Guide to Community Preventive Services (The Community Guide). METHODS: We developed operational definitions for PBE and RBE in which the main distinguishing feature was whether allocation of participants to intervention and comparison conditions was under the control of researchers (RBE) or not (PBE). We conceptualized a continuum between RBE and PBE...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102791/an-exemplar-of-naturalistic-inquiry-in-general-practice-research
#14
Susan McInnes, Kath Peters, Andrew Bonney, Elizabeth Halcomb
Background Before beginning any research project, novice researchers must consider which methodological approach will best address their research questions. The paucity of literature describing a practical application of naturalistic inquiry adds to the difficulty they may experience. Aim To provide a practical example of how naturalistic inquiry was applied to a qualitative study exploring collaboration between registered nurses and general practitioners working in Australian general practice. Discussion Naturalistic inquiry is not without its critics and limitations...
January 23, 2017: Nurse Researcher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102658/implantation-of-the-sorin-perceval%C3%A2-sutureless-aortic-valve-a-step-by-step-approach
#15
Steffen Pfeiffer, Joachim Sirch, Ferdinand Vogt, Theodor Fischlein, Giuseppe Santarpino
Since the introduction of the sutureless Perceval® (Sorin Group, Saluggia, Italy) in Europe after CE mark in 2012, the "sutureless approach" is becoming more and more popular. Sutureless implantation in general is easy, fast and safe, but bears several potential pitfalls. This might result in inferior functional results affecting also clinical outcomes. In our center, more than 300 implant procedures have been performed up to date by mainly two senior surgeons. The technique is in the process of spreading to all surgeons performing aortic valve procedures...
April 2017: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102533/hospital-incident-command-first-responders-or-receiving-centers
#16
Brian Fletcher, Amanda Knight, Brandy Pockrus, Matthew J Wain, Kathy Lehman-Huskamp
OBJECTIVES: (1) Propose a conceptual model of an alternative hospital incident management system (HIMS) that integrates concepts used by emergency operations centers (EOCs). (2) Compare HIMS to the standard hospital incident command system (HICS) model. DESIGN: A quasi-experimental study was performed. Two identical tabletop incident scenarios were presented, one utilizing HICS and one using HIMS. Participants completed postexercise surveys for each tabletop. Surveys contained both knowledge and satisfaction questions...
April 2016: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102160/assessment-of-selected-factors-influencing-the-development-of-stiffness-after-total-knee-arthroplasty
#17
Jakub Oberbek, Marek Synder
BACKGROUND: Surgical treatment of idiopathic degenerative disease of the knee joint with total arthroplasty is aimed at reducing concomitant pain and improving the limited range of motion. This paper aims to assess the influence of pain intensity and range of motion on the presence of knee joint stiffness after primary total arthroplasty. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 59 male and female patients were divided into two groups based on the presence (G1) or absence (G2) of stiffness in the operated knee joint at 3 months post-operatively...
October 28, 2016: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101937/methods-of-anorectal-manometry-vary-widely-in-clinical-practice-results-from-an-international-survey
#18
E V Carrington, H Heinrich, C H Knowles, S S Rao, M Fox, S M Scott
BACKGROUND: Ano-rectal manometry (ARM) is the most commonly performed investigation for assessment of anorectal dysfunction. Its use is supported by expert consensus documents and international guidelines. Variation in technology, data acquisition, and analysis affect results and clinical interpretation. This study examined variation in ARM between institutions to establish the status of current practice. METHODS: A 50-item web-based questionnaire assessing analysis and interpretation of ARM was distributed by the International Anorectal Physiology Working Group via societies representing practitioners that perform ARM...
January 18, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101925/-watch-out-effects-of-instructed-threat-and-avoidance-on-human-free-operant-approach-avoidance-behavior
#19
Michael W Schlund, Kay Treacher, Oli Preston, Sandy K Magee, David M Richman, Adam T Brewer, Gemma Cameron, Simon Dymond
Approach-avoidance paradigms create a competition between appetitive and aversive contingencies and are widely used in nonhuman research on anxiety. Here, we examined how instructions about threat and avoidance impact control by competing contingencies over human approach-avoidance behavior. Additionally, Experiment 1 examined the effects of threat magnitude (money loss amount) and avoidance cost (fixed ratio requirements), whereas Experiment 2 examined the effects of threat information (available, unavailable and inaccurate) on approach-avoidance...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101924/effects-of-differential-rates-of-alternative-reinforcement-on-resurgence-of-human-behavior
#20
Brooke M Smith, Gregory S Smith, Timothy A Shahan, Gregory J Madden, Michael P Twohig
Despite the success of exposure-based psychotherapies in anxiety treatment, relapse remains problematic. Resurgence, the return of previously eliminated behavior following the elimination of an alternative source of reinforcement, is a promising model of operant relapse. Nonhuman resurgence research has shown that higher rates of alternative reinforcement result in faster, more comprehensive suppression of target behavior, but also in greater resurgence when alternative reinforcement is eliminated. This study investigated rich and lean rates of alternative reinforcement on response suppression and resurgence in typically developing humans...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
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