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Phaniendra Alugoju, Vkd Krishan Swamy, Latha Periyasamy
Aging is characterized by gradual accumulation of macromolecular damage leading to progressive loss of physiological function and increased susceptibility to diverse diseases. Effective anti-aging strategies involving caloric restriction or antioxidant supplementation are receiving growing attention to attenuate macromolecular damage in age associated pathology. In the present study, we for the first time investigated the effect of quercetin, caloric restriction and combined treatment (caloric restriction with quercetin) on oxidative stress parameters, acetylcholinesterase and ATPases enzyme activities in the cerebral cortex of aged male wistar rat brain...
March 14, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Neeraj Kumar, Kishore Kumar Krishnani, Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Narendra Pratap Singh
Nanotechnology is a novel arena with promising applications in the field of medicine, industry, and agriculture including fisheries. Cross-disciplinary interactions and the application of this technology in biological systems have led to the innovation of novel nanoparticle antioxidants, which are the subject of our study. In context with above background, we designed an experiment on nano-silver to elucidate its role for mitigation of abiotic and biotic stress. Three diets were formulated viz. silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) incorporated at 0...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Fabíola Aliaga de Lima, Isabela Mateus Martins, Ana Faria, Conceição Calhau, Joana Azevedo, Iva Fernandes, Nuno Mateus, Gabriela Alves Macedo
Phenolic acids have been reported to play a role on the antioxidant activity and other important biological activities. However, as most polyphenolics in food products are either bound to cellular matrices or present as free polymeric forms, the way they are absorbed has not been totally clear until now. Hydrolytic enzymes may act to increase functionalities in polyphenolic-rich foods, enhancing the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds and minerals from whole grains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of tannin acyl hydrolase (tannase) on the total phenols, phenolic acid profile, antioxidant capacity and in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids found in whole rye flour (RF)...
March 14, 2018: Food & Function
Fuqiang Ma, Meng Ting Chung, Yuan Yao, Robert Nidetz, Lap Man Lee, Allen P Liu, Yan Feng, Katsuo Kurabayashi, Guang-Yu Yang
Directed evolution has long been a key strategy to generate enzymes with desired properties like high selectivity, but experimental barriers and analytical costs of screening enormous mutant libraries have limited such efforts. Here, we describe an ultrahigh-throughput dual-channel microfluidic droplet screening system that can be used to screen up to ~107 enzyme variants per day. As an example case, we use the system to engineer the enantioselectivity of an esterase to preferentially produce desired enantiomers of profens, an important class of anti-inflammatory drugs...
March 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Babar Hassan, Sohail Ahmed, Grant Kirker, Mark E Mankowski, Muhammad Misbah-Ul-Haq
Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann) (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae) is a species of subterranean termite that is a destructive pest of wood and wood products in Pakistan. This study evaluated the antioxidant and antienzyme potential of heartwood extractives against H. indicola. Heartwood extractives of four durable wood species, Tectona grandis (L.f), Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.), Cedrus deodara (Roxb.), and Pinus roxburghii (Sarg.) were removed from wood shavings via soxhlet extraction with an ethanol:toluene solvent system...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Thi Huyen Do, Ngoc Giang Le, Trong Khoa Dao, Thi Mai Phuong Nguyen, Tung Lam Le, Han Ly Luu, Khanh Hoang Viet Nguyen, Van Lam Nguyen, Lan Anh Le, Thu Nguyet Phung, Nico M van Straalen, Dick Roelofs, Nam Hai Truong
The scarcity of enzymes having an optimal activity in lignocellulose deconstruction is an obstacle for industrial-scale conversion of cellulosic biomass into biofuels. With the aim of mining novel lignocellulolytic enzymes, a ~9 Gb metagenome of bacteria in Vietnamese native goats' rumen was sequenced by Illumina platform. From the data, 821 ORFs encoding carbohydrate esterases (CEs) and polysaccharide lyases (PLs) serving for lignocellulose pre-treatment, 816 ORFs encoding 11 glycoside hydrolase families (GHs) of cellulases, and 2252 ORFs encoding 22 GHs of hemicellulases, were mined...
