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Cancer imaging

Xiaoyan Yang, Dongya Wang, Yunhao Shi, Jianhua Zou, Qisen Zhao, Qi Zhang, Wei Huang, Jinjun Shao, Xiaoji Xie, Xiaochen Dong
In preclinical and clinical research, to destroy cancers, particularly those located in deep tissues is still a great challenge. Photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy are promising alternative approaches for tissue cancer curing. Black phosphorus (BP) based nanomaterials, with broad UV-vis near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and excellent photothermal effect, have shown great potential in biomedical applications. Herein, a biocompatible therapeutic platform, Chlorin e6 (Ce6) decorated BP nanosheets (NSs), has been developed for fluorescence and thermal imaging guided photothermal and photodynamic synergistic cancer treatment...
March 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Laura M Higgins, Vidya Ganapathy, Harini Kantamneni, Xinyu Zhao, Yang Sheng, Mei-Chee Tan, Charles M Roth, Richard E Riman, Prabhas V Moghe, Mark C Pierce
Rare-earth-doped nanocomposites have appealing optical properties for use as biomedical contrast agents, but few systems exist for imaging these materials. We describe the design and characterization of (i) a preclinical system for whole animal in vivo imaging and (ii) an integrated optical coherence tomography/confocal microscopy system for high-resolution imaging of ex vivo tissues. We demonstrate these systems by administering erbium-doped nanocomposites to a murine model of metastatic breast cancer. Short-wave infrared emissions were detected in vivo and in whole organ imaging ex vivo...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Cayetana Vázquez-Diez, Greg FitzHarris
Chromothripsis is a phenomenon observed in cancer cells, wherein a single or few chromosome(s) exhibit vast genomic rearrangements. Recent studies elucidated a striking series of events in which defective segregation of chromosomes causes their incorporation into micronuclei, where they are subject to extensive DNA damage prior to re-joining the main mass of chromosomes in a subsequent cell cycle, which provide an appealing mechanism for the etiology of chromothripsis. Micronuclei are well known to be common in human preimplantation embryos...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hui Li, Xiang Zhou, Dongbao Yao, Haojun Liang
Herein, a class of pH-responsive spherical nucleic acid (SNA) nanostructures prepared by functionalizing gold nanoparticles with DNA nanodevices is presented, which can perform duplex-to-triplex transition upon pH change via pH-sensitive parallel Hoogsteen interactions. The SNA nanostructures exhibit tunable pH sensitivity and a highly rapid and reversible allosteric effect. Furthermore, they can exactly image lysosomes in living cells. We next engineered pH-triggered doxorubicin(Dox)-SNA conjugates that could deliver Dox molecules into cancer cells and achieve pH-dependent drug release...
March 22, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Bongjun Kim, Hong-Hee Kim, Zang Hee Lee
Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting women and has a high incidence of bone metastasis, causing osteolytic lesions. The elevated expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in cancer activates osteoclasts, leading to bone destruction. We previously reported that α-tocopheryl succinate (αTP-suc) inhibited interleukin-1-induced RANKL expression in osteoblasts. Here, we examined the effect of αTP-suc on osteolytic bone metastasis in breast cancer...
February 2018: Journal of Bone Metabolism
William H Jin, Eric A Mellon, Jessica M Frakes, Gilbert Z Murimwa, Pamela J Hodul, Jose M Pimiento, Mokenge P Malafa, Sarah E Hoffe
Background: Total psoas area (TPA), a marker of sarcopenia, has been used as an independent predictor of clinical outcomes in gastrointestinal (GI) cancers as a proxy for frailty and nutritional status. Our study aimed to evaluate whether TPA, in contrast to traditional measurements of nutrition like body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA), was predictive of outcomes in borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) and locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT)...
