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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526858/expression-and-activity-of-the-bioh-esterase-of-biotin-synthesis-is-independent-of-genome-context
#1
Xinyun Cao, Lei Zhu, Zhe Hu, John E Cronan
BioH is an α/β-hydrolase required for synthesis of the pimelate moiety of biotin in diverse bacteria. The bioH gene is found in different genomic contexts. In some cases (e.g., Escherichia coli) the gene is not located within a biotin synthetic operon and its transcription is not coregulated with the other biotin synthesis genes. In other genomes such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa the bioH gene is within a biotin synthesis operon and its transcription is coregulated with the other biotin operon genes. The esterases of pimelate moiety synthesis show remarkable genomic plasticity in that in some biotin operons bioH is replaced by other α/ß hydrolases of diverse sequence...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526748/the-sialate-o-acetylesterase-esta-from-gut-bacteroidetes-species-enables-sialidase-mediated-cross-species-foraging-of-9-o-acetylated-sialoglycans
#2
Lloyd S Robinson, Warren G Lewis, Amanda L Lewis
The gut harbors many symbiotic, commensal, and pathogenic microbes that engage in the breakdown and metabolism of host carbohydrates. Sialic acids are prominent outermost carbohydrates on mucins and protect underlying glycan chains from enzymatic degradation. Sialidases produced by some members of the colonic microbiota have been shown to promote the expansion of several potential pathogens (e.g. Clostridium difficile, Salmonella, Escherichia coli) that do not produce sialidases. O-acetyl ester modifications of sialic acids help resist the action of many sialidases and are found at high levels in the mammalian colon...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521385/-ziziphus-oxyphylla-ethnobotanical-ethnopharmacological-and-phytochemical-review
#3
REVIEW
Rizwan Ahmad, Niyaz Ahmad, Atta Abbas Naqvi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ziziphus oxyphylla (ZO) is distributed mainly in tropic and warm temperate regions in the world. Pakistan owns six (06) indigenous species of genus Ziziphus out of which ZO is widely used for traditional treatment of different ailments such as diabetes, jaundice and liver diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present review aims to provide in-depth and comprehensive literature overview, regarding botanical, chemical and biological characteristics of the plant alongwith phytochemical isolation and mechanistic studies to support its folklore and traditional uses...
May 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521372/synthesis-and-characterization-of-new-azecine-derivatives-as-potential-neuroleptics
#4
Stephanie Zergiebel, Christian Fleck, Hans-Dieter Arndt, Christoph Enzensperger, Andreas Seeling
Dibenzo- and benzindolo-azecines represent a class of potential neuroleptics. To characterize the effectiveness at the dopamine and 5-HT2A-receptor representative structures were synthesized and tested by radio ligand binding studies, in vivo and in vitro studies.Neuroleptic potency and the risk of side effects of the prodrug 7-methyl-5,6,7,8,9,14-hexahydrodibenzo[d,g]azecin-3-yl isobutyrate, an ester derivative of the most promising azecine 7-methyl-5,6,7,8,9,14-hexahydrodibenzo[d,g]azecin-3-ol (LE404), was tested in vivo concerning conditioned avoidance response inhibition, locomotor activity and triggering of catalepsy vs...
