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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324115/regenerative-responses-and-axon-pathfinding-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-chronically-injured-mice
#1
Benjamin J Yungher, Márcio Ribeiro, Kevin K Park
Purpose: Enhanced regeneration of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons can be achieved by modification of numerous neuronal-intrinsic factors. However, axon growth initiation and the pathfinding behavior of these axons after traumatic injury remain poorly understood outside of acute injury paradigms, despite the clinical relevance of more chronic settings. We therefore examined RGC axon regeneration following therapeutic delivery that is postponed until 2 months after optic nerve crush injury...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323869/tyrosine-mutated-aav2-mediated-shrna-silencing-of-pten-promotes-axon-regeneration-of-adult-optic-nerve
#2
ZhengRu Huang, ZiZhong Hu, Ping Xie, QingHuai Liu
Activating PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway via deleting phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) has been confirmed to enhance intrinsic growth capacity of neurons to facilitate the axons regeneration of central nervous system after injury. Considering conditional gene deletion is currently not available in clinical practice, we exploited capsid residue tyrosine 444 to phenylalanine mutated single-stranded adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) as a vector delivering short hairpin RNA to silence PTEN to promote retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) survival and axons regeneration in adult rat optic nerve axotomy paradigm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323760/hip-ganglion-cyst-causing-femoral-nerve-dysesthesia
#3
Wen-Ling Chen, Jerry Ch Tsai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320183/ischemic-optic-neuropathy-as-a-model-of-neurodegenerative-disorder-a-review-of-pathogenic-mechanism-of-axonal-degeneration-and-the-role-of-neuroprotection
#4
REVIEW
Saba Khalilpour, Shahrzad Latifi, Ghazaleh Behnammanesh, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid, Aman Shah Abdul Majid, Ali Tamayol
Optic neuropathy is a neurodegenerative disease which involves optic nerve injury. It is caused by acute or intermittent insults leading to visual dysfunction. There are number of factors, responsible for optic neuropathy, and the optic nerve axon is affected in all type which causes the loss of retinal ganglion cells. In this review we will highlight various mechanisms involved in the cell loss cascades during axonal degeneration as well as ischemic optic neuropathy. These mechanisms include oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, angiogenesis, neuroinflammation and apoptosis following retinal ischemia...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320099/light-emitting-diode-led-therapy-improves-occipital-cortex-damage-by-decreasing-apoptosis-and-increasing-bdnf-expressing-cells-in-methanol-induced-toxicity-in-rats
#5
Amir Ghanbari, Majid Ghareghani, Kazem Zibara, Hamdallah Delaviz, Elham Ebadi, Mohammad Hossein Jahantab
Methanol-induced retinal toxicity, frequently associated with elevated free radicals and cell edema, is characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and vision loss. Previous studies investigated the effect of photomodulation on RGCs, but not the visual cortex. In this study, the effect of 670nm Light-Emitting Diode (LED) therapy on RGCs and visual cortex recovery was investigated in a seven-day methanol-induced retinal toxicity protocol in rats. Methanol administration showed a reduction in the number of RGCs, loss of neurons (neuronal nuclear antigen, NeuN+), activation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP+) expressing cells, suppression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF+) positive cells, increase in apoptosis (caspase 3+) and enhancement of nitric oxide (NO) release in serum and brain...
March 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319552/evaluation-of-lung-function-and-clinical-features-of-the-ultrasound-guided-stellate-ganglion-block-with-2-different-concentrations-of-a-local-anesthetic-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Won-Joong Kim, Hahck Soo Park, Myung Sub Yi, Gill-Hoi Koo, Hwa-Yong Shin
BACKGROUND: One possible complication of stellate ganglion block (SGB) is respiratory compromise. No study has yet addressed the comparison of its effect on lung function and clinical features, including Horner's syndrome, changes in temperature, sensory and motor functions, and adverse events of lower versus higher concentrations (LC and HC, respectively) of local anesthetics in an ultrasound-guided SGB. METHODS: Fifty patients were randomized into 1 of 2 groups: the LC group (5 mL of 0...
April 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319450/retinal-and-choroidal-thickness-in-adult-patients-with-familial-mediterranean-fever
#7
Tolga Bicer, Osman Celikay, Mustafa Kosker, Muhammed Yunus Alp, Cem Ozisler, Ahmet Yesilyurt, Burcu Kucuk Bicer, Canan Gurdal
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate changes in retinal, choroidal, ganglion cell complex (GCC) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses in genetically diagnosed adult patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). METHODS: A total of 50 eyes of 50 genetically diagnosed patients with FMF and 50 eyes of controls were analyzed. Patients were recruited from the Genetic Diagnostic Center of Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Research and Training Hospital, Turkey. Retinal and choroidal thicknesses were obtained using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography from choroid, retina, GCC, and RNFL...
