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diazepam in child agitation

Joana Grenha, Ana Garrido, Hernani Brito, Maria José Oliveira, Fátima Santos
Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening drug effect. It may be misdiagnosed because it has mostly been reported in adults. Case Report. An 8-year-old girl with behavioral problems and medicated with risperidone and sertraline was admitted in the emergency department after she had taken voluntarily 1500 mg of sertraline (50 mg/kg). At admission, she had marked agitation, visual hallucinations, diaphoresis, flushing, and tremor. She had fever and periods of hypertension. She also showed generalized rigidity and involuntary movements...
2013: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Hani F Braidy, Prabhjot Singh, Vincent B Ziccardi
PURPOSE: To study the safety of deep sedation in an urban-based oral maxillofacial surgery training program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Charts of patients undergoing an intravenous sedation from January 2005 through December 2009 were reviewed. Data recorded included age, gender, type of procedures performed, and intravenous medications. Patients were divided in 2 groups depending on whether they received a general anesthetic agent (propofol or ketamine) or not. Anesthesia complications and failures were recorded and categorized...
August 2011: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
S Auvin, E Lejay, C Delanoe, I Denjoy, J-M Lupoglazoff, J-C Mercier, L Titomanlio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2010: Neurology
S Dahmani, C Brasher, I Stany, J Golmard, A Skhiri, B Bruneau, Y Nivoche, I Constant, I Murat
BACKGROUND: Premedication is considered important in pediatric anesthesia. Benzodiazepines are the most commonly used premedication agents. Clonidine, an alpha2 adrenoceptor agonist, is gaining popularity among anesthesiologists. The goal of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis of studies comparing premedication with clonidine to Benzodiazepines. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify clinical trials focusing on the comparison of clonidine and Benzodiazepines for premedication in children...
April 2010: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Fábio Bucaretchi, Eduardo Mello de Capitani, Sueli Moreira Mello, Rafael Lanaro, Roberta F Barros, Luciane C R Fernandes, José Luiz da Costa, Stephen Hyslop
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of serotonin syndrome (SS) after sibutramine overdose in a child. CASE REPORT: A 4-year-old girl was admitted 25 h after accidentally ingesting approximately 27 pills of sibutramine (15 mg, approximately 23 mg/kg). The child developed clinical features suggestive of SS, including diaphoresis, tachycardia, hypertension, agitation, insomnia, incoordination, hypertonia (lower limbs > upper limbs), and hallucinations. Serum creatine phosphokinase levels reached a peak on day 3 (2,577 U/L, reference value <145), suggesting mild rhabdomyolysis...
July 2009: Clinical Toxicology
R Vohra, F L Cantrell, S R Williams
INTRODUCTION: Rattlesnake envenomation occasionally results in repetitive small-muscle fasciculations known as myokymia. We report the results of a retrospective inquiry of this phenomenon from a statewide poison center's database. METHODS: Data was obtained from a poison system database for the years 2000-2003, inclusive, for rattlesnake envenomation exposures coded as having fasciculations. RESULTS: A total of 47 cases were identified, and nine other cases were found from previously published literature...
February 2008: Clinical Toxicology
P Duverger, G Picherot, G Champion, L Dreno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2006: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Angela J Dean, Brett M McDermott, Robert T Marshall
OBJECTIVE: To identify utilisation rates of prn (pro re nata) sedation in children and adolescents receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment, and to compare correlates of prn prescribing and administration. METHOD: A retrospective chart review examined 122 medical charts from a child and youth mental health inpatient service. RESULTS: 71.3% of patients were prescribed prn sedation and 50.8% were administered prn sedation. Patients received an average of 8...
August 2006: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Y-C P Arai, K Fukunaga, S Hirota
BACKGROUND: Preanesthetic anxiety and emergence agitation are major challenges for anesthesiologists in pediatric anesthesia. Thus, midazolam has been used as premedication for children. However, midazolam alone is not effective for emergence agitation. The present study tested the effect of a combination of midazolam and diazepam on the preanesthetic condition and emergence behavior in children. METHODS: Forty-two children were allocated to one of three groups: the NoPre group received no premedication; the Mi group received midazolam 0...
May 2005: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Arto Puura, Kaija Puura, Michael Rorarius, Päivi Annila, Hanna Viitanen, Gerhard Baer
BACKGROUND: No simple method exists to distinguish children in need for premedication. The present study was planned to detect preoperative anxiety levels of children by rating their drawings. METHODS: Sixty ASA I children aged 4-7 years undergoing adenoidectomy were divided into AGIT and CALM groups according to agitation level observed during venous cannulation. All children drew a picture at three different times: (i) just after arrival in the day-case unit, (ii) 10 min before operation and, (iii) prior to leaving for home...
March 2005: Paediatric Anaesthesia
R Topalović, S Bauman
INTRODUCTION: What causes meningococcial diseases (MD) is a Gramm-negative diplococcus Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus). Most frequently it manifests itself in the form of meningitis and meningococcemia. The mortality rate of those suffering from MD has not significantly changed for three decades and ranges from 7% to 19%, and for meningococcemia from 18% to 53%. According to the data presented by domestic authors, of the total of the diseased with bacterial meningitis 75% are children with mortality rate from 6% to 15%...
