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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737832/self-assembled-polyprodrug-amphiphile-for-subcutaneous-xenograft-tumor-inhibition-with-prolonged-acting-time-in-vivo
#1
Dong Chen, Yu Huang, Shuting Xu, Huangyong Jiang, Jieli Wu, Xin Jin, Xinyuan Zhu
Polymeric drug delivery system termed as "polyprodrug amphiphile" poly(2-methylacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-b-poly(10-hydroxy-camptothecin methacrylate (pMPC-b-pHCPT) is developed for the prolonged-acting cancer therapy. It is obtained by two-step reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization of zwitterionic monomer MPC and an esterase-responsive polymerizable prodrug methacrylic anhydride-CPT, respectively. This diblock polymer is composed of both antifouling (pMPC) and bioactive (pHCPT) segments and the drug is designed as a building block to construct the polymer skeleton directly...
July 24, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733934/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-deep-sea-bacterium-moritella-sp-jt01-and-identification-of-biotechnologically-relevant-genes
#2
Robert Cardoso de Freitas, Estácio Jussie Odisi, Chiaki Kato, Marcus Adonai Castro da Silva, André Oliveira de Souza Lima
Deep-sea bacteria can produce various biotechnologically relevant enzymes due to their adaptations to high pressures and low temperatures. To identify such enzymes, we have sequenced the genome of the polycaprolactone-degrading bacterium Moritella sp. JT01, isolated from sediment samples from Japan Trench (6957 m depth), using a Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencer (12.1 million paired-end reads) and CLC Genomics Workbench (version 6.5.1) for the assembly, resulting in a 4.83-Mb genome (42 scaffolds). The genome was annotated using Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST), Protein Homology/analogY Recognition Engine V 2...
July 22, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733281/structural-and-mechanistic-insights-into-the-improvement-of-halotolerant-ability-of-a-marine-microbial-esterase-by-increasing-intra-and-inter-domain-hydrophobic-interactions
#3
Ping-Yi Li, Yi Zhang, Bin-Bin Xie, Yan-Qi Zhang, Jie Hao, Yue Wang, Peng Wang, Chun-Yang Li, Qi-Long Qin, Xi-Ying Zhang, Hai-Nan Su, Mei Shi, Yu-Zhong Zhang, Xiu-Lan Chen
Halotolerant enzymes are beneficial for industrial processes requiring high salts and low water activity. Most halophilic proteins are evolved to have reduced hydrophobic interactions on the surface and in the hydrophobic cores for their haloadaptation. However, in this study, we improved the halotolerance of a thermolablie esterase, E40, by increasing intra-protein hydrophobic interactions. E40 was quite unstable in buffers containing more than 0.3 M NaCl and its kcat and substrate affinity were both significantly reduced in 0...
July 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732925/analysis-of-staphylococcus-aureus-cell-viability-sublethal-injury-and-death-induced-by-synergistic-combination-of-ultrasound-and-mild-heat
#4
Jiao Li, Yuanjie Suo, Xinyu Liao, Juhee Ahn, Donghong Liu, Shiguo Chen, Xingqian Ye, Tian Ding
This study was designed to investigate the combined effects of ultrasound and mild heat on the viability of S. aureus in association with the cell membrane integrity and intracellular enzyme activity. Cells were treated by ultrasound under 55°C for 3, 5, 7, 10, and 15min. The dynamic changes of S. aureus cell viability, sublethal injury and death were evaluated using flow cytometric assay. Microscopies were applied to identify the morphological appearance, ultrastructure and topography of S. aureus. The results showed the membrane damage was synchronous with esterase inhibition during the exposure to sonication, leading to the immediate lethal effect...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731595/identification-of-carboxylesterase-genes-associated-with-pyrethroid-resistance-in-the-malaria-vector-anopheles-sinensis-diptera-culicidae
#5
Xue-Mei Wu, Bo-Ying Xu, Feng-Ling Si, Jianyong Li, Zhen-Tian Yan, Zheng-Wen Yan, Xiu He, Bin Chen
BACKGROUND: Carboxylesterases (CCEs) are one of three large detoxification enzyme families. Some CCEs are active on synthetic insecticides with ester structures. Anopheles sinensis is an important malaria vector in eastern Asia. This study identified and characterized the CCE genes in the An. sinensis genome and determined CCE genes associated with pyrethroid resistance using RNA-seq and RT-qPCR, in An. sinensis from Anhui, Chongqing, and Yunnan in China. RESULTS: Fifty-seven putative CCEs were identified and placed into 3 classes, 12 subfamilies and 14 clades through phylogenetics and homology analyses...
