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Anirban Basu, Gopinatha Suresh Kumar
Interaction of proflavine with hemoglobin (Hgb) was studied employing spectroscopy, calorimetry, and atomic force microscopy. The equilibrium constant was found to be of the order 10(4)M(-1). The quenching of Hgb fluorescence by proflavine was due to the complex formation. Calculation of the molecular distance (r) between the donor (β-Trp37 of Hgb) and acceptor (proflavine) suggested that energy can be efficiently transferred from the β-Trp37 residue at the α1β2 interface of the protein to the dye. Proflavine induced significant secondary structural changes in Hgb...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Tristan Barbeyron, François Thomas, Valérie Barbe, Hanno Teeling, Chantal Schenowitz, Carole Dossat, Alexander Goesmann, Catherine Leblanc, Frank Oliver Glöckner, Mirjam Czjzek, Rudolf Amann, Gurvan Michel
The marine flavobacterium Zobellia galactanivorans Dsij(T) was isolated from a red alga and by now constitutes a model for studying algal polysaccharide bioconversions. We present an in-depth analysis of its complete genome and link it to physiological traits. Z. galactanivorans exhibited the highest gene numbers for glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases and the second highest sulfatase gene number in a comparison to 125 other marine heterotrophic bacteria (MHB) genomes. Its genome contains 50 Polysaccharide Utilization Loci, 22 of which contain sulfatase genes...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Jiachao Zhang, Qisong Hu, Chuanbiao Xu, Sixin Liu, Congfa Li
Pepper pericarp microbiota plays an important role in the pepper peeling process for the production of white pepper. We collected pepper samples at different peeling time points from Hainan Province, China, and used a metagenomic approach to identify changes in the pericarp microbiota based on functional gene analysis. UniFrac distance-based principal coordinates analysis revealed significant changes in the pericarp microbiota structure during peeling, which were attributed to increases in bacteria from the genera Selenomonas and Prevotella...
2016: PloS One
Alexia Mopin, Virginie Driss, Carine Brinster
The intravenous injection of C1498 cells into syngeneic or congenic mice has been performed since 1941. These injections result in the development of acute leukemia. However, the nature of this disease has not been well documented in the literature. Here, we provide a technical protocol for characterizing C1498 cells in vitro and for determining the nature of the induced leukemia in vivo. The first part of this procedure is focused on determining the hematopoietic lineage and the stage of differentiation of cultured C1498 cells...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
R Gajendra Reddy, Lenin Veeraval, Swati Maitra, Marylène Chollet-Krugler, Sophie Tomasi, Françoise Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Joël Boustie, Sumana Chakravarty
BACKGROUND: Natural products from lichens are widely investigated for their biological properties, yet their potential as central nervous system (CNS) therapeutic agents is less explored. PURPOSE: The present study investigated the neuroactive properties of selected lichen compounds (atranorin, perlatolic acid, physodic acid and usnic acid), for their neurotrophic, neurogenic and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activities. METHODS: Neurotrophic activity (neurite outgrowth) was determined using murine neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
B S Holst
During the last decade, analysis of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), highly conserved between mammalian species, has contributed to new information in reproductive endocrinology, due to clinically available diagnostic assays. AMH is produced solely in the gonads, in the Sertoli cells of testes and granulosa cells of the ovary, and thus offers possibilities to diagnose physiologic and pathologic conditions involving these organs. This article reviews indications for AMH analysis in cats and dogs, including diagnosing the presence of gonads, and granulosa or Sertoli cell tumours...
October 18, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Sindy P Buitrago, Diego Garzón-Ospina, Manuel A Patarroyo
BACKGROUND: Designing a vaccine against Plasmodium vivax has focused on selecting antigens involved in invasion mechanisms that must have domains with low polymorphism for avoiding allele-specific immune responses. The rhoptry neck protein 4 (RON4) forms part of the tight junction, which is essential in the invasion of hepatocytes and/or erythrocytes; however, little is known about this locus' genetic diversity. METHODS: DNA sequences from 73 Colombian clinical isolates from pvron4 gene were analysed for characterizing their genetic diversity; pvron4 haplotype number and distribution, as well as the evolutionary forces determining diversity pattern, were assessed by population genetics and molecular evolutionary approaches...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
Lada E Petrovskaya, Ksenia A Novototskaya-Vlasova, Sultan Sh Gapizov, Elena V Spirina, Ekaterina V Durdenko, Elizaveta M Rivkina
Siberian permafrost is a unique environment inhabited with diverse groups of microorganisms. Among them, there are numerous producers of biotechnologically relevant enzymes including lipases and esterases. Recently, we have constructed a metagenomic library from a permafrost sample and identified in it several genes coding for potential lipolytic enzymes. In the current work, properties of the recombinant esterases obtained from this library are compared with the previously characterized lipase from Psychrobacter cryohalolentis and other representatives of the hormone-sensitive lipase family...