February 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Kristina Shilnikova, Mei Jing Piao, Kyoung Ah Kang, Yea Seong Ryu, Jeong Eon Park, Yu Jae Hyun, Ao Xuan Zhen, Yong Joo Jeong, Uhee Jung, In Gyu Kim, Jin Won Hyun
Cisplatin-based chemotherapy often results in the development of chemoresistance when used to treat ovarian cancer, which is difficult to overcome. The present study investigated the cytotoxic and anti-migratory effects of shikonin, a naphthoquinone compound, on cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer A2780 cells (A2780-CR). Shikonin had a potent dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on A2780-CR cells, with 9 µM shikonin treatment reducing A2780-CR cell viability by 50%, validate using an MTT assay. Shikonin induced apoptosis, as evidenced by the increased number of apoptotic bodies, following staining with Hoechst 33342, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl cell transferase dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells following treatment...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Gilda Varricchi, Pietro Ameri, Christian Cadeddu, Alessandra Ghigo, Rosalinda Madonna, Giancarlo Marone, Valentina Mercurio, Ines Monte, Giuseppina Novo, Paolo Parrella, Flora Pirozzi, Antonio Pecoraro, Paolo Spallarossa, Concetta Zito, Giuseppe Mercuro, Pasquale Pagliaro, Carlo G Tocchetti
Antineoplastic drugs can be associated with several side effects, including cardiovascular toxicity (CTX). Biochemical studies have identified multiple mechanisms of CTX. Chemoterapeutic agents can alter redox homeostasis by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species RNS. Cellular sources of ROS/RNS are cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, stromal and inflammatory cells in the heart. Mitochondria, peroxisomes and other subcellular components are central hubs that control redox homeostasis...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
G Kate Park, Hoseok, Gaon Sandy Kim, Nathaniel S Hwang, Hak Soo Choi
Cell-based therapies hold great potential to treat a wide range of human diseases, yet the mechanisms responsible for cell migration and homing are not fully understood. Emerging molecular imaging technology enables in vivo tracking of transplanted cells and their therapeutic efficacy, which together will improve the clinical outcome of cell-based therapy. Particularly, optical imaging provides highly sensitive, safe (non-radioactive), cost-effective, and fast solutions for real-time cellular trafficking compared to other conventional molecular imaging modalities...
2018: Applied Spectroscopy Reviews
Jiangdian Song, Jingyun Shi, Di Dong, Mengjie Fang, Wenzhao Zhong, Kun Wang, Ning Wu, Yanqi Huang, Zhenyu Liu, Yue Cheng, Yuncui Gan, Yongzhao Zhou, Ping Zhou, Bojiang Chen, Changhong Liang, Zaiyi Liu, Weimin Li, Jie Tian
PURPOSE: We established a computed tomography (CT)-derived approach to achieve accurate progression-free survival (PFS) prediction to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) therapy in multicenter, stage IV EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: 1032 CT-based phenotypic characteristics were extracted according to the intensity, shape and texture of NSCLC pre-therapy images. Based on these CT features extracted from 117 stage IV EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients, a CT-based phenotypic signature was proposed using a Cox regression model with LASSO penalty for the survival risk stratification of EGFR-TKI therapy...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Jessa E Miller, Neal C Al-Attar, Owen H Brown, Gabrielle G Shaughness, Natalja P Rosculet, Anca Avram, David T Hughes
BACKGROUND: After initial surgical treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) residual lymph node metastases are often found at the time of radioactive iodine (131-I) therapy. Recurrence of DTC is due to persistent disease not removed at initial surgery and that did not respond to 131-I treatment. This study aims to determine locations of, and reasons for, residual nodal metastases detected by 131-I scans with SPECT/CT obtained prior to radioiodine therapy following surgical treatment of DTC...
March 21, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Michele Talso, Silvia Proietti, Esteban Emiliani, Andrea Gallioli, Laurian Dragos, Andrea Orosa Andrada, Pol Servián, Aarón Barreiro, Guido Giusti, Emanuele Montanari, Bhaskar K Somani, Olivier Traxer
INTRODUCTION Flexible Ureterorenoscopy (fURS) is one of the best solution for treatment of renal calculi less than 2 cm and for upper tract urinary cancer (UTUC) conservative treatment. An adequate quality of vision is mandatory to help surgeon having better outcomes. No studies have been done, to our knowledge, about what fURS on the market has the best quality of vision. Material and Methods Seven different fURS were used to compare the image quality (Lithovue, OlympusV, OlympusV2, Storz FlexXC - in White Light and in ClaraChroma mode - , Wolf Cobra Vision, Olympus P6 and Storx Flex X2)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Endourology
Yoon Jin Cha, Eun-Sol Kim, Ja Seung Koo
Amino acid transporters are membrane transport proteins, most of which are members of the solute carrier families. Amino acids are essential for the survival of all types of cells, including tumor cells, which have an increased demand for nutrients to facilitate proliferation and cancer progression. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide and is still associated with high mortality rates, despite improved treatment strategies. Recent studies have demonstrated that the amino acid metabolic pathway is altered in breast cancer and that amino acid transporters affect tumor growth and progression...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nikolaos S Salemis
Intracystic breast carcinoma is a rare clinical entity accounting for 0.5-2% of all breast cancers. It represents a distinctive clinical form rather a histological subtype of breast cancer and can either be in situ or invasive tumor. We herein describe a rare case of intracystic breast carcinoma arising from the wall of a cyst in a postmenopausal patient, who presented with a rapidly growing complex breast cyst. Diagnostic evaluation and management of the patient are discussed along with a review of the literature...
