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Embryo implantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211357/preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis-and-screening-by-array-comparative-genomic-hybridisation-experience-of-more-than-100-cases-in-a-single-centre
#1
J Fc Chow, W Sb Yeung, V Cy Lee, E Yl Lau, P C Ho, E Hy Ng
INTRODUCTION: Preimplantation genetic screening has been proposed to improve the in-vitro fertilisation outcome by screening for aneuploid embryos or blastocysts. This study aimed to report the outcome of 133 cycles of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening by array comparative genomic hybridisation. METHODS: This study of case series was conducted in a tertiary assisted reproductive centre in Hong Kong. Patients who underwent preimplantation genetic diagnosis for chromosomal abnormalities or preimplantation genetic screening between 1 April 2012 and 30 June 2015 were included...
February 17, 2017: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202182/implantation-and-extravillous-trophoblast-invasion-from-rare-archival-specimens-to-modern-biobanking
#2
Gerit Moser, Berthold Huppertz
Extravillous trophoblast invasion serves to attach the placenta to the uterus and to enable access to nutrients for the embryo throughout pregnancy - secretions of the uterine glands in the first trimester, maternal blood in the second and third trimester. For assessing extravillous trophoblast invasion, histology (in combination with immunohistochemistry) still plays a major role in placental research. This is especially true for the re-assessment of rare archival specimens from early human implantation sites or placenta in utero with the background of recent knowledge which may help to strengthen current hypotheses...
February 8, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202179/effects-of-melatonin-in-rats-in-the-initial-third-stage-of-pregnancy-exposed-to-sub-lethal-doses-of-herbicides
#3
Lécio Leone de Almeida, Álvaro Aguiar Coelho Teixeira, Anísio Francisco Soares, Franklin Magliano da Cunha, Valdemiro Amaro da Silva, Leucio Duarte Vieira Filho, Valéria Wanderley-Teixeira
: Exposure to the herbicides Paraquat (PQ) and Roundup(®) may cause cell lesions due to an increase in oxidative stress levels in different biological systems, even in the reproductive system. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the possible changes in reproductive parameters and hepatic, as well as its prevention by simultaneous application of melatonin. METHODS: Thirty-five female rats at the age of 3 months were divided into seven groups: three groups exposed to sub-lethal doses of the herbicides PQ (50mg/kg) and Roundup(®) (500mg/kg) (n=5, G2, G3 and G4); three groups exposed to herbicides and simultaneous treatment with 10mg/kg of Melatonin (n=5, G5, G6 and G7) and control group (n=5, G1) from the first to the seventh day of pregnancy...
February 12, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191608/experiences-of-pre-implantation-genetic-diagnosis-pgd-in-sweden-a-three-year-follow-up-of-men-and-women
#4
Stina Järvholm, Ann Thurin-Kjellberg, Malin Broberg
Men and women with a hereditary genetic disease are faced with different options when they wish to become parents. One is pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) which is a combination of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and genetic analysis of the embryo before implantation. The present study focused on men and women's psychological experiences of PGD three years after applying for PGD. Nineteen women and seventeen men (i.e. seventeen couples and two women) participated. The interviews were analysed by thematic method...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188592/redirecting-reproductive-immunology-research-toward-pregnancy-as-a-period-of-temporary-immune-tolerance
#5
Norbert Gleicher, Vitaly A Kushnir, David H Barad
Referring to two recent publications, we here propose that clinical reproductive immunology has for decades stagnated because reproductive medicine, including assisted reproduction (AR), has failed to accept embryo implantation as an immune system-driven process, dependent on establishment of maternal tolerance toward the implanting fetal semi-allograft (and complete allograft in cases of oocyte donation). Pregnancy represents a biologically unique period of temporary (to the period of gestation restricted) tolerance, otherwise only known in association with parasitic infections...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187504/extreme-spermatogenesis-failure-andrological-phenotype-and-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection-outcomes
#6
P Plouvier, A-L Barbotin, F Boitrelle, D Dewailly, V Mitchell, J-M Rigot, V Lefebvre-Khalil, G Robin
Patients with very low sperm count through direct sperm examination can exhibit extreme oligozoospermia or cryptozoospermia (after centrifugation). The management of these patients is a real challenge for both clinicians and biologists. In this retrospective and comparative cohort study, we compared the andrological phenotype of patients with extreme alterations of spermatogenesis and assessed whether the origin of spermatozoa (testicular or ejaculate) had any influence on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes...