October 18, 2016: Bioengineered
Olga N Yaroslavtseva, Ivan M Dubovskiy, Viktor P Khodyrev, Bahytzhan A Duisembecov, Vadim Yu Kryukov, Viktor V Glupov
The synergistic effect between the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii and a sublethal dose of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. morrisoni var. tenebrionis was studied in terms of immune defense reactions and detoxification system activity of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, fourth instar larvae. Bacterial infection led to more rapid germination of fungal conidia on integuments. We found a significant decrease of cellular immunity parameters, including total hemocyte count and encapsulation response, under the influence of bacteria...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Neha Basotra, Baljit Kaur, Marcos Di Falco, Adrian Tsang, Bhupinder Singh Chadha
Mycothermus thermophilus (Syn. Scytalidium thermophilum/Humicola insolens), a thermophilic fungus, is being reported to produce appreciable titers of cellulases and hemicellulases during shake flask culturing on cellulose/wheat-bran/rice straw based production medium. The sequential and differential expression profile of endoglucanases, β-glucosidases, cellobiohydrolases and xylanases using zymography was studied. Mass spectrometry analysis of secretome (Q-TOF LC/MS) revealed a total of 240 proteins with 92 CAZymes of which 62 glycosyl hydrolases belonging to 30 different families were present...
October 8, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Saif Ullah, Rizwan Mustafa Shah, Sarfraz Ali Shad
Dusky cotton bug (DCB), Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera) is a serious pest of cotton and other malvaceous plants. Chlorfenapyr, a broad spectrum, N-substituted, halogenated pyrrole insecticide is used extensively to control many insect pests in cotton, including DCB. In this study, we investigated a field strain of DCB to assess its potential to develop resistance to chlorfenapyr. After six generations of continuous selection pressure with chlorfenapyr, DCB had a 7.24-fold and 149.06-fold resistance ratio (RR) at G1 and G6, respectively...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Yojana R Chikate, Vishal V Dawkar, Ranjit S Barbole, Priyadarshini V Tilak, Vidya S Gupta, Ashok P Giri
Helicoverpa armigera is one of the major crop pests and is less amenable to current pest control approaches. RNA interference (RNAi) is emerging as a potent arsenal for the insect pest control over current methods. Here, we examined the effect on growth and development in H. armigera by targeting various enzymes/proteins such as proteases like trypsins (HaTry2, 3, 4 and 6), chymotrypsin (HaChy4) and cysteine protease like cathepsin (HaCATHL); glutathione S-transferases (HaGST1a, 6 and 8); esterases (HaAce4, HaJHE); catalase (HaCAT); super-oxide-dismutase (HaCu/ZnSOD); fatty acid binding protein (HaFabp) and chitin deacetylase (HaCda5b) through dsRNA approach...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
K Divakar, M Suryia Prabha, G Nandhinidevi, Pennathur Gautam
The simultaneous production of intracellular esterase and extracellular protease from the strain Lysinibacillus fusiformis AU01 was studied in detail. The production was carried out both under batch and fedbatch mode. The maximum yield of intracellular esterase and protease was obtained under full oxygen saturation at the beginning of the fermentation. The data was fitted to the Luedeking-Piret model and it was shown that the enzyme (both esterase and protease) production was growth-associated. A decrease in intracellular esterase and increase in the extracellular esterase was observed during late stationary phase...
