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Cancer imaging

Lin Cheng, Matthew D Blackledge, David J Collins, Matthew R Orton, Neil P Jerome, Thorsten Feiweier, Mihaela Rata, Veronica Morgan, Nina Tunariu, Martin O Leach, Dow-Mu Koh
PURPOSE: To introduce T2-adjusted computed DWI (T2-cDWI), a method that provides synthetic images at arbitrary b-values and echo times (TEs) that improve tissue contrast by removing or increasing T2 contrast in diffusion-weighted images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In addition to the standard DWI acquisition protocol T2-weighted echo-planar images at multiple (≥2) echo times were acquired. This allows voxelwise estimation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and T2 values, permitting synthetic images to be generated at any chosen b-value and echo time...
October 1, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Shoko Ono, Satoshi Abiko, Mototsugu Kato
Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is a high risk for intestinal type gastric cancer; however, there is a limitation for detection of GIM using white light imaging (WLI). Image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) is more advantageous than WLI for optical diagnosis of GIM (1). Linked color imaging (LCI) (FUJIFILM Co., Tokyo, Japan) was newly developed for advanced IEE and enables visualization of red lesions that appear redder and whitish red lesions that appear whiter during routine endoscopy (2). GIM is observed as a lavender color that is distinguishable from the circumferential mucosa without GIM by using LCI (Figure 1)...
October 22, 2016: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
Michael L Schulte, Matthew R Hight, Gregory D Ayers, Qi Liu, Yu Shyr, M Kay Washington, H Charles Manning
PURPOSE: This study aimed to study whether cancer cells possess distinguishing metabolic features compared with surrounding normal cells, such as increased glutamine uptake. Given this, quantitative measures of glutamine uptake may reflect critical processes in oncology. Approximately, 10 % of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) express BRAF (V600E) , which may be actionable with selective BRAF inhibitors or in combination with inhibitors of complementary signaling axes. Non-invasive and quantitative predictive measures of response to these targeted therapies remain poorly developed in this setting...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Daniel I Glazer, Elmira Hassanzadeh, Andriy Fedorov, Olutayo I Olubiyi, Shayna S Goldberger, Tobias Penzkofer, Trevor A Flood, Paul Masry, Robert V Mulkern, Michelle S Hirsch, Clare M Tempany, Fiona M Fennessy
OBJECTIVE: To determine if tumor cell density and percentage of Gleason pattern within an outlined volumetric tumor region of interest (TROI) on whole-mount pathology (WMP) correlate with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values on corresponding TROIs outlined on pre-operative MRI. METHODS: Men with biopsy-proven prostate adenocarcinoma undergoing multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) prior to prostatectomy were consented to this prospective study. WMP and mpMRI images were viewed using 3D Slicer and each TROI from WMP was contoured on the high b-value ADC maps (b0, 1400)...
October 22, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
Ana M Denis-Bacelar, Sarah J Chittenden, David P Dearnaley, Antigoni Divoli, Joe M O'Sullivan, V Ralph McCready, Bernadette Johnson, Yong Du, Glenn D Flux
PURPOSE: To investigate the role of patient-specific dosimetry as a predictive marker of survival and as a potential tool for individualised molecular radiotherapy treatment planning of bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer, and to assess whether higher administered levels of activity are associated with a survival benefit. METHODS: Clinical data from 57 patients who received 2.5-5.1 GBq of (186)Re-HEDP as part of NIH-funded phase I/II clinical trials were analysed...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Nancy Chan, Amy Willis, Naomi Kornhauser, Maureen M Ward, Sharrell B Lee, Eleni Nackos, Bo Ri Seo, Ellen Chuang, Tessa Cigler, Anne Moore, Diana Donovan, Marta Vallee Cobham, Veronica Fitzpatrick, Sarah Schneider, Alysia Wiener, Jessica Guillaume-Abraham, Elnaz Anjom, Richard Zelkowitz, J David Warren, Maureen E Lane, Claudia Fischbach, Vivek Mittal, Linda Vahdat
PURPOSE: Bone marrow derived progenitor cells; including VEGFR2+ endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and copper-dependent pathways model the tumor microenvironment. We hypothesized that copper depletion (CD) using tetrathiomolybdate (TM) would reduce EPCs in high risk for relapse breast cancer (BC) patients (pts). We investigated the effect of TM on the tumor microenvironment in preclinical models. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Stage 2 triple negative BC (TNBC), Stage 3 and stage 4 without any evidence of disease, (NED) BC pts, received oral TM to maintain ceruloplasmin (Cp) between 8-17mg/dL for 2 years or until relapse...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Weidan Na, Qing Liu, Bowen Sui, Tianyu Hu, Xingguang Su
A novel and effective fluorescence strategy was developed for sensitive and selective detection of acid phosphatase (ACP). A förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor was established by attaching nile red (NR) to graphene quantum dots (GQDs) via lecithin/β-Cyclodextrin (lecithin/β-CD) complex as the linker. The introduction of lecithin/β-CD would brought GQDs-NR pair close enough through both electrostatic interaction and hydrophobic interaction, thereby making the FRET occur and thus resulting in the fluorescence quenching of GQDs (donor) and meanwhile the fluorescence enhancement of NR (acceptor)...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Margarida Ferreira-Teixeira, Daniela Paiva-Oliveira, Belmiro Parada, Vera Alves, Vitor Sousa, Obinna Chijioke, Christian Münz, Flávio Reis, Paulo Rodrigues-Santos, Célia Gomes
BACKGROUND: High-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a high risk of recurrence and progression to muscle-invasive forms, which seems to be largely related to the presence of tumorigenic stem-like cell populations that are refractory to conventional therapies. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of Natural Killer (NK) cell-based adoptive immunotherapy against chemoresistant bladder cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) in a pre-clinical relevant model, using NK cells from healthy donors and NMIBC patients...