February 10, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185855/biphasic-effect-of-alpha-linolenic-acid-on-glucose-induced-dysmorphogenesis-and-lipoperoxidation-in-whole-rat-embryo-in-culture
#7
Gladys Chirino-Galindo, Jorge-Israel Barrera-Argüelles, Ninna-Leslie Trejo-González, Ricardo Mejía-Zepeda, Martín Palomar-Morales
Type 1 diabetes mellitus complicated with pregnancy, know as diabetic embryopathy, is the cause of neonatal malformations and low for gestational age neonates. With the use of the whole-embryo culture system, it has been demonstrated that high glucose causes embryo dysmorphogenesis, and that oxidative stress appears to be the main mechanism. In recent years, beneficial effect of omega-3 fatty acids has been demonstrated in various diabetic models, and in diabetic complications. Since diabetic embryopathy is mediated probably through membrane lipoperoxidation, This study was designed to find if omega-3 fatty acids could ameliorate the effect of high glucose over the dysmorphogenesis of whole rat embryo in culture...
February 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185345/the-female-reproduction-and-senescence-nexus
#8
Cielo Mae D Marquez, Joyce A Ibana, Michael C Velarde
Successful pregnancy is regulated by several soluble factors that are differentially expressed throughout gestation. These factors are important to initiate and establish embryo implantation and parturition. Senescent cells, which undergo permanent cell proliferation arrest in response to stress, also produce several secreted factors, referred to as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Here, we review some of the secreted factors found during early and late pregnancy and compare their expression profile with those of the SASP...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183999/gain-of-function-%C3%AE-catenin-in-uterine-mesenchyme-leads-to-impaired-implantation-and-decidualization
#9
Amanda Lynn Patterson, Jamieson Pirochta, Stephanie Tufano, Jose Teixeira
Embryo implantation and endometrial decidualization are critical events that occur during early pregnancy in humans and mice, and perturbation in either can result in infertility. WNT signaling through the canonical β-catenin pathway plays a pivotal role in embryonic Müllerian duct development, postnatal uterine maturation, and establishment of pregnancy. Loss of β-catenin in the Müllerian duct mesenchyme (MDM)-derived stroma and myometrium results in impaired decidualization and infertility; whereas gain of function (GOF) results in formation of mesenchymal tumors and sub-fertility attributed to malformed oviducts...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177362/effect-of-progesterone-on-adiponectin-system-in-the-porcine-uterus-during-early-pregnancy
#10
K Dobrzyn, N Smolinska, K Szeszko, M Kiezun, A Maleszka, E Rytelewska, T Kaminski
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of progesterone (P4) on adiponectin system genes and protein expression in the endometrium and myometrium during early gestation. Twenty-five gilts were assigned to 1 of 5 groups ( = 5): d 10 to 11 (embryo migration), 12 to 13 (maternal recognition of pregnancy), 15 to 16 (implantation), and 27 to 28 (end of implantation) of pregnancy and d 10 to 11 of the cycle (fully active corpora lutea, corresponding to the corpora lutea activity during gestation). The endometrial and myometrial tissues were cut into 100 mg slices, treated with P4 (10, 100, 1000 nM) and incubated for 24 h...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173814/the-human-oocyte-preservation-experience-hope-registry-evaluation-of-cryopreservation-techniques-and-oocyte-source-on-outcomes
#11
Zsolt Peter Nagy, Robert E Anderson, Eve C Feinberg, Brooke Hayward, Mary C Mahony
BACKGROUND: This prospective, Phase IV, multicenter, observational registry of assisted reproductive technology clinics in the USA studied outcomes of first cycles using thawed/warmed cryopreserved (by slow-freezing/vitrification) oocytes (autologous or donor). METHODS: Patients were followed up through implantation, clinical pregnancy, and birth outcomes. The main outcome measure was live birth rate (LBR), defined as the ratio of live births to oocytes thawed/warmed minus the number of embryos cryopreserved for each cycle, averaged over all thawing cycles...
February 7, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173742/ultrastructural-evaluation-of-eutopic-endometrium-of-infertile-women-with-and-without-endometriosis-during-the-window-of-implantation
#12
Michele G Da Broi, Carlos V Rocha, Filomena M Carvalho, Wellington P Martins, Rui A Ferriani, Paula A Navarro
Endometriosis is frequently associated with infertility and it is believed that the impairment of endometrial receptivity may be one of the mechanisms involved in this condition. Pinopodes are endometrial cycle-dependent structures that seem to participate in embryo implantation, and alterations in their presence and/or morphology during the window of implantation could affect the endometrial receptivity and be involved in the disease-related infertility. However, the data on pinopodes in these women are scarce and inconclusive...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166424/lectin-histochemistry-for-detecting-cadmium-induced-changes-in-the-glycosylation-pattern-of-rat-placenta
#13
M C Díaz, N V González, C N Zanuzzi, R Najle, C G Barbeito
Cadmium (Cd) is an industrial and environmental pollutant that produces toxic effects on gametogenesis, pre- and post-implantation embryos, and the placenta. Because the effects of acute Cd intoxication on the placenta are not well understood, we investigated changes in its glycosylated components in Cd treated dams at days 4, 7, 10 and 15 of gestation using lectin histochemistry. CdCl2 was administered to pregnant rats; control animals received sterile normal saline. Placentas were processed for DBA, Con A, SBA, PNA, UEA-I, RCA-I and WGA lectin histochemistry to evaluate changes in the carbohydrate pattern of the placenta that might modify cell interactions and contribute to embryonic alterations...