May 18, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516859/recombinant-esterase-from-corynebacterium-pseudotuberculosis-in-dna-and-subunit-recombinant-vaccines-partially-protects-mice-against-challenge
#5
Alexandre Antunes Brum, Andrea de Fatima Silva Rezende, Francisco Silvestre Brilhante, Thais Collares, Karine Begnine, Fabiana Kommling Seixas, Tiago Veiras Collares, Odir Antônio Dellagostin, Vasco Azevedo, Anderson Santos, Ricardo Wagner Portela, Sibele Borsuk
PURPOSE: We tested the efficacy of the esterase encoded by cp1002_RS09720 from Corynebacteriumpseudotuberculosis in recombinant subunit and DNA caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) vaccines. This target was predicted as one of the best CLA vaccine candidates by mature epitope density analysis. METHODOLOGY: Gene cp1002_RS09720 was cloned into two different vectors (pAE for subunit vaccine and pTARGET for DNA vaccine). Four groups of 15 mice each were immunized with the recombinant esterase rCP09720 associated with aluminium hydroxide adjuvant (G1), pTARGET/cp09720 DNA vaccine (G2), a naked pTARGET (G3) or PBS as a negative control (G4)...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516207/enhancing-h2o2-resistance-of-an-esterase-from-pyrobaculum-calidifontis-by-structure-guided-engineering-of-the-substrate-binding-site
#6
Pengfei Zhou, Dongming Lan, Grzegorz Maria Popowicz, Xuping Wang, Bo Yang, Yonghua Wang
Green technologies are attracting increasing attention in industrial chemistry where enzymatic reactions can replace dangerous and environmentally unfriendly chemical processes. In situ enzymatic synthesis of peroxycarboxylic acid is an attractive alternative for several industrial applications although concentrated H2O2 can denature the biocatalyst, limiting its usefulness. Herein, we report the structure-guided engineering of the Pyrobaculum calidifontis esterase (PestE) substrate binding site to increase its stability and perhydrolysis activity...
May 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513100/function-of-bacteriophage-g7c-esterase-tailspike-in-host-cell-adsorption
#7
Nikolai S Prokhorov, Cristian Riccio, Evelina L Zdorovenko, Mikhail M Shneider, Christopher Browning, Yuriy A Knirel, Petr G Leiman, Andrey V Letarov
Bacteriophages recognize and bind to their hosts with the help of receptor-binding proteins (RBPs) that emanate from the phage particle in the form of fibers or tailspikes. RBPs show a great variability in their shapes, sizes, and location on the particle. Some RBPs are known to depolymerize surface polysaccharides of the host while others show no enzymatic activity. Here we report that both RBPs of podovirus G7C - tailspikes gp63.1 and gp66 - are essential for infection of its natural host bacterium E. coli 4s that populates the equine intestinal tract...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506834/safety-evaluation-of-dermal-exposure-to-phthalates-metabolism-dependent-percutaneous-absorption
#8
Masahiro Sugino, Tomomi Hatanaka, Hiroaki Todo, Yuko Mashimo, Takamasa Suzuki, Miho Kobayashi, Osamu Hosoya, Hideto Jinno, Kazuhiko Juni, Kenji Sugibayashi
Phthalates, known as reproductive toxicants and endocrine disruptors, are widely used as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride products. The present study was conducted for risk identification of dermal exposure to phthalates. When dibutyl phthalate was applied to the skin of hairless rats and humans, only monobutyl phthalate appeared through the skin, and the permeability of the skin was higher than that after the application of the monoester directly. The inhibition of skin esterases made the skin impermeable to the metabolite following dermal exposure to dibutyl ester, whereas removal of the stratum corneum from the skin did not change the skin permeation behavior...
May 12, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506253/genome-wide-identification-of-lncrnas-associated-with-chlorantraniliprole-resistance-in-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-l
#9
Bin Zhu, Manyu Xu, Haiyan Shi, Xiwu Gao, Pei Liang
BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are now considered important regulatory factors, with a variety of biological functions in many species including insects. Some lncRNAs have the ability to show rapid responses to diverse stimuli or stress factors and are involved in responses to insecticide. However, there are no reports to date on the characterization of lncRNAs associated with chlorantraniliprole resistance in Plutella xylostella. RESULTS: Nine RNA libraries constructed from one susceptible (CHS) and two chlorantraniliprole-resistant P...
May 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503951/gold-nanoparticles-applications-from-artificial-enzyme-till-drug-delivery
#10
Kazem Golchin, Jafar Golchin, Shahrooz Ghaderi, Neda Alidadiani, Sajjad Eslamkhah, Masoud Eslamkhah, Soodabeh Davaran, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh
Today, nano-medicine promotes new therapeutics and diagnostics tools, including sensing of biomolecules as a biosensor, cancer chemotherapy and drug or gene delivery. Because of small size and biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), they become a good candidate for biological application. Also, thanks to their biological and chemical properties, they can mimic function of some enzymes including super oxide dismutase (SOD), esterase, etc. Also, biomaterials and bioengineering have grown so fast since the last decade for many therapeutic applications such as tissue regeneration...