October 21, 2016: BMC Medicine
Edward Johnston, Hayley Pye, Elisenda Bonet-Carne, Eleftheria Panagiotaki, Dominic Patel, Myria Galazi, Susan Heavey, Lina Carmona, Alexander Freeman, Giorgia Trevisan, Clare Allen, Alexander Kirkham, Keith Burling, Nicola Stevens, David Hawkes, Mark Emberton, Caroline Moore, Hashim U Ahmed, David Atkinson, Manuel Rodriguez-Justo, Tony Ng, Daniel Alexander, Hayley Whitaker, Shonit Punwani
BACKGROUND: Whilst multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) has been a significant advance in the diagnosis of prostate cancer, scanning all patients with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels is considered too costly for widespread National Health Service (NHS) use, as the predictive value of PSA levels for significant disease is poor. Despite the fact that novel blood and urine tests are available which may predict aggressive disease better than PSA, they are not routinely employed due to a lack of clinical validity studies...
October 21, 2016: BMC Cancer
Arndt Vogel, Josefine Römmler-Zehrer, Jack Shiansong Li, Desmond McGovern, Alfredo Romano, Michael Stahl
BACKGROUND: The phase 3 MPACT trial in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer demonstrated superior efficacy of nab-paclitaxel (nab-P) + gemcitabine (Gem) vs Gem monotherapy for all endpoints examined including overall survival, the primary endpoint. In the MPACT trial, patients were treated until progressive disease (PD) or unacceptable toxicity. The current exploratory analysis investigated outcomes of patients from the MPACT trial who were treated until PD, in order to understand how to maximize treatment benefit from nab-P + Gem...
October 21, 2016: BMC Cancer
Ingrid Broodman, Jan Lindemans, Jenny van Sten, Rainer Bischoff, Theo M Luider
Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate among cancer patients in the world, in particular because most patients are only diagnosed at an advanced and non-curable stage. Computed tomography (CT) screening on high-risk individuals has shown that early detection could reduce the mortality rate. However, the still high false-positive rate of CT screening may harm healthy individuals because of unnecessary follow-up scans and invasive follow-up procedures. Alternatively, false-negative and indeterminate results may harm patients due to the delayed diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Přemysl Frič, Jan Škrha, Aleksi Šedo, Tomaš Zima, Petr Bušek, Klára Kmochová, Martin Laclav, Bohuš Bunganič, Svatopluk Solař, Petr Hrabal, František Bělina, Pavel Záruba, Pavel Škrha, Miroslav Zavoral
High-resolution imaging methods (HRIMs) and biomarkers present the second step of pancreatic cancer (PC) diagnostics in at-risk individuals. These include patients with positive risk factors, early symptoms, nonresponders to the initial antidiabetic therapy, patients older than 50 years of age with new-onset unstable diabetes requiring insulin as well as patients with long-term insulin-non-dependent diabetes and recent (up to 6 months) failure of antidiabetic therapy. The procedures should be started without delay and the co-operation between the primary and tertiary medical centers is highly desirable...
December 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Yuxin Liu, Ge Zhang, Quanwei Guo, Liyi Ma, Qi Jia, Lidong Liu, Jing Zhou
Multifunctional nanomaterials for cancer diagnosis and therapy have recently prompted widespread concern. To avoid nanotoxicity, the development of novel degradable functional materials must be our main focus. In this study, we firstly developed ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid calcium disodium salt (EDTA)- and bovine serum albumin (BSA)-capped Mn3O4 nanoparticles (MONPs-BSA-EDTA) as a novel inorganic nanomaterials for multifunctional imaging-guided photothermal therapy, which can be degraded in a progress-controlled way by artificially introduced ascorbic acid...