February 6, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165805/development-and-characterization-of-polymer-coated-liposomes-for-vaginal-delivery-of-sildenafil-citrate
#14
Hanan Refai, Doaa Hassan, Rehab Abdelmonem
Vaginal administration of sildenafil citrate has shown recently to develop efficiently the uterine lining with subsequent successful embryo implantation following in vitro fertilization. The aim of the present study was to develop sildenafil-loaded liposomes coated with bioadhesive polymers for enhanced vaginal retention and improved drug permeation. Three liposomal formulae were prepared by thin-film method using different phospholipid:cholesterol ratios. The optimal liposomal formulation was coated with bioadhesive polymers (chitosan and HPMC)...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162937/effect-of-progesterone-elevation-in-follicular-phase-of-ivf-cycles-on-the-endometrial-receptivity
#15
REVIEW
B Lawrenz, H M Fatemi
The premature rise of progesterone during the late follicular phase in stimulated IVF cycles is a frequent event, and emerging evidence shows that premature progesterone rise does negatively affect the outcome of assisted reproductive techniques. The effect of elevated peripheral progesterone levels in the late follicular phase seems to be on the endometrium and the window of implantation, which may lead to asynchrony between the endometrium and the developing embryo. In stimulated cycles, endometrial maturation is advanced on the day of oocyte retrieval, and patients with a progesterone level above 1...
January 24, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160506/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-indomethacin-and-piroxicam-administration-before-embryo-transfer-on-pregnancy-rate
#16
Serkan Kumbasar, Özer Gül, Aytek Şık
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) administration before embryo transfer (ET) on pregnancy rates in women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection ET. METHODS: Our study included 255 patients diagnosed with primary or secondary infertility caused by a male or tubal-related factor, endometriosis or unexplained factors. The patients were divided randomly into three groups...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155097/gene-editing-enhancing-and-women-s-role
#17
Frida Simonstein
A recent article on the front page of The Independent (September 18, 2015) reported that the genetic 'manipulation' of IVF embryos is to start in Britain, using a new revolutionary gene-editing technique, called Crispr/Cas9. About three weeks later (Saturday 10, October 2015), on the front page of the same newspaper, it was reported that the National Health Service (NHS) faces a one billion pound deficit only 3 months into the new year. The hidden connection between these reports is that gene editing could be used to solve issues related to health care allocation...
February 2, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151020/clinical-outcome-of-cycles-with-oocyte-degeneration-after-intracytoplasmic-sperm-injection
#18
Lanlan Liu, Jiali Cai, Ping Li, Xiaoming Jiang, Jianzhi Ren
There are variant rates of oocyte degeneration after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) among different patients. Oocyte degeneration after ICSI may reflect the cohort of oocyte quality and subsequent embryo development capacity and clinical outcome. This retrospective study analyzed 255 cycles with at least one degenerated oocyte after ICSI (degeneration group) and 243 cycles with no degenerated oocytes after ICSI (control group). Basic characteristics like female age, body mass index, duration of infertility, hormone (FSH, LH, E2) levels on day 3 of menses, and primary infertility patient rate were similar between the two groups (p > 0...
February 2, 2017: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150370/clinical-classification-and-treatment-of-cesarean-scar-pregnancy
#19
Hongwen Zhang, Jingrui Huang, Xianqing Wu, Hong Fan, Han Li, Tian Gao
AIM: Embryo implantation in a cesarean scar resulting in a cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is a special form of ectopic pregnancy. The aim of this article is to present our clinical classification and therapeutic strategy for CSP and to assess the efficacy, safety, and social benefits. METHODS: We categorized CSP as either risky or stable. Risky CSP have a high risk of severe hemorrhage and should be treated immediately, while stable CSP patients have neither obvious vaginal bleeding nor significantly elevated serum β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG)...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146140/tumor-and-normal-thyroid-spheroids-from-tissues-to-zebrafish
#20
Valentina Cirello, Germano Gaudenzi, Elisa S Grassi, Carla Colombo, Leonardo Vicentini, Stefano Ferrero, Luca Persani, Giovanni Vitale, Laura Fugazzola
BACKGROUND: Multicellular spheroids represent an interesting experimental model with promising applications in the pre-clinical studies on anticancer drugs. We recently demonstrated that thyroid spheroids recapitulate the features of the original tissues, in either the differentiated and "stem-like" components. Here we were aimed to characterize thyroid spheroids and to investigate in vivo the proangiogenic potential of patient-derived xenografts (PDX) of spheroids obtained from papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and the matched normal tissues...
January 31, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
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