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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220703/whole-cell-biocatalytic-synthesis-of-cinnamyl-acetate-with-a-novel-esterase-from-the-dna-library-of-acinetobacter-haemolyticus
#1
Hao Dong, Francesco Secundo, Changhu Xue, Xiangzhao Mao
Cinnamyl acetate has a wide application in the flavor and fragrance industry because of its sweet, balsamic and floral odor. Up to now, lipases have been mainly used in enzyme-mediated synthesis of cinnamyl acetate, while esterases are only used in a few cases. Moreover, the use of purified enzymes is often a disadvantage which leads to increases of the production costs. In this paper, a genomic DNA library of Acinetobacter haemolyticus was constructed, and a novel esterase (EstK1) was identified. After expressed in E...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220693/aroma-precursors-in-grapes-and-wine-flavor-release-during-wine-production-and-consumption
#2
Mango Parker, Dimitra L Capone, I Leigh Francis, Markus J Herderich
Pioneering investigations into precursors to fruity and floral flavors established the importance of terpenoid and C13-norisoprenoid glycosides to the flavor of aromatic wines. Nowadays flavor precursors in grapes and wine are known to be structurally diverse, encompassing glycosides; amino acid conjugates; odorless volatiles; hydroxycinnamic acids and many others. Flavor precursors mainly originate in the grape berry, but also from oak or other materials involved in winemaking. Flavors are released from precursors during crushing and subsequent production steps by enzymatic and non-enzymatic transformations, via microbial glycosidases; esterases; C-S lyases and decarboxylases; and through acid catalysed hydrolysis and chemical rearrangements...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218815/glycoengineering-of-esterase-activity-through-metabolic-flux-based-modulation-of-sialic-acid
#3
Mohit Mathew, Elaine Tan, Jason W Labonte, Shivam Shah, Christopher T Saeui, Lingshu Liu, Rahul Bhattacharya, Patawut Bovonratwet, Jeffrey J Gray, Kevin Yarema
This report describes the metabolic glycoengineering (MGE) of intracellular esterase activity in human colon cancer (LS174T) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In silico analysis of the carboxylesterases CES1 and CES2 suggested that these enzymes are modified with sialylated N-glycans, which are proposed to stabilize the active multimeric forms of these enzymes. This premise was supported by treating cells with butanolylated ManNAc to increase sialylation, which in turn increased esterase activity. By contrast, hexosamine analogs not targeted to sialic acid biosynthesis (e...
February 20, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218512/the-performance-of-doxorubicin-conjugated-gold-nanoparticles-regulation-of-drug-location
#4
Teng Cui, Juan-Juan Liang, Huan Chen, Dong-Dong Geng, Lei Jiao, Jian-Yong Yang, Hai Qian, Can Zhang, Ya Ding
Drug-conjugated gold nanoparticles (GNPs), which are generally constructed with many molecules of thiol-terminated polyethylene glycol (PEG)-drug decorated on their surfaces via a thiol-Au covalent bond, are promising and efficient nanoprodrugs. However, due to the exposure of the hydrophobic drug molecules on the surface of the conjugate, in vivo stability, opsonization, and subsequent inefficient therapy become the main issues of this system. To solve these problems without complicating the structures of gold conjugates, herein we propose a method to change the relative position of PEG and the drug...
February 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217898/metal-induced-changes-in-trivalent-chromium-resistant-alcaligenes-faecalis-vitsim2
#5
Shiny C Matilda, Chittibabu Shanthi
The changes induced in bacterial strains under stress conditions provide an insight into metal resistance strategies. Trivalent chromium resistant bacterium were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and designated as Alcaligenes faecalis VITSIM2. The growth pattern was monitored. The organism also showed resistance to copper, cadmium, and certain antibiotics. The differentially expressed proteins in SDS PAGE were identified by mass spectrometry as flagellin and 50S ribosomal L36 protein. The morphological changes were identified by scanning electron microscopy...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215967/leukocyte-esterase-strip-test-can-predict-subsequent-failure-following-reimplantation-in-patients-with-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#6
Michael M Kheir, Colin T Ackerman, Timothy L Tan, Andrea Benazzo, Eric H Tischler, Javad Parvizi
BACKGROUND: Leukocyte esterase (LE) strip test is an accurate marker for diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). This study aims to determine if LE is a good predictor of persistent infection and/or subsequent failure in patients undergoing reimplantation. METHODS: This single-institution study prospectively recruited and retrospectively analyzed 109 patients who underwent two-stage exchange treatment of PJI, from 2009-2016, and had an LE test performed at time of reimplantation...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206856/effect-of-photoperiod-on-permethrin-resistance-in-aedes-aegypti
#7
O Karina Villanueva, Gustavo Ponce, Beatriz Lopez, Selene M Gutierrez, Iram P Rodriguez, Guadalupe Reyes, Karla J Saavedra, William C Black, Julian Garcia, Barry Beaty, Lars Eisen, Adriana E Flores
Living organisms have been exposed to light-dark cycles that allowed them to adapt to different ecological niches. Circadian cycles affect hormone release, metabolism, and response to xenobiotic compounds. Current studies have shown that insect susceptibility to toxic agents depends on circadian cycles, mainly because the biochemical processes involved in detoxification and responses to oxidative stress are modulated by this process. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of photoperiod on resistance to permethrin in Aedes aegypti ...
