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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785434/integration-of-phospholipid-hyaluronic-acid-methotrexate-nanocarrier-assembly-and-amphiphilic-drug-drug-conjugate-for-synergistic-targeted-delivery-and-combinational-tumor-therapy
#1
Yang Li, Huabing Zhang, Yilin Chen, Jinyuan Ma, Jinyan Lin, Yinying Zhang, Zhongxiong Fan, Guanghao Su, Liya Xie, Xuan Zhu, Zhenqing Hou
Combinational cancer therapy has been considered as a promising strategy to achieve synergetic therapeutic effects and suppression of multidrug resistance. Herein, we adopted a combination of methotrexate (MTX), an antimetabolite acting on cytoplasm, and 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT), an alkaloid acting on nuclei, to treat cancer. Given the different solubilities, membrane permeabilities, and anticancer mechanisms of both drugs, we developed a dual-targeting delivery system based on 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-hyaluronic acid (a principal ligand of CD44 receptors)-MTX (a selective ligand of folate receptors) nanoparticles, which was exploited to carry HCPT-MTX conjugate for synergistically boosting dual-drug co-delivery...
May 22, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784539/revisiting-antithrombin-in-health-and-disease-congenital-deficiencies-and-genetic-variants-and-laboratory-studies-on-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-forms
#2
REVIEW
Jean Amiral, Jerard Seghatchian
Antithrombin [AT] is the main inhibitor for activated plasma coagulation serine esterases, inhibiting thrombin, Factors Xa and IXa, but also Factors XIIa, XIa, VIIa, kallicrein, and plasmin. Its activity is highly enhanced by heparin, through binding to the pentasaccharide sequences, for inhibition of all coagulation proteases, except thrombin, which inhibition requires its additional binding to the heparin polysaccharide chain. However, AT is the major inhibitor of thrombin in the blood circulation. Congenital or acquired deficiencies of AT expose affected patients to an increased risk of developing unprovoked and recurrent thrombo-embolic diseases...
April 19, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777488/no-need-for-a-urine-culture-in-elderly-hospitalized-patients-with-a-negative-dipstick-test-result
#3
Zvi Shimoni, Vered Hermush, Joseph Glick, Paul Froom
To determine the clinical utility/disutility of canceling urine cultures in elderly patients with a negative dipstick. The cohort included consecutive patients aged ≥ 65 years hospitalized in internal medicine departments with an admission urinalysis and urine culture (January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2016). We calculated the sensitivity of the dipstick (either a trace leukocyte esterase or a positive nitrite test result) to detect patients with bacteriuria, and the decrease in urine cultures resulting from cancelation in patients with a negative dipstick...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775634/the-direction-of-protein-evolution-is-destined-by-the-stability
#4
Natsuko Ota, Ryo Kurahashi, Satoshi Sano, Kazufumi Takano
Protein evolution is potentially governed by protein stability. Here, we investigated the relationship between protein evolution and stability through the random mutational drift of a thermophilic bacterial protein, an esterase of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius (Aac-Est), at high and low temperatures. In the first random mutation of Aac-Est, few proteins exhibit increased activity at 65°C, indicating that the wild-type (WT) Aac-Est is located on the peak of a mountain in a fitness landscape for activity at high temperature...
May 15, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772776/pyrrole-alkaloids-from-the-edible-mushroom-phlebopus-portentosus-with-their-bioactive-activities
#5
Zhaocui Sun, Meigeng Hu, Zhonghao Sun, Nailiang Zhu, Junshan Yang, Guoxu Ma, Xudong Xu
Seven pyrrole alkaloids, three of which are novel (phlebopines A⁻C ( 1 ⁻ 3 )), were isolated from the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Phlebopus portentosus . Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data. All the isolated compounds were tested for their neuroprotective properties and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibition activities. Compound 7 displayed remarkable neuroprotective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced neuronal-cell damage in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
May 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764936/attachment-of-phosphorylcholine-residues-to-pneumococcal-teichoic-acids-and-modification-of-substitution-patterns-by-the-phosphorylcholine-esterase
#6
Franziska Waldow, Thomas P Kohler, Nathalie Heß, Dominik Schwudke, Sven Hammerschmidt, Nicolas Gisch
The bacterial lung pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae has a unique nutritional requirement for exogenous choline and attaches phosphorylcholine ( P -Cho) residues to the Gal pN Ac moieties of its teichoic acids (TAs) in its cell wall. Two phosphorylcholine transferases, LicD1 and LicD2, mediate the attachment of P -Cho to the O -6 positions of the two Gal pN Ac residues present in each repeating unit of pneumococcal TAs (pnTAs), of which only LicD1 has been determined to be essential. At the molecular level, the specificity of the P -Cho attachment to pnTAs by LicD1 and LicD2 remains still elusive...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762714/field-populations-of-wild-apis-cerana-honey-bees-exhibit-increased-genetic-diversity-under-pesticide-stress-along-an-agricultural-intensification-gradient-in-eastern-india
#7
Priyadarshini Chakrabarti, Sagartirtha Sarkar, Parthiba Basu
Pesticides have been reported to be one of the major drivers in the global pollinator losses. The large-scale decline in honey bees, an important pollinator group, has resulted in comprehensive studies on honey bee colonies. Lack of information on native wild pollinators has paved the way for this study, which highlights the underlying evolutionary changes occurring in the wild honey bee populations exposed to pesticides along an agricultural intensification landscape. The study reports an increased genetic diversity in native Apis cerana Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) populations continually exposed to pesticide stress...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762011/strategies-toward-organic-carbon-monoxide-prodrugs
#8
Xingyue Ji, Binghe Wang
Carbon monoxide is widely acknowledged as an important gasotransmitter in the mammalian system with importance on par with that of nitric oxide. It has also been firmly established as a potential therapeutic agent with a wide range of indications including organ transplantation, cancer, bacterial infection, and inflammation-related conditions such as colitis and sepsis. One major issue in developing CO based therapeutics is its delivery in a pharmaceutically acceptable form. Currently, there are generally five forms of deliveries: inhaled CO, photosensitive CO-releasing molecules, encapsulated CO, CO dissolved in drinks, and molecules that would release CO under physiological conditions without the need for light...
