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Christopher J Wolfram, Gary W Rubloff, Xiaolong Luo
Chemotaxis is a phenomenon which enables cells to sense concentrations of certain chemical species in their microenvironment and move towards chemically favorable regions. Recent advances in microbiology have engineered the chemotactic properties of bacteria to perform novel functions, but traditional methods of characterizing chemotaxis do not fully capture the associated cell motion, making it difficult to infer mechanisms that link the motion to the microbiology which induces it. Microfluidics offers a potential solution in the form of gradient generators...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Cong Zhang, Xue-Nan Li, Li-Run Xiang, Lei Qin, Jia Lin, Jin-Long Li
The bioaccumulation and environmental persistence of atrazine (ATZ) poses a severe hazard to animal ecosystem. Quail has strong sensitivity to environmental pollutant, thus it is one of the most important ecological pollution indicator. However, true proof for the effects of ATZ exposure on the liver of quails is lacking. To evaluate the liver injury and the role of Nrf2-mediated defense responses during ATZ exposure, male quails were treated with ATZ (0, 50, 250 and 500mg/kg) by oral gavage for 45 days. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes, oxidative stress indices, apoptosis-related factors and Nrf2 pathway were detected...
December 1, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Sushanta Kumar Pal, P Senthilkumaran
The sign rule requires that adjacent singularities on a contour have opposite signs and hence cultivation of lemon only fields poses problem as all lemons have positive index. In this paper we show that the interference of three linearly polarized plane waves can create regions of ellipse and vector fields in 2-dimensions (2D) in which a lemon lattice is interlaced in a V-point lattice. The lemons appear at intensity maxima of the lattice structure while the V-points take care of index conservation by sitting at intensity minima...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
C Scott, B Hawkins, C Knai
Product reformulation- the process of altering a food or beverage product's recipe or composition to improve the product's health profile - is a prominent response to the obesity and noncommunicable disease epidemics in the U.S. To date, reformulation in the U.S. has been largely voluntary and initiated by actors within the food and beverage industry. Similar voluntary efforts by the tobacco and alcohol industry have been considered to be a mechanism of corporate political strategy to shape public health policies and decisions to suit commercial needs...
November 14, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Danilo Sciarrone, Sebastiano Pantò, Paola Donato, Luigi Mondello
The enhanced sample collection capability of a heart-cutting three-dimensional GC-prep system is reported. In its original configuration, a highly pure component can be usually collected after the last (3D) column outlet by means of a dedicated preparative station. The latter is located after the last chromatographic column, and this poses the requirement for multiple heart cuts even for those components showing satisfactory degree of purity after the first (or second) separation dimension. The feasibility to collect pure components after each chromatographic dimension is here described, employing a three-dimension MDGC system equipped with high-temperature valves, located inside the first and second GC ovens, with the aim to improve the productivity of the collection procedure...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
S van Mourik, B P G J Alders, F Helderman, L J F van de Ven, P W G Groot Koerkamp
Eggshell damage poses a serious problem for the consumption egg industry. Increasing the maximum age of laying hens will increase eggshell damage due to loss of shell strength. This poses a serious problem for automatic collection, packing, and transport. We performed a model based study focused on hairline fractures in eggs of 88-week-old hens, and simulated side collisions on 1,235 eggs using a specially designed pendulum. The kinetic energy at the moment of impact was related to the accelerations measured by an electronic egg going through the transport chain...
November 11, 2016: Poultry Science
Jordan L Thorngren, Amanda D Harwood, Tracye M Murphy, Kara E Huff Hartz, Courtney Y Fung, Michael J Lydy
The current study evaluated the risk associated with the application and co-occurrence of two herbicides, atrazine and sulfentrazone, applied to a 32 ha corn and soybean rotational field. Field concentrations of the compounds were measured in soil, runoff water and groundwater, with peak mean atrazine and sulfentrazone concentrations found in the soil (144 ng/g dry weight (dw), and 318 ng/g dw, respectively). Individual and mixture laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the effects of atrazine and sulfentrazone on the survival of Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas, the germination of Lactuca sativa, and the growth of Pseudokirchneriella subcapita, and Lemna minor...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Alexander J Mizenko, Brian C Tefft, Lindsay S Arnold, Jurek G Grabowski
BACKGROUND: Due to a decreasing birth rate and longer life expectancy, the proportion of Americans over the age of 65 is expected to rise in coming years. Drivers over 65 drive two billion miles yearly, a number that will increase. For that reason, it is imperative to understand their attitudes and perceptions. It is also important to understand whether drivers over 65 can be treated as one cohesive group, or if there are differences among them. METHODS: A web-enabled survey was conducted among Americans in the years 2011-2013...
December 2015: Injury Epidemiology
Adam Ralph, Martin Somers, Jonathan Cowman, Bruno Voisin, Emma Hogan, Hannah Dunne, Eimear Dunne, Barry Byrne, Nigel Kent, Antonio J Ricco, Dermot Kenny, Simon Wong
The imaging of shear-mediated dynamic platelet behavior interacting with surface-immobilized von Willebrand factor (vWF) has tremendous potential in characterizing changes in platelet function for clinical diagnostics purposes. However, the imaging output, a series of images representing platelets adhering and rolling on the surface, poses unique, non-trivial challenges for software algorithms that reconstruct the positional trajectories of platelets. We report on an algorithm that tracks platelets using the output of such flow run experiments, taking into account common artifacts encountered by previously-published methods, and we derive seven key metrics of platelet dynamics that can be used to characterize platelet function...
