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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749900/increase-of-autonomic-nerve-factors-in-epicardial-ganglionated-plexi-during-rapid-atrial-pacing-induced-acute-atrial-fibrillation
#1
Yang Li, Yan-Mei Lu, Xian-Hui Zhou, Ling Zhang, Yao-Dong Li, Jiang-Hua Zhang, Qiang Xing, Bao-Peng Tang
BACKGROUND The cardiac autonomic nervous system plays an essential role in epicardial ganglionated plexi (GP) regulation of atrial fibrillation onset and progression. To date, the activity of GP and the function of the cardiac autonomic nervous system are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine alterations in epicardial GP cholinergic nerve, adrenergic nerve, and nerve growth factor expression using rapid atrial pacing to induce atrial fibrillation in canines. MATERIAL AND METHODS Nine healthy adult beagles were divided into two groups: the pacing experimental group (n=6) and the sham-operation control group (n=3)...
July 27, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747662/inference-of-neuronal-functional-circuitry-with-spike-triggered-non-negative-matrix-factorization
#2
Jian K Liu, Helene M Schreyer, Arno Onken, Fernando Rozenblit, Mohammad H Khani, Vidhyasankar Krishnamoorthy, Stefano Panzeri, Tim Gollisch
Neurons in sensory systems often pool inputs over arrays of presynaptic cells, giving rise to functional subunits inside a neuron's receptive field. The organization of these subunits provides a signature of the neuron's presynaptic functional connectivity and determines how the neuron integrates sensory stimuli. Here we introduce the method of spike-triggered non-negative matrix factorization for detecting the layout of subunits within a neuron's receptive field. The method only requires the neuron's spiking responses under finely structured sensory stimulation and is therefore applicable to large populations of simultaneously recorded neurons...
July 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746743/the-incretin-concept-revised-the-origin-of-glp-1-s-insulinotropic-function-the-gut-the-islets-or-both
#3
Daisuke Yabe, Yusuke Seino, Yutaka Seino
Incretins comprise a pair of gut hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which are secreted in response to food ingestion and enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion (GIIS) from pancreatic β-cells. Immediately after secretion, GLP-1 is degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) more rapidly than GIP, and circulating levels of biologically intact GLP-1 are substantially lower than those of biologically intact GIP. Therefore, there has been a debate on how the gut-derived GLP-1 exerts insulinotropic actions...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745805/tac-302-promotes-neurite-outgrowth-of-isolated-peripheral-neurons-and-prevents-bladder-denervation-related-bladder-dysfunctions-following-bladder-outlet-obstruction-in-rats
#4
Shohei Yoshida, Naoki Orimoto, Hiroshi Tsukihara, Takahisa Noma, Atsushi Hakozaki, Eiji Sasaki
AIMS: To evaluate the ability of TAC-302, a cyclohexenoic fatty alcohol derivative, to enhance neurite outgrowth in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and the preventive effects of TAC-302 on bladder denervation-related storage and voiding dysfunctions in rats with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). METHODS: Rat DRG neurons were cultured in the presence of TAC-302. Cell numbers and neurite lengths were quantified after a 24 h culture. BOO was achieved by partial ligature of the proximal urethra in female rats...
July 26, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744915/characterization-of-glcci1-expression-in-a-subpopulation-of-lateral-ganglionic-eminence-progenitors-in-the-mouse-telencephalon
#5
Vikram Kohli, Diana Nardini, Lisa A Ehrman, Ronald R Waclaw
The lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) in the ventral telencephalon is a diverse progenitor domain subdivided by distinct gene expression into a dorsal region (dLGE) that gives rise to olfactory bulb and amygdalar interneurons and a ventral region (vLGE) that gives rise to striatal projection neurons. The homeobox gene, Gsx2, is an enriched marker of the LGE and is expressed in a high dorsal to low ventral gradient in the ventricular zone (VZ) as development proceeds. Aside from Gsx2, markers restricted to the VZ in the dorsal and/or ventral LGE remain largely unknown...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744909/high-diversity-in-neuropeptide-immunoreactivity-patterns-among-three-closely-related-species-of-dinophilidae-annelida
#6
Alexandra Kerbl, Markus Conzelmann, Gáspár Jékely, Katrine Worsaae
Neuropeptides are conserved metazoan signaling molecules, and represent useful markers for comparative investigations on the morphology and function of the nervous system. However, little is known about the variation of neuropeptide expression patterns across closely related species in invertebrate groups other than insects. In this study, we compare the immunoreactivity patterns of 14 neuropeptides in three closely related microscopic dinophilid annelids (Dinophilus gyrociliatus, D. taeniatus and Trilobodrilus axi)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744658/characteristics-of-retinal-vessels-in-surgically-closed-macular-hole-an-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-study
#7
Cheolmin Yun, Jaemoon Ahn, Mingue Kim, Jee Taek Kim, Soon-Young Hwang, Seong-Woo Kim, Jaeryung Oh
PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to investigate characteristics of retinal vessels in eyes with surgically closed macular holes (MH). METHODS: We included patients who underwent surgery for idiopathic MH and a follow-up examination using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). The area of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and retinal vascular densities of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) were calculated on the postoperative OCTA images and compared with those of age-matched normal controls...