May 15, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758171/aedes-aegypti-linnaeus-larvae-from-dengue-outbreak-areas-in-selangor-showing-resistance-to-pyrethroids-but-susceptible-to-organophosphates
#9
Cherng Shii Leong, Indra Vythilingam, Meng Li Wong, Wan-Yusoff Wan Sulaiman, Yee Ling Lau
The resistance status of Selangor Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) larvae against four major groups of insecticides (i.e., organochlorines, carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) was investigated. Aedes aegypti were susceptible against temephos (organophosphate), although resistance (RR50  = 0.21 - 2.64) may be developing. The insecticides susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti larvae were found heterogeneous among the different study sites. Results showed that Ae. aegypti larvae from Klang, Sabak Bernam and Sepang were susceptible against all insecticides tested...
May 11, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757761/aspirin-resistance-cardiovascular-risk-game-changer
#10
Ahmed S Yassin, Hossam Abubakar, Tushar Mishra, Ahmed Subahi, Melanie Hartman, Abdelrahman Ahmed, Walid Ibrahim, Manmohan Singh, Mohit Pahuja
BACKGROUND: Aspirin (ASA) is the most used medication on the globe. ASA is a primary pillar of the secondary prevention of cardiovascular atherothromboembolic events. However, a fraction of the population does not respond to ASA as expected in a unique phenomenon called ASA resistance. Multiple mechanisms were described and studied in the literature to explain this phenomenon. AREA OF UNCERTAINTY: ASA resistance is an interesting phenomenon that is worth studying and reviewing...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756217/comparative-two-dimensional-polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis-2d-page-of-human-milk-to-identify-dysregulated-proteins-in-breast-cancer
#11
Roshanak Aslebagh, Devika Channaveerappa, Kathleen F Arcaro, Costel C Darie
Breast Cancer (BC) remains a major cause of mortality, and early detection is considered important for reducing BC-associated deaths. Early detection of BC is challenging in young women, due to the limitations of mammography on the dense breast tissue of young women. We recently reported results of a pilot proteomics study, using one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D-PAGE) and mass spectrometry (MS) to investigate differences in milk proteins from women with and without BC. Here, we applied two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and MS to compare the protein pattern in milk from the breasts of a single woman who was diagnosed with BC in one breast 24 months after donating her milk...
May 13, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752087/preparation-and-characterization-of-indole-3-butyric-acid-nanospheres-for-improving-its-stability-and-utilization
#12
Hongqiang Dong, Mingcheng Guo, You Liang, Chen Fan, Guanglong Ding, Wenbing Zhang, Gang Tang, Jiale Yang, Dandan Kong, Yongsong Cao
Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) is an efficient plant growth regulator for promoting germination and the formation of rooting of various plants. Since it is unstable and presents the low utilization ratio, there is a compelling need to design an environmentally friendly formulation for IBA, which can reduce the loss of degradation and improve its utilization. Nano-sized controlled-release formulations can provide better durability and penetrate through the plant epidermis to efficiently deliver the agrochemicals to the target tissues...
August 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752029/centrifugation-may-change-the-results-of-leukocyte-esterase-strip-testing-in-the-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#13
Rui Li, Qiang Lu, Yong-Gang Zhou, Wei Chai, Shi-Bi Lu, Ji-Ying Chen
BACKGROUND: Centrifugation is used to remove the color interference by erythrocytes in blood-synovial fluid samples before leukocyte esterase (LE) strip testing. However, the impact of centrifugation requires further study. METHODS: From April 2016 to October 2017, 133 (53 infected and 80 noninfected) patients were included in this study. One drop of synovial fluid was applied to LE strips before and after centrifugation in 110 cases. The other 23 cases could not be read without centrifugation due to the color disturbance caused by blood contamination...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751012/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-pe1-and-pe2-proteins-carrying-conserved-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-serine-hydrolase-domain-are-esterases-hydrolyzing-short-to-medium-chain-p-nitrophenyl-esters
#14
Bala Divya M, Maniharika Vemula, Kannan Balakrishnan, Sharmistha Banerjee, Lalitha Guruprasad
The distinctive PE and PPE families of proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the tuberculosis (TB) causing bacteria, have been associated primarily with antigenicity, immune-modulation and virulence. Earlier, using structure-based sequence annotation, we identified a 225 amino acid conserved PE-PPE domain (Pfam: PF08237) commonly present in some PE and PPE proteins which was observed to comprise α/β-serine hydrolase fold. The prediction was supported by experimental validations of PE16 that was shown to exhibit esterase activity...