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206686/nte-pnpla6-is-expressed-in-mature-schwann-cells-and-is-required-for-glial-ensheathment-of-remak-fibers
#8
Janis McFerrin, Bruce L Patton, Elizabeth R Sunderhaus, Doris Kretzschmar
Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) or patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 6 (PNPLA6) was first linked with a neuropathy occurring after organophosphate poisoning and was later also found to cause complex syndromes when mutated, which can include mental retardation, spastic paraplegia, ataxia, and blindness. NTE/PNPLA6 is widely expressed in neurons but experiments with its Drosophila orthologue Swiss-cheese (SWS) suggested that it may also have glial functions. Investigating whether NTE/PNPLA6 is expressed in glia, we found that NTE/PNPLA6 is expressed by Schwann cells in the sciatic nerve of adult mice with the most prominent expression in nonmyelinating Schwann cells...
February 16, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205234/stability-studies-of-potent-opioid-analgesic-morphine-6-o-sulfate-in-various-buffers-and-biological-matrices-by-hplc-dad-analysis
#9
Jai Shankar K Yadlapalli, Zaineb A F Albayati, Narasimha R Penthala, Howard P Hendrickson, Peter A Crooks
The 6-O-sulfate ester of morphine, (M6S), has previously been shown to be an analgesic with greater potency and fewer side effects than to morphine. However, being a sulfate ester derivative of morphine, the question exists as to whether this compound is stable in biological fluids and tissues with regard to pH- and esterase-mediated degradation. To date, no studies have focused on the stability profile of M6S across the physiologically relevant pH range of 1.2 - 7.4. In addition, the stability of M6S is not known in rat plasma and rat brain homogenate, or in simulated rat gastric and intestinal fluids...
February 15, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202404/recombinant-human-c1-esterase-inhibitor-to-treat-acute-hereditary-angioedema-attacks-in-adolescents
#10
James W Baker, Avner Reshef, Dumitru Moldovan, Joseph R Harper, Anurag Relan, Marc A Riedl
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human C1-esterase inhibitor (rhC1-INH) is efficacious and well tolerated for managing hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks in adults. However, there are insufficient data on its efficacy and safety in adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety profiles of rhC1-INH for acute HAE attacks in adolescents. METHODS: Adolescents (aged 12-18 y) with HAE enrolled in 2 randomized controlled trials and 2 open-label extension trials were included and received intravenous rhC1-INH for acute attacks...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202040/subcellular-localization-and-interactions-of-infectious-salmon-anemia-virus-isav-m1-and-nep-as-well-as-host-hsc70
#11
Wenting Zhang, Chengzhi Cai, Li Lin, Yizhi Jane Tao, Meilin Jin
BACKGROUND: Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is an important fish pathogen that causes high mortality in farmed Atlantic salmon. The ISAV genome consists of eight single-stranded, negative-sense RNA segments. The six largest segments contain one open reading frame (ORF) each, and encode three polymerase proteins, nucleoprotein, fusion protein, and hemagglutinin esterase protein. The two smallest segments contain more than one ORF each. The segment 7 encodes non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and nuclear export protein (NEP), while segment 8 encodes matrix protein 1 and 2 (M1 and M2)...
February 15, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198423/discovery-of-genes-coding-for-carbohydrate-active-enzyme-by-metagenomic-analysis-of-lignocellulosic-biomasses
#12
Salvatore Montella, Valeria Ventorino, Vincent Lombard, Bernard Henrissat, Olimpia Pepe, Vincenza Faraco
In this study, a high-throughput sequencing approach was applied to discover novel biocatalysts for lignocellulose hydrolysis from three dedicated energy crops, Arundo donax, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Populus nigra, after natural biodegradation. The microbiomes of the three lignocellulosic biomasses were dominated by bacterial species (approximately 90%) with the highest representation by the Streptomyces genus both in the total microbial community composition and in the microbial diversity related to GH families of predicted ORFs...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198348/down-regulation-of-pe11-a-cell-wall-associated-esterase-enhances-the-biofilm-growth-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-reduces-cell-wall-virulence-lipid-levels
#13
Shivangi Rastogi, Amit Kumar Singh, Garima Pant, Kalyan Mitra, Koneni V Sashidhara, Manju Y Krishnan
PE11 (Rv1169c or LipX) is a cell wall associated esterase/lipase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Evidences suggest that PE11 is expressed by Mtb both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that PE11 leads to modification in cell wall lipid content and enhanced virulence when expressed in the non-pathogenic surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis. Since cell wall lipids often play different roles in pathogenic and non-pathogenic mycobacteria, we investigated the role of PE11 in its host, Mtb. Mtb with lowered expression of PE11 (PE11 knock-down) displayed significant changes in colony morphology and cell wall lipid profile, confirming the role of PE11 in cell wall architecture...