December 2016: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Grzegorz Doruchowski, Waldemar Świechowski, Sylwester Masny, Alicja Maciesiak, Małgorzata Tartanus, Hanna Bryk, Ryszard Hołownicki
The coarse spray air-induction nozzles have documented pesticide drift reducing potential and hence pose lower risk of environmental pollution than the standard fine spray hollow cone nozzles. However, it is questioned that use of the low-drift nozzles might not provide as effective crop protection as the standard nozzles. The objective of work was to assess the pest and disease control efficacy as affected by spray volume rate and nozzle type. The experiment was carried out in apple orchard, cv Jonagold/M26...
October 6, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Devgan A, Rohilla R, Jain A, Mehta H, Singh S
INTRODUCTION: Locked vertical patellar dislocations are rare and pose a therapeutic challenge. This case is more unusual, as the patient was a known case of recurrent patellar dislocation and presented with an atraumatic locked and vertically rotated patellar dislocation. This type of presentation has never been reported in literature to the best of our knowledge. CASE PRESENTATION: A 14-year-old healthy male child with previous history of recurrent lateral dislocation of patella presented to accident & emergency department with complaints of inability to walk or bear weight on his left lower limb after he spontaneously dislocated his patella while running on uneven ground...
April 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Pradnya Meshram, Rachna Dave, Hiren Joshi, Gopal Dharani, Ramalingam Kirubagaran, Vayalam P Venugopalan
Polysaccharide fouling poses a significant challenge in the widespread application of membrane filtration for water purification. In order to mitigate the problem, a polysaccharide-degrading enzyme alginate lyase (Alg L; EC was successfully immobilized on cellulose acetate ultrafiltration membrane using a dead-end filtration unit. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared microscopy confirmed covalent linkage of the Alg L to the membrane. HPLC and Alg L activity studies confirmed that Alg L in immobilized form was enzymatically active...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Jun Zhang, Xin Liu, Shu-Qing Wang, Gui-You Liu, Wei-Ren Xu, Xian-Chao Cheng, Run-Ling Wang
It has been reported previously that some angiotensin II receptor blockers not only antagonize angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), but also exert stimulation in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) partial activation, among which telmisartan displays the best. Telmisartan has been tested as a bifunctional ligand with antihypertensive and hypoglycemic activity. Aiming at more potent leads with selective AT1R antagonism and PPARγ partial agonism, the three parts of telmisartan including the distal benzimidazole ring, the biphenyl moiety, and the carboxylic acid group experienced modification by core hopping method in our study...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Emilie Neveu, David W Ritchie, Petr Popov, Sergei Grudinin
MOTIVATION: Docking prediction algorithms aim to find the native conformation of a complex of proteins from knowledge of their unbound structures. They rely on a combination of sampling and scoring methods, adapted to different scales. Polynomial Expansion of Protein Structures and Interactions for Docking (PEPSI-Dock) improves the accuracy of the first stage of the docking pipeline, which will sharpen up the final predictions. Indeed, PEPSI-Dock benefits from the precision of a very detailed data-driven model of the binding free energy used with a global and exhaustive rigid-body search space...
September 1, 2016: Bioinformatics
Jikai Lei, Yanni Sun
MOTIVATION: Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas) allows more specific and efficient gene editing than all previous genetic engineering systems. These exciting discoveries stem from the finding of the CRISPR system being an adaptive immune system that protects the prokaryotes against exogenous genetic elements such as phages. Despite the exciting discoveries, almost all knowledge about CRISPRs is based only on microorganisms that can be isolated, cultured and sequenced in labs...
September 1, 2016: Bioinformatics
Jonas Schwartze, Harald Schrom, Klaus-Hendrik Wolf, Michael Marschollek
Current Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) environments lack integration of sensors and actuators of other sub-domains. Creating technical and organizational integration is addressed by the BASIS project (Build Automation by a Scalable and Intelligent System), which aims to build a cross-domain home bus system. The main objective of this paper is to present an overview of design, architecture and state of realization of BASIS by describing the requirements development process, underlying hardware design and software architecture...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Mary C Machado, Thomas J Webster
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious complication of mechanical ventilation that has been shown to be associated with increased mortality rates and medical costs in the pediatric intensive care unit. Currently, there is no cost-effective solution to the problems posed by VAP. Endotracheal tubes (ETTs) that are resistant to bacterial colonization and that inhibit biofilm formation could provide a novel solution to the problems posed by VAP. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate differences in the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on unmodified polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ETTs and on ETTs etched with a fungal lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus, to create nanoscale surface features...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Angela Garcia, Brian Anderson
Informal, coercive residential centers for the treatment of addiction are widespread and growing throughout Latin America. In Mexico these centers are called "anexos" and they are run and utilized by low-income individuals and families with problems related to drugs and alcohol. This article draws on findings from a 3-year anthropological study of anexos in Mexico City. Participant observation and in-depth interviews were used to describe and analyze anexos, their therapeutic practices, and residents' own accounts of addiction and recovery...
August 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
Sofia M Danna, Eva Graham, Rachel J Burns, Sonya S Deschênes, Norbert Schmitz
Depression and diabetes are independent risk factors for one another, and both are associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Diabetes patients with lower cognitive function are more likely to suffer poorer health outcomes. However, the role of depression in cognitive decline among people with diabetes is not well understood. This systematic review assessed whether adults with comorbid diabetes and depression or depressive symptoms exhibit greater cognitive decline relative to individuals with diabetes alone...
2016: PloS One
Andreas Borowski, Erhard Godehardt, Hannan Dalyanoglu
OBJECTIVE: Chronic totally occluded right coronary artery (CTO-RCA) often poses a problem in decision making for/against bypass grafting due to the lack of standardized indication criteria. The aim of the study was to investigate whether qualitative angiograms can be useful in decision making for/against surgical revascularization of CTO-RCA. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 69 patients who underwent elective CABG procedure, including single graft to the RCA...
August 8, 2016: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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