March 12, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Mercedes García Carrillo, Mariana Ferrario, Sandra Guerrero
The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of UV-C light (0-10.6 kJ/m2 ) assisted by mild heat treatment (50 °C) on the inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae KE 162 in peptone water and fresh carrot-orange juice blend (pH: 3.8; 9.8°Brix; 707 NTU; absorption coefficient: 0.17 cm-1 ). Yeast induced damage by single UV-C and mild heat (H) and the combined treatment UV-C/H, was investigated by flow cytometry (FC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). When studying induced damage by FC, cells were labeled with fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and propidium iodide (PI) to monitor membrane integrity and esterase activity...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Ludmila Martínková, Vladimír Křen
The aim of this study is to summarize the current progress in the design of biocatalytic processes applicable for the production of optically pure mandelic acids and their analogues. These compounds are used as building blocks for pharmaceutical chemistry and as chiral resolving agents. Their enzymatic syntheses mainly employed nitrile hydrolysis with nitrilases, ester hydrolysis, ammonolysis or esterification with lipases or esterases, and ketone reduction or alcohol oxidation with dehydrogenases. Each of these methods will be characterized in terms of its product concentrations, enantioselectivities, and the types of catalysts used...
March 10, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Eva Ortega-Retuerta, Cèlia Marrasé, Ana Muñoz-Fernández, M Montserrat Sala, Rafel Simó, Josep M Gasol
Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEPs) are a subclass of organic particles with high impact in biogeochemical and ecological processes, such as the biological carbon pump, air-sea interactions, or the microbial loop. However, the complexity in production and consumption makes TEP dynamics hardly predictable, calling for the need of descriptive studies about the in situ dynamics of these particles. We followed monthly TEP dynamics and combined them with a dataset of environmental variables during three years in a coastal site of the oligotrophic North Western Mediterranean (Blanes Bay)...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Wan Hasnidah Wan Osman, Meng-I Lin, Keiko Kondo, Takashi Nagata, Masato Katahira
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) of wood-degrading fungi play essential roles in cellular detoxification processes and endogenous metabolism. Fungal GSTs of GSTFuA class are suggested to be involved in lignin degradation. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora is one of the important model fungi of the selective lignin degraders, we found it interesting to study its GSTs. Here, we characterized the activities of two GSTs of the GSTFuA class of C. subvermispora (CsGST63524 and CsGST83044). A high-yield expression systems involving Escherichia coli was developed for each of these enzymes...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Diego Vallés, Ana M B Cantera
Crude extract (CE) from pulp of Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. mature fruit, contains at least 3 cysteine proteases with proteolytic activity. By single step cation exchange chromatography (Hi-trap SP-HP) of partially purified CE, the protease with the lowest pI, Antiacanthain A (AntA), was isolated. It showed maximum activity at pH 9, and 75% of remaining activity was maintained over a wide pH range (pH 6-10). The AntA activity exhibits a constant increase up to 70 °C. Maintains almost 100% of its activity at 45 at pH 6 and 9...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Souravh Bais, Renu Kumari, Yash Prashar
BACKGROUND: sinapic acid (3, 5 di-methoxy 4-hydroxycinnamic acid) is a bioactive compound. Recent studies showed that it has a significant potential to attenuate various chemically induced Neurodegenerative toxicities. AIM: the present study investigates the potential of sinapic acid as neuromodulator and its effect on release of Monoamine Oxidase (MAO-A, MAO-B), TNF-α, Acetylcholine esterase Enzyme, in cognitive dysfunctions associated with experimental dementia...
March 9, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Maeda Mayumi, Masashi Tokashiki, Midori Tokashiki, Keiko Uechi, Susumu Ito, Toki Taira
Awamori is a traditional distilled liquor in the Ryukyu Islands, made from steamed rice by the action of the black-koji mold Aspergillus luchuensis and awamori yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of the specific flavors in aged awamori kusu is vanillin, which is derived from ferulic acid (FA) in rice grains. FA is released from the cell wall material in the rice grain by ferulic acid esterase produced by A. luchuensis. Through decarboxylation of FA, 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG) is produced, which is transferred to the distilled liquor, and converted to vanillin by natural oxidization during the aging process...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Manisha Chownk, Jashandeep Kaur, Kashmir Singh, Jagdeep Kaur
AIM: mbtJ from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv is a member of mbt A-J operon required for mycobactin biogenesis. MATERIALS & METHODS: The esterase/acetyl-hydrolase activity of mbtJ was determined by pNP-esters/native-PAGE and expression under iron stress by quantitative-PCR. Effect of gene on growth/survival of Mycobacterium was studied using antisense. Its effect on morphology, growth/infection was studied in Mycobacterium smegmatis. RESULTS: It showed acetyl hydrolase/esterase activity at pH 8...