July 21, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730616/acute-genital-swelling-heralding-c1-esterase-inhibitor-deficiency-in-a-child
#6
Aizuri Murad, Timothy Ronan Leahy, Patricia Lenane
A healthy 5-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with an acute genital swelling. He had no relevant family history. His presentation and blood investigations were consistent with C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency, mostly likely arising de novo. A rare cause of acute genital swelling and its management are discussed.
July 21, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729550/anti-tumor-activity-and-immunotherapeutic-potential-of-a-bisphosphonate-prodrug
#7
Yoshimasa Tanaka, Masashi Iwasaki, Kaoru Murata-Hirai, Kenji Matsumoto, Kosuke Hayashi, Haruki Okamura, Tomoharu Sugie, Nagahiro Minato, Craig T Morita, Masakazu Toi
Bisphosphonates have benefits in breast cancer and multiple myeloma patients and have been used with adoptive immunotherapy with γδ T cells expressing Vγ2 Vδ2 TCRs. Although treatment with γδ T cells is safe, it has shown limited efficacy. Present bisphosphonates stimulate γδ T cells but were designed to inhibit bone resorption rather than treating cancer and have limited oral absorption, tumor cell entry, and cause bone side effects. The development of phosphate and phosphonate nucleotide prodrugs has led to important drugs for hepatitis C and HIV...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729264/complete-genome-sequence-of-burkholderia-stabilis-fermp-21014
#8
Kenji Konishi, Toshitaka Kumagai, Shin-Ichi Sakasegawa, Tomohiro Tamura
Cholesterol esterase (EC 3.1.1.13) was identified in a bacterium, Burkholderia stabilis strain FERMP-21014. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of B. stabilis FERMP-21014, which has been used in the commercial production of cholesterol esterase. The genome sequence information may be useful for improving production levels of cholesterol esterase.
July 20, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726701/sewage-sludge-and-waterworks-sludge-stabilization-in-sludge-treatment-reed-bed-systems
#9
Grazia Masciandaro, Eleonora Peruzzi, Steen Nielsen
In this study, results about sludge stabilization in sludge treatment reed bed (STRB) systems in two different systems, Hanningfield STRB 1 (England), treating waterworks sludge, and Stenlille STRB 2 (Denmark), treating surplus activated sludge, are presented. The study mainly focused on the effectiveness of the STRBs systems in stabilizing sludge organic matter; in fact, parameters correlated to biochemical and chemico-structural properties of organic sludge matter were determined. Dewatering and sludge stabilization were effective in both STRBs, as highlighted by total and volatile dry solids trend...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725974/carbofuran-causes-neuronal-vulnerability-to-glutamate-by-decreasing-glua2-protein-levels-in-rat-primary-cortical-neurons
#10
Kanae Umeda, Masatsugu Miyara, Keishi Ishida, Seigo Sanoh, Shigeru Ohta, Yaichiro Kotake
Glutamate receptor 2 (GluA2/GluR2) is one of the four subunits of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR); an increase in GluA2-lacking AMPARs contributes to neuronal vulnerability to excitotoxicity because of the receptor's high Ca(2+) permeability. Carbofuran is a carbamate pesticide used in agricultural areas to increase crop productivity. Due to its broad-spectrum action, carbofuran has also been used as an insecticide, nematicide, and acaricide. In this study, we investigated the effect of carbofuran on GluA2 protein expression...