March 20, 2017: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318829/toll-like-receptor-4-inhibitor-protects-against-retinal-ganglion-cell-damage-induced-by-optic-nerve-crush-in-mice
#8
Yukimichi Nakano, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Kazuki Ojino, Hiroshi Izawa, Hiroto Takeuchi, Yuki Inoue, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Hideaki Hara
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays key roles in innate immune responses and inflammatory reactions. TAK-242 (resatorvid) is a small-molecule cyclohexene derivative that selectively inhibits TLR4 signaling pathways and suppresses inflammatory reactions. Here we investigated the protective effects of TAK-242 against optic nerve crush (ONC) which induces axonal injury like glaucoma in mice. TAK-242 was injected intravitreally immediately after ONC. The effect of TAK-242 was evaluated by measuring the number of fluorogold-labeled retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at 10 days after ONC...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318282/altered-resting-state-eeg-complexity-in-children-with-tourette-syndrome-a-preliminary-study
#9
Wen-Chin Weng, Chi-Feng Chang, Lee Chin Wong, Jui-Hsiang Lin, Wang-Tso Lee, Jiann-Shing Shieh
OBJECTIVE: Tourette syndrome is a developmental neuropsychiatric disorder in children, and abnormal corticobasal ganglion connectivity is implied for the pathophysiology. Multiscale entropy, an entropy-based method to measure dynamic complexity at multiple temporal scales, is helpful to disclose the information of brain connectivity. This preliminary study investigated the complexity of resting-state electroencephalogram signals using multiscale entropy in children with Tourette syndrome...
March 20, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317920/kus121-a-vcp-modulator-attenuates-ischemic-retinal-cell-death-via-suppressing-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#10
Masayuki Hata, Hanako O Ikeda, Chinami Kikkawa, Sachiko Iwai, Yuki Muraoka, Tomoko Hasegawa, Akira Kakizuka, Nagahisa Yoshimura
Ischemic neural damages cause several devastating diseases, including brain stroke and ischemic retinopathies, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been proposed to be the underlying mechanism of the neuronal cell death of these conditions. We previously synthesized Kyoto University substances (KUSs) as modulators of valosin-containing protein (VCP); KUSs inhibit VCP ATPase activity and protect cells from different cell death-inducing insults. Here, we examined the efficacy of KUS121 in a rat model of retinal ischemic injury...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316878/report-on-the-national-eye-institute-audacious-goals-initiative-replacement-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-from-endogenous-cell-sources
#11
Monica L Vetter, Peter F Hitchcock
This report emerges from a workshop convened by the National Eye Institute (NEI) as part of the "Audacious Goals Initiative" (AGI). The workshop addressed the replacement of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from exogenous and endogenous sources, and sought to identify the gaps in our knowledge and barriers to progress in devising cellular replacement therapies for diseases where RGCs die. Here, we briefly review relevant literature regarding common diseases associated with RGC death, the genesis of RGCs in vivo, strategies for generating transplantable RGCs in vitro, and potential endogenous cellular sources to regenerate these cells...
March 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315939/the-transient-potassium-outward-current-has-different-roles-in-modulating-the-pyloric-and-gastric-mill-rhythms-in-the-stomatogastric-ganglion
#12
Lin Zhu, Allen I Selverston, Joseph Ayers
The crustacean stomatogastric nervous system is a classic model for understanding the effects of modulating ionic currents and synapses at both the cell and network levels. The stomatogastric ganglion in this system contains two distinct central pattern generators: a slow gastric mill network that generates flexible rhythmic outputs (8-20 s) and is often silent, and a fast pyloric network that generates more consistent rhythmic outputs (0.5-2 s) and is always active in vitro. Different ionic conductances contribute to the properties of individual neurons and therefore to the overall dynamics of the pyloric and gastric mill networks...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315655/comparing-the-rates-of-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-and-ganglion-cell-inner-plexiform-layer-loss-in-healthy-eyes-and-in-glaucoma-eyes
#13
Naama Hammel, Akram Belghith, Robert N Weinreb, Felipe A Medeiros, Nadia Mendoza, Linda M Zangwill
PURPOSE: To compare the rates of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular retinal ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) change over time in healthy and glaucoma eyes. DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: The rates of circumpapillary RNFL and macular GCIPL loss in 28 healthy subjects and 97 glaucoma subjects from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study (DIGS) were compared using mixed effects models. RESULTS: The median follow-up time and number of visits were 1...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315296/annexin-a6-controls-neuronal-membrane-dynamics-throughout-chick-cranial-sensory-gangliogenesis
#14
Ankita Shah, Andrew T Schiffmacher, Lisa A Taneyhill
Cranial sensory ganglia are components of the peripheral nervous system that possess a significant somatosensory role and include neurons within the trigeminal and epibranchial nerve bundles. Although it is well established that these ganglia arise from interactions between neural crest and neurogenic placode cells, the molecular basis of ganglia assembly is still poorly understood. Members of the Annexin protein superfamily play key roles in sensory nervous system development throughout metazoans. Annexin A6 is expressed in chick trigeminal and epibranchial placode cell-derived neuroblasts and neurons, but its function in cranial ganglia formation has not been elucidated...