January 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198039/combined-environmental-risk-assessment-for-the-antiviral-pharmaceuticals-ganciclovir-and-valganciclovir-in-europe
#14
Jürg Oliver Straub
Potential environmental risks of the old antiviral pharmaceuticals ganciclovir (GCV) and valganciclovir (VGCV) were re-assessed based on new environmental fate and chronic ecotoxicity tests and on actual use data for Europe. VGCV is hydrolyzed to GCV by intestinal and hepatic esterases, hence the new environmental tests only refer to GCV. A sorption study showed that GCV will not sorb significantly, excluding the soil as a relevant environmental compartment. Despite earlier data suggesting non-degradability, a new water/sediment fate test showed GCV to be primarily and ultimately degraded and to be non-persistent...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197687/characterization-and-application-of-endogenous-phase-dependent-promoters-in-bacillus-subtilis
#15
Sen Yang, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen, Zhen Kang
Bacillus subtilis as an important host has been widely used in synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, and production of industrial enzymes. To fully take advantage of this organism, 114 endogenous putative promoters were measured with a green fluorescent protein reporter and four classes of phase-dependent promoters (class I: exponential phase; class II: middle-log and early stationary phases; class III: lag-log and stationary phases; class IV: stationary phase) with different strengths were identified. The transcriptional strengths ranged from 0...
February 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195678/biochemical-evaluation-of-interactions-between-synergistic-molecules-and-phase-i-enzymes-involved-in-insecticide-resistance-in-b-and-q-type-bemisia-tabaci-hemiptera-aleyrodidae
#16
Michela Panini, Francesco Tozzi, Christoph T Zimmer, Chris Bass, Linda Field, Valerio Borzatta, Emanuele Mazzoni, Graham Moores
BACKGROUND: Metabolic resistance is an important consideration in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, where an esterase-based mechanism has been attributed to pyrethroid resistance and over expression of the cytochrome P450, CYP6CM1, has been correlated to resistance to imidacloprid and other neonicotinoids. RESULTS: In vitro interactions between putative synergists and CYP6CM1, B and Q-type esterases were investigated, and structure-activity relationship analyses allowed the identification of chemical structures capable of acting as inhibitors of esterase and oxidase activities...
February 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195667/rna-interference-of-carboxyesterases-causes-nymph-mortality-in-the-asian-citrus-psyllid-diaphorina-citri
#17
Abdelaziz Kishk, Helmy A I Anber, Tsamoh K AbdEl-Raof, AbdEl-Hakeem D El-Sherbeni, Sobhy Hamed, Siddarame Gowda, Nabil Killiny
Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is an important pest of citrus. In addition, D. citri is the vector of Huanglongbing, a destructive disease in citrus, also known as citrus greening disease caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Huanglongbing causes huge losses for citrus industries. Insecticide application for D. citri is the major strategy to prevent disease spread. The heavy use of insecticides causes development of insecticide resistance. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to silence genes implicated in pesticide resistance in order to increase the susceptibility...
February 13, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195072/complement-activation-contributes-to-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-in-rats
#18
B Petersen, T Busch, J Gaertner, J J Haitsma, S Krabbendam, M Ebsen, B Lachmann, U X Kaisers
The complement system contributes to ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). We hypothesized that pretreatment with the C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) Berinert® constrains complement activation consecutively inducing improvements in arterial oxygenation and histological pulmonary damage. At baseline, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent mechanical ventilation in a conventional mode (PIP 13 cm H2O, PEEP 3 cm H2O). In the Control group, the ventilator setting was maintained (Control, n = 15). The other animals randomly received intravenous pretreatment with either 100 units/kg of the C1-INH Berinert® (VILI-C1INH group, n = 15) or 1 ml saline solution (VILI-C group, n = 15)...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192990/dual-stimuli-activatable-oxidative-stress-amplifying-agent-as-a-hybrid-anticancer-prodrug
#19
Eunji Han, Byeongsu Kwon, Donghyuck Yoo, Changsun Kang, Gilson Khang, Dongwon Lee
Compared to normal cells, cancer cells have a higher level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to aberrant metabolism and disruption of redox homeostasis which drive their proliferation and promote progression and metastasis of cancers. The altered redox balance and biological difference between normal cells and cancer cells provide a basis for the development of anticancer agents which are able to generate pharmacological ROS insults to kill cancer cells preferentially. In this study, we report a new hybrid anticancer drug, termed OSamp, which undergoes esterase- and acid-catalyzed hydrolysis to deplete antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and generate ROS, simultaneously...
February 21, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192960/rational-design-of-a-red-emissive-fluorophore-with-aie-and-esipt-characteristics-and-its-application-in-light-up-sensing-of-esterase
#20
Lu Peng, Shidang Xu, Xiaokun Zheng, Xiamin Cheng, Ruoyu Zhang, Jie Liu, Bin Liu, Aijun Tong
The development of red fluorophores with efficient solid-state emission is still challenging. Herein, a red fluorophore 1 with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) and excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) characteristics is rationally designed and facilely synthesized by attaching an electron-donor diethylamine and an electron-acceptor maleonitrile group to salicyladazine. In contrast to many red fluorophores which undergo serious aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ), compound 1 emits bright red fluorescence (λem = 650 nm, ΦF = 24...
February 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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