May 14, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503711/bioactivity-improvement-of-olea-europaea-leaf-extract-biotransformed-by-wickerhamomyces-anomalus-enzymes
#11
Rosa Palmeri, Cristina Restuccia, Julieta Ines Monteleone, Elisa Sperlinga, Laura Siracusa, Mauro Serafini, Alberto Finamore, Giovanni Spagna
Olive leaves represent a quantitatively significant by-product of agroindustry. They are rich in phenols, mainly oleuropein, which can be hydrolyzed into several bioactive compounds, including hydroxytyrosol. In this study, water extract from olive leaves 'Biancolilla' was analyzed for polyphenol profile, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and protective effect on differentiated Caco-2 cells. The efficacy of two enzymatic treatments in promoting the release of bioactive phenols was investigated: a) enzymatic extract from Wickerhamomyces anomalus, characterized by β-glucosidase and esterase activities; b) commercial β-glucosidase...
May 13, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501686/immobilisation-on-mesoporous-silica-and-solvent-rinsing-improve-the-transesterification-abilities-of-feruloyl-esterases-from-myceliophthora-thermophila
#12
Silvia Hüttner, Milene Zezzi Do Valle Gomes, Laura Iancu, Anders Palmqvist, Lisbeth Olsson
The immobilisation of four feruloyl esterases (FAEs) (FaeA1, FaeA2, FaeB1, FaeB2) from the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila C1 was studied and optimised via physical adsorption onto various mesoporous silica particles with pore diameters varying from 6.6nm to 10.9nm. Using crude enzyme preparations, enrichment of immobilised FAEs was observed, depending on pore diameter and protein size. The immobilised enzymes were successfully used for the synthesis of butyl ferulate through transesterification of methyl ferulate with 1-butanol...
April 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501445/local-and-systemic-humoral-immune-response-in-farmed-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-under-a-natural-amoebic-gill-disease-outbreak
#13
Mar Marcos-López, Cristóbal Espinosa Ruiz, Hamish D Rodger, Ian O'Connor, Eugene MacCarthy, M Ángeles Esteban
Amoebic gill disease (AGD), caused by the protozoan parasite Neoparamoeba perurans, is one of the most significant infectious diseases for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) mariculture. The present study investigated the humoral immune response (both local in gill mucus and systemic in serum) of farmed Atlantic salmon naturally infected with N. perurans in commercial sea pens, at two different stages of the disease and after freshwater treatment. Parameters analysed included activity of immune related enzymes (i...
May 10, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497204/the-biology-and-the-importance-of-photobacterium-species
#14
REVIEW
Ibrahim Musa Moi, Noordiyanah Nadhirah Roslan, Adam Thean Chor Leow, Mohd Shukuri Mohamad Ali, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd Rahman, Azam Rahimpour, Suriana Sabri
Photobacterium species are Gram-negative coccobacilli which are distributed in marine habitats worldwide. Some species are unique because of their capability to produce luminescence. Taxonomically, about 23 species and 2 subspecies are validated to date. Genomes from a few Photobacterium spp. have been sequenced and studied. They are considered a special group of bacteria because some species are capable of producing essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, antibacterial compounds, lipases, esterases and asparaginases...