March 16, 2018: Breast Disease
(no author information available yet)
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in China. In 2012 one million thirty six thousand cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed all over the world, two hundred fifty three thousand cases were diagnosed in China (accounted for 18.6%). China has the largest number of new cases of colorectal cancer in the world. Colorectal cancer has becoming a serious threat of Chinese residents' health. In 2010, the National Ministry of Health organized colorectal cancer expertise of the Chinese Medical Association to write the "Chinese Protocol of Diagnosis and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer" (2010edition), and publish it publicly...
April 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Masanori Takabayashi, Hassaan Majeed, Andre Kajdacsy-Balla, Gabriel Popescu
Tissue refractive index provides important information about morphology at the nanoscale. Since the malignant transformation involves both intra- and inter-cellular changes in the refractive index map, the tissue disorder measurement can be used to extract important diagnosis information. Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) provides a practical means of extracting this information as it maps the optical path-length difference (OPD) across a tissue sample with sub-wavelength sensitivity. In this work, we employ QPI to compare the tissue disorder strength between benign and malignant breast tissue histology samples...
2018: PloS One
Claudiu T Supuran
Although the role of carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC in metabolism is well-established, pharmacological applications of this phenomenon started to be considered only recently. In organisms all over the phylogenetic tree, the seven CA genetic families known to date are involved in biosynthetic processes and pH modulation, which may influence metabolism in multiple ways, with both processes being amenable to pharmacologic intervention. CA inhibitors possess antiobesity action directly by inhibiting lipogenesis, whereas the hypoxic tumor metabolism is highly controlled by the transmembrane isoforms CA IX and XII, which contribute to the acidic extracellular environment of tumors and supply bicarbonate for their high proliferation rates...
March 21, 2018: Metabolites
Benjamin B Kasten, Patsy G Oliver, Harrison Kim, Jinda Fan, Soldano Ferrone, Kurt R Zinn, Donald J Buchsbaum
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with a poor prognosis. There is a clinical need for effective, targeted therapy strategies that destroy both differentiated TNBC cells and TNBC cancer initiating cells (CICs), as the latter are implicated in the metastasis and recurrence of TNBC. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is overexpressed on differentiated tumor cells and CICs obtained from TNBC patient specimens, suggesting that CSPG4 may be a clinically relevant target for the imaging and therapy of TNBC...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shintaro Akiyama, Masakazu Nagahori, Shinya Oooka, Mariko Negi, Takashi Ito, Kento Takenaka, Kazuo Ohtsuka, Mamoru Watanabe
RATIONALE: The small intestine (SI) does not commonly harbor cancer but is occasionally involved by metastatic cancer from other organs. To manage SI cancer appropriately, surveillance for primary origin outside the SI is essential. PATIENT CONCERNS: This study presents a 54-year-old Thai man diagnosed with SI obstruction which required laparoscopy- assisted partial ileal resection. DIAGNOSES: On the basis of the expression pattern of cytokeratins (CKs) and mucins (MUCs) in the resected SI adenocarcinoma, we suspected this was metastasized from the pancreatobiliary tract...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Tina Laga, Sandrina Lambrechts, Annouschka Laenen, Els Van Nieuwenhuysen, Sileny N Han, Ignace Vergote
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and feasibility of macroscopically complete (R0) secondary debulking surgery (SDS) in a single-center cohort of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. The performances of existing prediction models (DESKTOP score, Tian model) for R0 SDS were evaluated in this cohort. METHODS: Patient, disease, and treatment characteristics of 102 patients undergoing SDS for recurrent ovarian cancer at the University Hospitals Leuven between 1997 and 2014 were collected...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
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