October 17, 2016: Biomaterials
Seul-Gi Oh, Xian Li, Ho Won Lee, Thoudam Debraj Singh, Sang Bong Lee, Hyun Dong Ji, GhilSuk Yoon, Sung Jin Cho, In-Kyu Lee, Shin Young Jeong, Byeong-Cheol Ahn, Jaetae Lee, Hyeun Wook Chang, Sang-Woo Lee, Yong Hyun Jeon
The inability to monitor the in vivo dynamics of mast cells (MCs) limits the better understanding of its role in cancer progression. Here, we report on noninvasive imaging of MC migration to tumor lesions in mice and evaluation of the effects of migrated MCs on tumor progression through reporter gene-based in vivo optical imaging and glucose metabolism monitoring in cancer with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) in vitro and in vivo. Murine MCs (MC-9) and Lewis lung cancer cells (LLC) expressing an enhanced firefly luciferase (effluc) gene were established, termed MC-9/effluc and LLC/effluc, respectively...
October 13, 2016: Biomaterials
Łukasz Jeleń, Adam Krzyżak, Thomas Fevens, Michał Jeleń
Grading of breast cancer malignancy is a key step in its diagnosis, which in turn helps to determine its prognosis and a course of treatment. In this paper, we consider the application of pattern recognition and image processing techniques to perform computer-assisted automatic breast cancer malignancy grading from cytological slides of fine needle aspiration biopsies. To determine a classification of the malignancy of the slide, a feature set is first determined from imagery of the slides. In this paper we investigated the nature of a wide set of features extracted from biopsy images to determine their discriminatory power and cross-correlation...
October 13, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Sivan Lieberman, Tiberiu R Shulimzon, Tima Davidson, Edith M Marom
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to assess the pulmonary temporal changes after bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) using sealants for treatment of emphysema. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed all chest computerized tomography (CT) and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography CT scans of patients treated at our institution with BLVR. RESULTS: Eleven patients were treated with sealants: 4 with biological sealants and 7 with synthetic sealants...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Allegra T Aron, Morten O Loehr, Jana Bogena, Christopher J Chang
Iron is essential for sustaining life, as its ability to cycle between multiple oxidation states is critical for catalyzing chemical transformations in biological systems. However, without proper regulation, this same redox capacity can trigger oxidative stress events that contribute to aging along with diseases ranging from cancer to cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Despite its importance, methods for monitoring biological iron bound weakly to cellular ligands-the labile iron pool-to generate a response that preserves spatial and temporal information remain limited, owing to the potent fluorescence quenching ability of iron...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Abdul K Parchur, Qifei Li, Anhong Zhou
We report the synthesis, characterization, and application of Prussian blue (PB) functionalized CaMoO4:Eu@SiO2@Au nanorod hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs), with multimodal capabilities such as fluorescence imaging, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection and photothermal therapy (PTT). The average size of CaMoO4:Eu@SiO2 NPs was 206 nm. The HNPs are highly dispersible in water for several weeks without settling and show a strong absorption in the near-infrared region, overlapping with the PB absorption between 600 nm and 1000 nm and the surface plasmon resonance of Au nanorods around 800 nm...
October 21, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Alison Cieslak, Gary Elkins, Tanima Banerjee, Jessica Marsack, Kimberly Hickman, Alisa Johnson, Norah Henry, Debra Barton
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To determine the content, feasibility, and best outcome of a mind-body intervention involving self-directed hypnotic relaxation to target body image.
. DESIGN: A five-week, uncontrolled, unblinded feasibility intervention study.
. SETTING: Behavioral therapy offices in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and Waco, Texas.
. SAMPLE: 10 female breast cancer survivors and 1 breast and gynecologic cancer survivor...
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
Cuijuan Yu, Hai Wang, Aaron Muscarella, Amit Goldstein, Huan-Chang Zeng, Yangjin Bae, Brendan H I Lee, Xiang H-F Zhang
Intra-iliac artery (IIA) injection is an efficient approach to introduce metastatic lesions of various cancer cells in animals. Compared to the widely used intra-cardiac and intra-tibial injections, IIA injection brings several advantages. First, it can deliver a large quantity of cancer cells specifically to hind limb bones, thereby providing spatiotemporally synchronized early-stage colonization events and allowing robust quantification and swift detection of disseminated tumor cells. Second, it injects cancer cells into the circulation without damaging the local tissues, thereby avoiding inflammatory and wound-healing processes that confound the bone colonization process...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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