July 25, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744643/involvement-of-autonomic-nervous-system-in-antiarrhythmic-effect-of-intermittent-hypobaric-hypoxia
#8
N V Naryzhnaya, A V Mukhamedzyanov, T V Lasukova, L N Maslov
We studied the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the antiarrhythmic effect of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia modeled by daily placing the rats into an altitude chamber at 405 mm Hg (5000 m above sea level). The antiarrhythmic effect of hypoxia was observed on the model of acute coronary occlusion/reperfusion in vivo, but not during simulation of total ischemia/reperfusion of the isolated myocardium. Intravenous injection of ganglionic blocker hexamethonium (30 mg/kg) 15 min prior to in vivo coronary occlusion modeling abolished the antiarrhythmic effect of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia, which suggests that this effect is mediated via activation of the autonomic nervous system...
July 25, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744222/presence-of-functional-neurotrophin-trkb-receptors-in-the-rat-superior-cervical-ganglion
#9
Pablo Valle-Leija, Angeles Cancino-Rodezno, Berardo M Sánchez-Tafolla, Erwin Arias, Diana Elinos, Jessica Feria, María E Zetina, Miguel A Morales, Fredy Cifuentes
Sympathetic neurons express the neurotrophin receptors TrkA, p75NTR, and a non-functional truncated TrkB isoform (TrkB-Tc), but are not thought to express a functional full-length TrkB receptor (TrkB-Fl). We, and others, have demonstrated that nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulate synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity in neurons of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) of the rat. To clarify whether TrkB is expressed in sympathetic ganglia and contributes to the effects of BDNF upon sympathetic function, we characterized the presence and activity of the neurotrophin receptors expressed in the adult SCG compared with their presence in neonatal and cultured sympathetic neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743950/auditory-neuropathy-after-damage-to-cochlear-spiral-ganglion-neurons-in-mice-resulting-from-conditional-expression-of-diphtheria-toxin-receptors
#10
Haolai Pan, Qiang Song, Yanyan Huang, Jiping Wang, Renjie Chai, Shankai Yin, Jian Wang
Auditory neuropathy (AN) is a hearing disorder characterized by normal cochlear amplification to sound but poor temporal processing and auditory perception in noisy backgrounds. These deficits likely result from impairments in auditory neural synchrony; such dyssynchrony of the neural responses has been linked to demyelination of auditory nerve fibers. However, no appropriate animal models are currently available that mimic this pathology. In this study, Cre-inducible diphtheria toxin receptor (iDTR (+/+) ) mice were cross-mated with mice containing Cre (Bhlhb5-Cre (+/-) ) specific to spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs)...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743131/the-spatial-extent-of-epiretinal-electrical-stimulation-in-the-healthy-mouse-retina
#11
Zohreh Hosseinazdeh, Archana Jalligampala, Eberhart Zrenner, Daniel Lleweylln Rathbun
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Retinal prostheses use electrical stimulation to restore functional vision to patients blinded by retinitis pigmentosa. A key detail is the spatial pattern of ganglion cells activated by stimulation. Therefore, we characterized the spatial extent of network-mediated electrical activation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the epiretinal monopolar electrode configuration. METHODS: Healthy mouse RGC activities were recorded with a micro-electrode array (MEA)...
July 26, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742044/multipolar-field-shaping-in-a-suprachoroidal-visual-prosthesis
#12
Calvin D Eiber, Socrates Dokos, Nigel H Lovell, Gregg J Suaning
Visual prostheses are now an available mobility aid for patients blinded by degenerative retinal diseases. However, the spatial resolution of existing devices is still insufficient to deliver normal levels of mobility vision without stimulation strategies which enable existing devices to deliver several different percepts per stimulation site. A stimulation strategy in which field shaping is achieved by incorporating multipolar (bipolar and tripolar) stimulation could convey additional information to a user of a visual prosthesis, as compared to monopolar stimulation, is investigated...