July 19, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725557/genome-assembly-of-chryseobacterium-sp-strain-ihbb-10212-from-glacier-top-surface-soil-in-the-indian-trans-himalayas-with-potential-for-hydrolytic-enzymes
#11
Mohinder Pal, Mohit Kumar Swarnkar, Hena Dhar, Sanjay Chhibber, Arvind Gulati
The cold-active esterases are gaining importance due to their catalytic activities finding applications in chemical industry, food processes and detergent industry as additives, and organic synthesis of unstable compounds as catalysts. In the present study, the complete genome sequence of 4,843,645 bp with an average 34.08% G + C content and 4260 protein-coding genes are reported for the low temperature-active esterase-producing novel strain of Chrysobacterium isolated from the top-surface soil of a glacier in the cold deserts of the Indian trans-Himalayas...
September 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725398/phenological-asynchrony-between-host-plant-and-gypsy-moth-reduces-insect-gut-microbiota-and-susceptibility-to-bacillus-thuringiensis
#12
Vyacheslav V Martemyanov, Irina A Belousova, Sergey V Pavlushin, Ivan M Dubovskiy, Nikita I Ershov, Tatyana Y Alikina, Marsel R Kabilov, Victor V Glupov
The phenological synchrony between the emergence of overwintering herbivorous insects and the budding of host plants is considered a crucial factor in the population dynamics of herbivores. However, the mechanisms driving the interactions between the host plant, herbivores, and their pathogens are often obscure. In the current study, an artificially induced phenological asynchrony was used to investigate how the asynchrony between silver birch Betula pendula and gypsy moth Lymantria dispar affects the immunity of the insect to bacteria, its susceptibility to the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis, and the diversity in its midgut microbiota...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725142/rhanterium-epapposum-oliv-essential-oil-chemical-composition-and-antimicrobial-insect-repellent-and-anticholinesterase-activities
#13
Betul Demirci, Hasan Soliman Yusufoglu, Nurhayat Tabanca, Halide Edip Temel, Ulrich R Bernier, Natasha M Agramonte, Saleh Ibrahim Alqasoumi, Adnan Jathlan Al-Rehaily, Kemal Husnu Can Başer, Fatih Demirci
The essential oil (EO) of the aerial parts of Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. (Asteraceae), was obtained by hydrodistillation. The oil was subsequently analyzed by both GC-FID and GC-MS, simultaneously. Forty-five components representing 99.2% of the oil composition were identified. The most abundant compounds were camphene (38.5%), myrcene (17.5%), limonene (10.1%) and α-pinene (8.7%). Referring to the ethnobotanical utilization, an insecticidal assay was performed, where the oil repelled the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L...
July 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722055/the-amyloid-architecture-provides-a-scaffold-for-enzyme-like-catalysts
#14
Z S Al-Garawi, B A McIntosh, D Neill-Hall, A A Hatimy, S M Sweet, M C Bagley, L C Serpell
Natural biological enzymes possess catalytic sites that are generally surrounded by a large three-dimensional scaffold. However, the proportion of the protein molecule that participates in the catalytic reaction is relatively small. The generation of artificial or miniature enzymes has long been a focus of research because enzyme mimetics can be produced with high activity at low cost. These enzymes aim to mimic the active sites without the additional architecture contributed by the protein chain. Previous work has shown that amyloidogenic peptides are able to self-assemble to create an active site that is capable of binding zinc and catalysing an esterase reaction...