May 8, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745031/trypanosoma-cruzi-biochemical-changes-and-cell-death-induced-by-an-organometallic-platinum-based-compound
#15
M Florencia Mosquillo, Lucía Bilbao, Fabricio Hernández, Florencia Tissot, Dinorah Gambino, Beatriz Garat, Leticia Pérez-Díaz
Chagas disease is an endemic illness in Latin America caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Current chemotherapies are old and inadequate, and the emergence of drug resistant strains underscores the need of new drugs. Platinum-based complexes have been shown to be a promising approach against parasitic diseases. In this work, the effect of 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene pyridine-2-thiolate-1-oxide Pt(II) hexafluorophosphate, Pt-dppf-mpo, was studied on T. cruzi. A promising anti-trypanosomal activity was determined for the CL Brener strain with a low cytotoxicity determined using in vitro cultured mammal cells...
May 9, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744280/-paenibacillus-polymyxa-nd25-candidate-genome-for-lignocellulosic-biomass-utilization
#16
Varsha Bohra, Nishant A Dafale, Hemant J Purohit
Genome sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa ND25 isolated from cow rumen is reported for being a potential candidate in hydrolysis of lignocellulosic plant biomass. Draft genome sequence generated 5.73 Mb data containing 4922 putative protein coding genes, of which 140 are annotated for glycoside hydrolases. P. polymyxa ND25 strain comprises diverse lignocellulolytic components, especially 12 cellulase along with 23 hemicellulases and 11 esterases, signifying its potential for lignocellulose hydrolysis. Subsequent enzyme assay exhibited the potential of strain to produce 0...
May 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743662/cloning-and-characterization-of-a-pyrethroid-pesticide-decomposing-esterase-gene-est3385-from-rhodopseudomonas-palustris-psb-s
#17
Xiangwen Luo, Deyong Zhang, Xuguo Zhou, Jiao Du, Songbai Zhang, Yong Liu
Full length open reading frame of pyrethroid detoxification gene, Est3385, contains 963 nucleotides. This gene was identified and cloned based on the genome sequence of Rhodopseudomonas palustris PSB-S available at the GneBank. The predicted amino acid sequence of Est3385 shared moderate identities (30-46%) with the known homologous esterases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Est3385 was a member in the esterase family I. Recombinant Est3385 was heterologous expressed in E. coli, purified and characterized for its substrate specificity, kinetics and stability under various conditions...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743477/biosynthetic-pathway-for-furanosteroid-demethoxyviridin-and-identification-of-an-unusual-pregnane-side-chain-cleavage
#18
Gao-Qian Wang, Guo-Dong Chen, Sheng-Ying Qin, Dan Hu, Takayoshi Awakawa, Shao-Yang Li, Jian-Ming Lv, Chuan-Xi Wang, Xin-Sheng Yao, Ikuro Abe, Hao Gao
Furanosteroids, represented by wortmannin, viridin, and demethoxyviridin, are a special group of fungal-derived, highly oxygenated steroids featured by an extra furan ring. They are well-known nanomolar-potency inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and widely used in biological studies. Despite their importance, the biosyntheses of these molecules are poorly understood. Here, we report the identification of the biosynthetic gene cluster for demethoxyviridin, consisting of 19 genes, and among them 15 biosynthetic genes, including six cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes, are deleted...
May 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743096/discovery-of-the-pyridylphenylureas-as-novel-molluscicides-against-the-invasive-snail-biomphalaria-straminea-intermediate-host-of-schistosoma-mansoni
#19
Weisi Wang, Qiang Mao, Junmin Yao, Weijia Yang, Qiming Zhang, Wencheng Lu, Zhuohui Deng, Liping Duan
BACKGROUND: The snail Biomphalaria straminea is one of the intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. Biomphalaria straminea is also an invasive species, known for its strong capability on peripheral expansion, long-distance dispersal and colonization. Using molluscicides to control snail populations is an important strategy to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission and to prevent the spread of the invasive species. In this study, a series of pyridylphenylurea derivatives were synthesized as potential molluscicides...
May 9, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742565/current-challenges-and-opportunities-in-the-management-of-antibody-mediated-rejection-in-lung-transplantation
#20
Amanda L Hulbert, Elizabeth N Pavlisko, Scott M Palmer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is increasing recognition of the importance of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) after lung transplantation. The development of donor-specific antibodies, a key feature of AMR, occurs in approximately 30% of lung transplant recipients and is associated with poor posttransplant outcomes. This review highlights recently developed AMR diagnostic criteria in lung transplantation, potential mechanisms that mediate the development of AMR, and discusses current and emerging treatment strategies for this significant, graft-limiting complication...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
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