July 2000: Medicinski Pregled
W G Mitchell, J A Conry, P K Crumrine, R L Kriel, J J Cereghino, L Groves, W E Rosenfeld
PURPOSE: To assess safety of diazepam rectal gel (DZPRG) for control of acute seizures in epilepsy patients and to evaluate tolerance with repeated use of DZPRG at intervals of > or =5 days. METHODS: Subjects were persons with epilepsy, age 2 years or older, with seizure clusters or prolonged seizures. Onset of a treatable episode was defined; caregivers were trained to administer DZPRG and to monitor respiration, seizures, and adverse effects (AEs). DZPRG was dispensed in a single-use, prefilled syringe; dosage was determined by age and weight...
November 1999: Epilepsia
I Van Herreweghe, K Mertens, V Maes, J Ramet
Orphenadrine is an anticholinergic drug used mainly in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It has a peripheral and central effect and a known cardiotoxic effect when taken in large doses. We report the successful outcome of the treatment of a 2 1/2-year-old girl who accidentally ingested 400 mg of orphenadrine hydrochloride (Disipal). One hour after ingestion she presented neurological symptoms: confusion, ataxic walking, and periods of severe agitation. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures appeared resistant to the administration of multiple antiepileptics...
October 1999: Intensive Care Medicine
B Jensen, U Schröder, U Månsson
The aim of this study was to compare rectal sedation with diazepam and rectal sedation with midazolam with regard to sedative effect, treatment acceptance, and amnesia. Ninety children, 1.5-3.5 years of age, consecutively referred for extractions of traumatized primary incisors were randomly sedated with diazepam (0.7 mg/kg body weight) or midazolam (0.3 mg/kg body weight). The study design was randomized and double-blind. The level of sedation (state of mind) was assessed prior to and 10 and 60 min after administration of the drug by use of a behavioral scale (Wilton)...
August 1999: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
D A Notterman
Physical and emotional distress can have important effects on patients in the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU). Intravenous (IV) infusion of benzodiazepines is an important adjunct to assisted ventilation and other potentially distressing ICU procedures. Combined with intermittent or continuous infusion of opioids, the benzodiazepines provide smooth control of anxiety, pain, and agitation. Intravenous midazolam (Versed Roche Laboratories) is distinguished from diazepam (Valium, Roche Products) by its water solubility, short elimination half-life, and generally short duration of action...
August 1997: Clinical Pediatrics
H A Spiller, S E Gorman, D Villalobos, B E Benson, D R Ruskosky, M M Stancavage, D L Anderson
BACKGROUND: Tramadol is a novel analgesic possessing both opiate and noradrenergic effects. Its low potential for abuse suggests increasing use, but there are limited data on the toxicity in overdose. METHODS: Multicenter prospective case series. All exposures from October 1995 through August 1996 reported to seven Poison Centers were evaluated. RESULTS: There were 126 cases of which 87 were tramadol alone. Of the tramadol alone cases, 51 were female (59%)...
1997: Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology
G J Arthurs, R Davies
Three children received 1000 times the prescribed dose of atropine sulphate and recovered from the main effects of excitatory behaviour and hallucinations in 48 hours. Diazepam was effective in the control of this behaviour. It is suggested that physostigmine should be available where atropine and hyoscine are used or where overdoses are managed.
November 1980: Anaesthesia
M Dochy
Intrarectal administration of a premedication in children eliminates the stress due to intramuscular injection. Diazepam rectal administration induces clearly heavier sedation compared to its parenteral administration. The place of midazolam in this mode of premedication has yet to be determined.
1987: Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica
M Czorny-Rütten, W Büttner, W Finke
In a randomized, double-blind study of premedication in 69 infants aged between 13 and 48 months the effects of 0.82 mg/kg midazolam or diazepam rectally plus 2.0 mg/kg ketamine i.m., or the administration of 2.4 mg/kg ketamine i.m. alone was studied. A satisfying result of 94.1% following the premedication with midazolam/ketamine, of 82.9% with diazepam/ketamine and of 81.3% with ketamine alone was observed. Premedication with midazolam/ketamine was the best one in the review of vigilance, agitation, and behaviour of defence against the mask at the beginning of anaesthesia...
March 1986: Der Anaesthesist
J Urkin, H Shalev, S Sofer, A Witztum
During 1984-1989, 19 Bedouin children, 4-8 years old, were hospitalized because of henbane plant (Hyoscyamus reticulatus) poisoning. There were 14 cases in the autumn, 3 in the spring and 2 in the summer. The most prominent signs were altered state of consciousness (including deep coma in 3) and flushed dry, warm skin in all. Pupils were dilated in 18 of the 19 and restlessness and hallucinations were present in 17. Less common were vomiting, increased tendon reflexes, convulsions, involuntary movements, ataxia, hypertension, hyperpyrexia and tachycardia...
June 16, 1991: Harefuah
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