July 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741430/-express-orofacial-neuropathic-pain-induced-by-oxaliplatin-downregulation-of-kcnq2-channels-in-v2-trigeminal-ganglion-neurons-and-treatment-by-the-kcnq2-channel-potentiator-retigabine
#13
Jennifer Ling, Ferhat Erol, Viacheslav Viatchenko-Karpinski, Hirosato Kanda, Jianguo G Gu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739571/splice-variants-of-ph-sensitive-chloride-channel-identify-a-key-determinant-of-ivermectin-sensitivity-in-the-larvae-of-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#14
Daiki Okuhara, Shogo Furutani, Katsuhiko Ito, Makoto Ihara Ihara, Kazuhiko Matsuda
The pH-sensitive chloride channels (pHCls) are broadly expressed in insects, but little is known about their physiological role, diversity and sensitivity to insecticides acting on relevant chloride channels. Here we have sequenced 50 transcripts of the pHCl-1 gene from the brain, third thoracic ganglion (T3G) and midgut of larvae of silkworm Bombyx mori. It was found that >50 variants were expressed with distinct splicing in the T3G compared to the brain and midgut. Of the variants detected, variant 9, which was expressed most abundantly in the larvae, was reconstituted in Xenopus laevis oocytes to characterise its pH- and ivermectin sensitivity...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738691/selective-cephalic-upregulation-of-p-erk-camkii-and-p-creb-in-response-to-glyceryl-trinitrate-infusion
#15
Roshni Ramachandran, Sara Hougaard Pedersen, Dipak Vasantrao Amrutkar, Steffen Petersen, Julie Mie Jacobsen, Anders Hay-Schmidt, Jes Olesen, Inger Jansen-Olesen
Background A common characteristic of migraine-inducing substances is that they cause headache and no pain in other areas of the body. Few studies have compared pain mechanisms in the trigeminal and spinal systems and, so far, no major differences have been noted. We compared signalling molecules in the trigeminal and spinothalamic system after infusion of the migraine-provoking substance glyceryltrinitrate. Method A catheter was placed in the femoral vein of rats and one week later glyceryltrinitrate 4 µg/kg/min was infused for 20 min...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738112/central-role-of-protein-kinase-a-in-promoting-trigeminal-nociception-in-an-in-vivo-model-of-temporomandibular-disorders
#16
Lindsey K Koop, Jordan L Hawkins, Lauren E Cornelison, Paul L Durham
AIMS: To investigate cellular changes in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN) and trigeminal ganglion (TG) associated with trigeminal nociception mediated by inflammation in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 86) were utilized to investigate cellular and behavioral responses to prolonged TMJ inflammation caused by bilateral injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) in the TMJ capsules. To investigate the cellular effects of protein kinase A (PKA) in the STN, rats were injected intrathecally with the selective PKA inhibitor KT5720 prior to injection of CFA into both TMJ capsules...
July 2017: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737886/ex-vivo-rat-eye-model-for-investigating-transport-of-next-generation-precision-polyester-nanosystems
#17
Raghu Ganugula, Meenakshi Arora, Majeti N V Ravi Kumar
We present for the first time a robust ex vivo rat eye model for investigating the transport of precision-polyester nanosystems (P2Ns) across the blood-retinal barrier, intended for systemic administration. The P2Ns-GA actively transport exploiting transferrin receptors present in the inner retinal barrier and colocalize in ganglion cells. Such delivery approaches have the potential to deliver drugs to posterior segments of the eye, which is still a major challenge in treating posterior ocular disorders.
July 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736339/tfos-dews-ii-pain-and-sensation-report
#18
REVIEW
Carlos Belmonte, Jason J Nichols, Stephanie M Cox, James A Brock, Carolyn G Begley, David A Bereiter, Darlene A Dartt, Anat Galor, Pedram Hamrah, Jason J Ivanusic, Deborah S Jacobs, Nancy A McNamara, Mark I Rosenblatt, Fiona Stapleton, James S Wolffsohn
Pain associated to mechanical and chemical irritation of the eye surface is mediated by trigeminal ganglia mechano- and polymodal nociceptor neurons while cold thermoreceptors detect wetness and reflexly maintain basal tear production and blinking rate. These neurons project into two regions of the trigeminal brain stem nuclear complex: ViVc, activated by changes in the moisture of the ocular surface and VcC1, mediating sensory-discriminative aspects of ocular pain and reflex blinking. ViVc ocular neurons project to brain regions that control lacrimation and spontaneous blinking and to the sensory thalamus...
May 4, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734869/p2x-receptors-up-regulate-the-cell-surface-expression-of-the-neuronal-glycine-transporter-glyt2
#19
Lucía Villarejo-López, Esperanza Jiménez, David Bartolomé-Martín, Francisco Zafra, Pablo Lapunzina, Carmen Aragón, Beatriz López-Corcuera
Glycinergic inhibitory neurons of the spinal dorsal horn exert critical control over the conduction of nociceptive signals to higher brain areas. The neuronal glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2) is involved in the recycling of synaptic glycine from the inhibitory synaptic cleft and its activity modulates intra and extracellular glycine concentrations. In this report we show that the stimulation of P2X purinergic receptors with βγ-methylene adenosine 5'-triphosphate induces the up-regulation of GlyT2 transport activity by increasing total and plasma membrane expression and reducing transporter ubiquitination...
July 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734817/detection-of-functional-change-in-preperimetric-and-perimetric-glaucoma-using-10-2-matrix-perimetry
#20
Kyoung In Jung, Chan Kee Park
PURPOSE: To evaluate an effective functional strategy for detecting glaucomatous damage of the macula in preperimetric to perimetric glaucoma DESIGN: Cross-sectional study METHODS: Preperimetric glaucoma patients (n=102) and perimetric glaucoma patients (n=88) with isolated paracentral scotoma or combined paracentral scotoma were enrolled in this study. Global and sectoral mean sensitivities (MS) were evaluated using 10-2 standard automated perimetry (SAP) with a stimulus of sizes III (0...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
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