July 19, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721843/treponema-rectale-sp-nov-a-spirochete-isolated-from-the-bovine-rectum
#15
Gareth J Staton, Kerry Newbrook, Simon R Clegg, Richard J Birtles, Nicholas J Evans, Stuart D Carter
A Gram-stain-negative, obligatory anaerobic spirochete, CHPAT, was isolated from the rectal tissue of a Holstein-Friesian cow. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene comparisons, CHPAT was most closely related to the human oral spirochete, Treponema parvum, with 88.8 % sequence identity. Further characterisation on the basis of recA gene sequence analysis, cell morphology, pattern of growth and physiological profiling identified marked differences with respect to other recognised species of the genus Treponema. Microscopically, the helical cells measured approximately 1-5 µm long and 0...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721614/low-doses-of-chlorpyrifos-interfere-with-spermatogenesis-of-rats-through-reduction-of-sex-hormones
#16
Dinithi Champika Peiris, Thamali Dhanushka
Use of pesticides results in indirect effects on human health. We aimed to evaluate implications of toxicological effects of subchronic chlorpyrifos exposure on reproductive function in male rats. A total of 48 adult Wistar male rats were separated into four groups (n = 12). Animals were gavaged with 2.5 mg/kg (T1), 5 mg/kg (T2), or 10 mg/kg (T3) body weight of chlorpyrifos (CPF) or distilled water (control) daily for 30 days. Organ weights, epididymal sperm parameters, DNA integrity, sex hormonal (FHS and LH) levels, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and creatinine concentrations were determined on day 31...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719874/combined-effects-of-temperature-and-clomazone-gamit-%C3%A2-on-oxidative-stress-responses-and-b-esterase-activity-of-physalaemus-nattereri-leiuperidae-and-rhinella-schneideri-bufonidae-tadpoles
#17
Juliane Silberschmidt Freitas, Andreia Arantes Felício, Fabrício Barreto Teresa, Eduardo Alves de Almeida
Temperature is an important factor influencing the toxicity of chemicals in aquatic environments. Neotropical tadpoles experience large temperature fluctuations in their habitats and many species are distributed in areas impacted by agriculture. This study evaluated the effects caused by the exposure to clomazone (Gamit(®)) at different temperatures (28, 32 and 36 °C) on biochemical stress responses and esterase activities in Physalaemus nattereri and Rhinella schneideri tadpoles. Results evidenced that temperature modulates the effects of clomazone on biochemical response of tadpoles...
July 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718803/serum-albumin-binding-and-esterase-activity-mechanistic-interactions-with-organophosphates
#18
Nikolay V Goncharov, Daria A Belinskaia, Vladimir I Shmurak, Maxim A Terpilowski, Richard O Jenkins, Pavel V Avdonin
The albumin molecule, in contrast to many other plasma proteins, is not covered with a carbohydrate moiety and can bind and transport various molecules of endogenous and exogenous origin. The enzymatic activity of albumin, the existence of which many scientists perceive skeptically, is much less studied. In toxicology, understanding the mechanistic interactions of organophosphates with albumin is a special problem, and its solution could help in the development of new types of antidotes. In the present work, the history of the issue is briefly examined, then our in silico data on the interaction of human serum albumin with soman, as well as comparative in silico data of human and bovine serum albumin activities in relation to paraoxon, are presented...
July 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713741/reconstruction-of-drug-induced-cleft-palate-using-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-in-rodents
#19
Julie Christy Amalraj, Manasa Gangothri, Hari Babu
BACKGROUND: Triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) (Kenacort*) is a commonly used synthetic glucocorticoid in today's medical practice. The drug is also a potential agent in inducing cleft palates in rats. This drug has been used to induce cleft palate in the fetus of the pregnant rats to bring out a suitable animal model for human cleft lip and palate. The drug was given intraperitoneally to induce congenital cleft palate in pregnant mother rats. AIM: The aim of this study is to induce congenital cleft palate in pregnant Wister albino rats and reconstruct the defect with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) isolated from the same species along with PLGA (poly lactic co glycolic acid) scaffold...
January 2017: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712799/diagnosing-periprosthetic-joint-infection-and-the-winner-is
#20
Alisina Shahi, Timothy L Tan, Michael M Kheir, Dean D Tan, Javad Parvizi
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a challenge despite a wide variety of available diagnostic tests. The question that arises is which of these tests has a better performance for diagnosing PJI. Diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) has been described as the best indicator for test performance. METHODS: To compare the performance of the standard diagnostic tests, the DOR of serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP), synovial fluid (SF) white blood cell (WBC) count, SF polymorphonuclear (PMN%), and leukocyte esterase (LE) were calculated...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
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