March 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315278/peeking-into-sigma-1-receptor-functions-through-the-retina
#15
Timur A Mavlyutov, Lian-Wang Guo
This review discusses recent advances towards understanding the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) as an endogenous neuro-protective mechanism in the retina , a favorable experimental model system. The exquisite architecture of the mammalian retina features layered and intricately wired neurons supported by non-neuronal cells. Ganglion neurons, photoreceptors , as well as the retinal pigment epithelium, are susceptible to degeneration that leads to major retinal diseases such as glaucoma , diabetic retinopathy , and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and ultimately, blindness...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315277/the-role-of-sigma1r-in-mammalian-retina
#16
Jing Wang, Xuezhi Cui, Penny Roon, Alan Saul, Sylvia B Smith
This review article focuses on studies of Sigma 1 Receptor (Sigma1R) and retina . It provides a brief overview of the earliest pharmacological studies performed in the late 1990s that provided evidence of the presence of Sigma1R in various ocular tissues. It then describes work from a number of labs concerning the location of Sigma1R in several retinal cell types including ganglion, Müller glia , and photoreceptors . The role of Sigma1R ligands in retinal neuroprotection is emphasized. Early studies performed in vitro clearly showed that targeting Sigma1R could attenuate stress-induced retinal cell loss...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306698/oral-application-of-magnesium-l-threonate-attenuates-vincristine-induced-allodynia-and-hyperalgesia-by-normalization-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#17
Ting Xu, Dai Li, Xin Zhou, Han-Dong Ouyang, Li-Jun Zhou, Hang Zhou, Hong-Mei Zhang, Xu-Hong Wei, Guosong Liu, Xian-Guo Liu
BACKGROUND: Antineoplastic agents, including vincristine, often induce neuropathic pain and magnesium deficiency clinically, but the causal link between them has not been determined. No drug is available for treating this form of neuropathic pain. METHODS: Injection of vincristine (0.1 mg · kg · day, intraperitoneally, for 10 days) was used to induce nociceptive sensitization, which was accessed with von Frey hairs and the plantar tester in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats...
March 17, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304401/a-critical-appraisal-of-the-morphological-criteria-for-diagnosing-intestinal-neuronal-dysplasia-type-b
#18
Simone A Terra, Pedro L de Arruda Lourenção, Márcia G Silva, Hélio A Miot, Maria A M Rodrigues
Intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B is a controversial entity expressed by complex changes in the enteric nervous system. Diagnosis depends on rectal biopsy histopathology and diagnostic criteria, both qualitative and quantitative, have changed over time, hindering the diagnostic practice. We analyzed the morphological criteria for the histological diagnosis of intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B in a series of patients with intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B according to the 1990 Frankfurt Consensus criteria and verified the applicability of the numerical criteria proposed by Meier-Ruge et al in 2004 and 2006...
March 17, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304087/feasibility-of-endoscopic-submandibular-ganglion-neurectomy-for-drooling
#19
Kayhan Ozturk, Omer Erdur, Osman Gul, Ayse Olmez
We performed endoscopic transoral neurectomy of the submandibular and sublingual glands to treat drooling. We bilaterally operated two adult cases with treatment-resistant drooling. In these patients, conventional treatment had failed. Repeated botilinum toxin type A (BOTOX®, Abdi Ibrahim Pharmaceutical Company, Istanbul, Turkey) injections had been effective but were becoming less so. The patients benefited from surgery in that their saliva scores decreased. No issue emerged over 6 months of follow-up. Endoscopic transoral neurectomy of the submandibular and sublingual glands reduces saliva production and allows management of drooling in treatment-resistant patients...
March 17, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304075/steroid-intracochlear-distribution-differs-by-administration-method-systemic-versus-intratympanic-injection
#20
Jong Joo Lee, Jeong Hun Jang, Oak-Sung Choo, Hye Jin Lim, Yun-Hoon Choung
OBJECTIVE: Steroids have been widely used to treat inner-ear diseases such as sudden sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and Meniere's disease. They can be given via either systemic or intratympanic (IT) injection. The purpose of the present study was to explore differences in intracochlear steroid distribution by the administration method employed (systemic vs. IT injection). STUDY DESIGN: Animal study. METHODS: Twenty-three Sprague-Dawley rats were given fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dexamethasone (FITC-DEX) three times (on successive days) via intraperitoneal (IP) or IT injection...
March 17, 2017: Laryngoscope
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