May 11, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496260/overexpression-of-a-cytochrome-p450-and-a-udp-glycosyltransferase-is-associated-with-imidacloprid-resistance-in-the-colorado-potato-beetle-leptinotarsa-decemlineata
#15
Emine Kaplanoglu, Patrick Chapman, Ian M Scott, Cam Donly
Current control of insect pests relies on chemical insecticides, however, insecticide resistance development by pests is a growing concern in pest management. The main mechanisms for insecticide resistance typically involve elevated activity of detoxifying enzymes and xenobiotic transporters that break-down and excrete insecticide molecules. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of imidacloprid resistance in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an insect pest notorious for its capacity to develop insecticide resistance rapidly...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494285/effects-of-in-situ-exposure-to-tritiated-natural-environments-a-multi-biomarker-approach-using-the-fathead-minnow-pimephales-promelas
#16
B Gagnaire, C Adam-Guillermin, A Festarini, I Cavalié, C Della-Vedova, C Shultz, S B Kim, H Ikert, C Dubois, S Walsh, F Farrow, D Beaton, E Tan, K Wen, M Stuart
Aquatic ecosystems are chronically exposed to radionuclides as well as other pollutants. Increased concentrations of pollutants in aquatic environments can present a risk to exposed organisms, including fish. The goal of this study was to characterize the effects of tritium, in the context of natural environments, on the health of fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas. Fish were exposed to tritium (activity concentrations ranging from 2 to 23,000Bq/L) and also to various concentrations of several metals to replicate multiple-stressor environments...
May 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492351/mest-a-unique-epoxide-hydrolase-is-essential-for-optimal-growth-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-the-presence-of-styrene-oxide
#17
Manisha Chownk, Aashish Sharma, Kashmir Singh, Jagdeep Kaur
AIM: mesT of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a hypothetical/putative epoxide hydrolase, is predicted to convert toxic epoxides to the more water-soluble and less toxic diols. Detailed characterization of the protein was carried out. RESULTS: mesT demonstrated esterase as well as epoxide hydrolase activity. It was membrane bound and was upregulated under hypoxic conditions. The enzyme was able to degrade styrene oxide. The presence of antisense against this gene resulted in the inhibition of in vitro bacterial growth/survival in the presence of styrene oxide...
May 11, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491909/fluorescent-detection-of-intracellular-nitric-oxide-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#18
April M Lewis, Silvia S Matzdorf, Kelly C Rice
Nitric Oxide (NO) is a highly-reactive radical gas that can modify a variety of cellular targets in both eukaryotes and bacteria. NO is produced endogenously by a wide variety of organisms: For example, as a cell-signaling molecule in mammals and bacteria via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes, and as a product of denitrification. As such, it is of great benefit to NO researchers to be able to sensitively detect intracellular NO and stable reactive nitrogen species (RNS) derived from NO. To this end, a protocol for fluorescent detection of intracellular NO/RNS in biofilm cultures of the Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus has been optimized using the commercially-available cell-permeable fluorescent stain 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2', 7'-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate (DAF-FM diacetate)...
July 20, 2016: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490371/purification-and-properties-of-a-novel-quizalofop-p-ethyl-hydrolyzing-esterase-involved-in-quizalofop-p-ethyl-degradation-by-pseudomonas-sp-j-2
#19
Hui Zhang, Mengya Li, Jie Li, Guangli Wang, Yuan Liu
Quizalofop-p-ethyl (QPE) is a post-emergence herbicide that effectively controls grass weeds and is often detected in the environment. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of QPE degradation in the environment remains unclear. In this study, a highly effective QPE-degrading bacterial strain J-2 was isolated from acclimated activated sludge and identified as a Pseudomonas sp., containing the QPE breakdown metabolite quizalofop acid (QA) identified by Liquid Chromatography-Ion Trap-Mass Spectrometry (LC-IT-MS(n)) analysis...
May 10, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490329/directed-evolution-and-secretory-expression-of-a-pyrethroid-hydrolyzing-esterase-with-enhanced-catalytic-activity-and-thermostability
#20
Xiaolong Liu, Mingjun Liang, Yuhuan Liu, Xinjiong Fan
BACKGROUND: Pyrethroids are potentially harmful to human health and ecosystems. It is necessary to develop some efficient strategies to degrade pyrethroid residues. Biodegradation is generally considered as a safe, efficient, and inexpensive way to eliminate environmental contaminants. To date, although several pyrethroid-hydrolyzing esterases have been cloned, there has been no report about a pyrethroid hydrolase with high hydrolytic activity, good stability, and high productivity, indispensable enzymatic properties in practical biodegradation...
May 11, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
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