October 13, 2016: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Kristen Kokkonen, David A Kass
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) form an 11-member superfamily comprising 100 different isoforms that regulate the second messengers cyclic adenosine or guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP or cGMP). These PDE isoforms differ with respect to substrate selectivity and their localized control of cAMP and cGMP within nanodomains that target specific cellular pools and synthesis pathways for the cyclic nucleotides. Seven PDE family members are physiologically relevant to regulating cardiac function, disease remodeling of the heart, or both: PDE1 and PDE2, both dual-substrate (cAMP and cGMP) esterases; PDE3, PDE4, and PDE8, which principally hydrolyze cAMP; and PDE5A and PDE9A, which target cGMP...
October 12, 2016: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Muhammad Jahangir, Ume Farwa, Farhana Mazhar, Afza Malik, Ejaz Ahmad
Ethambutoldihydrogenchloride (EMB) with chemical formula C10H24N2O2.2HCl is ethane-1,2-diamine in which one hydrogen attached to each of the nitrogen is substituted by a 1-hydroxybutan-2-yl group (S,S-configuration). It is an FDA approved drug and has been used for treatment of tuberculosis since 1960's. Prolong use of EMB has a side effect of visual impairment and in literature it is related with the depletion of Zn metal from the body. As it is a good chelating agent, many metal II complexes have been synthesized with anti-tubercular activity...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Sofía Otero, Gisela Kristoff
Organophosphate insecticides (OPs) continue to be an important class of agrochemicals used in modern agriculture worldwide. Even though these pesticides persist in the environment for a relatively short time, they show a high acute toxicity that may represent a serious hazard for wildlife. Sub-lethal effects on non-target species are a focus in pest management programs and should be used as biomarkers. Cholinesterases (ChEs) are the most used biomarker of OP exposure in vertebrate and invertebrate species. However, the combined monitoring of ChE and carboxylesterase (CE) activities may provide a more useful indication of exposure and effect of the organisms...
October 6, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
R Asri, B O'Neill, J C Patel, K A Siletti, M E Rice
The study of transmitter interactions in reward and motor pathways in the brain, including the striatum, requires methodology to detect stimulus-driven neurotransmitter release events. Such methods exist for dopamine, and have contributed to the understanding of local and behavioral factors that regulate dopamine release. However, factors that regulate release of another key transmitter in these pathways, acetylcholine (ACh), are unresolved, in part because of limited temporal and spatial resolution of current detection methods...
October 3, 2016: Analyst
Kopal Saharia, Ranjeet Kumar, Kuldeep Gupta, Shrilekha Mishra, Jamuna R Subramaniam
BACKGROUND: With an incidence of 1 in 85 persons above the age of 60 years succumbing to the disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD), has been predicted to create havoc globally. In spite of enormous efforts and exhaustive research, no cure is in sight. Hence, it is critical to unravel the mechanism of AD development/protection and identification of a cure soon. PURPOSE: This study is aimed at investigating the mechanism of reserpine action, which alleviates the toxicity of amyloid beta (Aβ) (AD-causing peptide) in Caenorhabditis elegans [1, 2]...
September 2016: Annals of Neurosciences
K Koss, C Tsui, L D Unsworth
(RADA)4 self-assembling peptides (SAPs) are promising for neural nanoscaffolds with on-demand drug delivery capabilities due to their automated synthesis, in-situ assembly, and potential for interaction with and release of biomolecules. Neuroinflammation cued on-demand drug release, due to up-regulated proteases, may well be vital in the treatment of several neurological diseases. In these conditions, releasing neurotrophic growth factors (NTFs) could potentially lead to neuroprotection and neurogenesis. As such, (RADA)4 was made with the high and low activity matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) cleaved sequences, GPQG+IASQ (CP1) and GPQG+PAGQ (CP2), the brain-derived NTF secretion stimulating peptide MVG (DP1) and the ciliary NTF analogue DGGL (DP2)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Tian Tao, Xi Xie, Mingxin Liu, Qinghua Jiang, Dongfa Zhu
The sesquiterpenoid methyl farnesoate (MF) is the unepoxidized form of insect juvenile hormone (JH) III, and is considered an equivalent of JH in crustaceans. Degradation of MF is similar to that of JH which occurs through ester hydrolysis by specific carboxylesterases (CXEs). In this study, the full-length cDNAs of two JH esterase-like CXEs were cloned from the swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus. The predicted amino acid sequences of the two PtCXEs contain the conserved motifs including catalytic triad and oxyanion hole, which are the hallmark of the CXE family proteins...
October 5, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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