March 9, 2018: Future Microbiology
Mitsuhiro Yamamura, Yuji Miyamoto, Masataka Mitsuno, Hiroe Tanaka, Masaaki Ryomoto
Objective : We have previously shown that pretreatment with the free radical scavenger edaravone (Radicut® , Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Co., Japan) mitigated skeletal muscle damage due to ischemia reperfusion. In this study, we sought to validate its use in an experimental model of myonephropathic-metabolic syndrome (MNMS). Methods : Either edaravone (3.0 mg/kg; edaravone group; n=4) or saline (saline group; n=6) was intraperitoneally injected into male Lewis rats (508±31 g). Normal kidneys were harvested as control (n=3)...
December 25, 2017: Annals of Vascular Diseases
Yanmin Wan, Guobin Kang, Chithra Sreenivasan, Lance Daharsh, Junfeng Zhang, Wenjin Fan, Dan Wang, Hideaki Moriyama, Feng Li, Qingsheng Li
Two lineages of Influenza D virus (IDV) have been found to infect cattle and promote bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), one of the most commonly diagnosed causes of morbidity and mortality within the cattle industry. Furthermore, IDV can infect other economically important domestic livestock including pigs and has the potential to infect humans, which necessitates the need for an efficacious vaccine. In this study, we designed a DNA vaccine expressing consensus hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HEF) protein (FluD-Vax) and tested its protective efficacy against two lineages of IDV (D/OK and D/660) in guinea pigs...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
Maher Bourbia, Yoav Finer
The use of resin composites and adhesives in dental restorations is ubiquitous. However, the longevity of resin composites is less than that of comparable restorative materials, mainly because of higher fracture rates and greater prevalence of secondary caries. Dental resin composites and adhesives contain ester links, which are vulnerable to biochemical hydrolysis by esterase activity from human saliva and bacteria. In this article, we review biodegradation processes that occur in the oral cavity and their contribution to the premature failure of resin composites...
January 2018: Journal—Canadian Dental Association, Journal de L'Association Dentaire Canadienne
Stephanie Zergiebel, Andreas Seeling
Dibenzoazecines are a class of potential neuroleptics with high affinity to dopamine and serotonin receptors. The efficacy and high therapeutic range has already been demonstrated in vivo with the lead structure 7-methyl-5,6,7,8,9,14-hexahydrodibenzo[d,g]azecin-3-ol (LE404: ) and selected derivatives. There is a variety of new synthesized structurally different dibenzoazecine derivatives with the aim to improve pharmacokinetic parameters, all of which contain the lead structure LE404: . For a multitude of these substances is still a lack of information, inclusive of stability, physicochemical parameters, pharmacokinetics and metabolism...
March 6, 2018: Drug Research
Shruthi Sunderrajan, Lima Rose Miranda, Gautam Pennathur
Graphene oxide/ chitosan and reduced graphene oxide/ chitosan (GO/CS and RGO/CS) beads were prepared by precipitation with NaOH. Porcine liver esterase was immobilized on these beads to give GO/CS/E and RGO/CS/E beads. The optimum conditions for the maximum activity of RGO/CS/E beads was pH 8 and 50°C. The stability of the enzyme immobilized on GO/CS/E and RGO/CS/E was high in the pH range of 5-8. The GO/CS/E beads showed superior stability compared to that of the free enzyme and CS/E beads between 20°C and 50°C...
March 6, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Hye-Lim Lee, Sung-Ah Lim, Hye-Won Lee, Ho-Ryong Yoo, Hyeong-Geug Kim
We evaluated neuropharmacological properties of Yuk-Mi-Jihwang-Tang (YJT) against scopolamine injection-induced memory impairment mice model. Mice were orally administered with YJT (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) or tacrine (TAC, 12.5 mg/kg) for 10 days. At the first day of Morris water maze task, scopolamine (2 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected before 30 min of it. The hippocampal memory function was determined by the Morris water maze task for 5 days consecutively. Scopolamine drastically increased escape latency and decreased time spent in target quadrant...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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