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Jan Marek Antosiewicz, Kamil Kamiński, Maciej Dlugosz
We investigate the previously postulated hydrodynamic steering phenomenon, resulting from complication of molecular shapes, its magnitude and possible relevance for protein-ligand and protein-protein diffusional encounters, and the kinetics of diffusion-controlled association. We consider effects of hydrodynamic interactions in a prototypical model system consisting of a cleft enzyme and an elongated substrate, and real protein-protein complexes, that of barnase and barstar, and human growth hormone and its binding protein...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Mario Lenza, Rachelle Buchbinder, Margaret P Staples, Oscar F P Dos Santos, Reynaldo A Brandt, Claudio L Lottenberg, Miguel Cendoroglo, Mario Ferretti
BACKGROUND: Second opinions may improve quality of patient care. The primary objective of this study was to determine the concordance between first and second diagnoses and opinions regarding need for spinal surgery among patients with back or neck pain that have been recommended spinal surgery. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study of patients who had been recommended for spinal surgery and received a second opinion between May 2011 and May 2012 at the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein on the advice of their health insurance company...
August 17, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Suzanne M Bleker, Marjolein P A Brekelmans, Elise S Eerenberg, Alexander T Cohen, Saskia Middeldorp, Gary Raskob, Harry R Büller
Factor Xa (fXa)-inhibitors are as effective and safer than vitamin-K-antagonists (VKA) in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We previously classified the severity of clinical presentation and course of all major bleeding events from the EINSTEIN, AMPLIFY and HOKUSAI-VTE trials separately. The current aim was to combine these findings in order to increase precision, assess a class effect and analyse presentation and course for different types of bleeding, i. e. intracranial, gastro-intestinal, and other...
August 17, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Lorena Maldonado-Camargo, Chuncheng Yang, Carlos Rinaldi
It is shown that the rotational diffusivity of nanoparticles in polymer solutions spanning the dilute to semi-dilute regimes deviates from the predictions of the Stokes-Einstein (SE) relationship, and that this deviation can be explained by the existence of a polymer depletion layer with the viscosity of the bath solvent. The measurements of the rotational diffusion coefficient of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafted magnetic nanoparticles in PEG solutions spanning the dilute to semi-dilute regimes and a wide range of polymer molecular weights were obtained from the dynamic magnetic response of the nanoparticles to alternating magnetic fields...
August 10, 2017: Nanoscale
Shao-Peng Pan, Shi-Dong Feng, Jun-Wei Qiao, Xiao-Feng Niu, Wei-Min Wang, Jing-Yu Qin
The breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation (SER) in three model metallic liquids is investigated via molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the breakdown of SER is closely correlated with the clustering behavior of well-packed atoms. When the SER breaks down, many cluster properties have almost the same value in these metallic liquids. At the breakdown temperature of SER, the temperature dependence of the number of clusters begins to deviate from a linear increase and the average number of well-packed atoms in the clusters reaches about 2, which indicates an increase in structure heterogeneity...
August 10, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Dongliang Jin, Benoit Coasne
Different molecular simulation strategies are used to assess the stability of methane hydrate under various temperature and pressure conditions. First, using two water molecular models, free energy calculations consisting of the Einstein molecule approach in combination with semi-grand Monte Carlo simulations are used to determine the pressure--temperature phase diagram of methane hydrate. With these calculations, we also estimate the chemical potentials of water and methane and methane occupancy at coexistence...
August 9, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Paul M Chesler, Abraham Loeb
In the weak-field limit of general relativity, gravitational waves obey linear equations and propagate at the speed of light. These properties of general relativity are supported by the observation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays as well as by LIGO's recent detection of gravitation waves. We argue that two existing relativistic generalizations of modified Newtonian dynamics, namely, the generalized Einstein-aether theory and bimetric modified Newtonian dynamics, display fatal inconsistencies with these observations...
July 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Carolina Vicaria Rodrigues D'Aurea, Bruno Gion de Andrade Cerazi, Antonio Gabriele Laurinavicius, Carolina Castro Porto Silva Janovsky, Raquel Dilguerian de Oliveira Conceição, Raul D Santos, Márcio Sommer Bittencourt
Objective: To investigate the inter-relation between high sensitivity C-reactive protein and glycated hemoglobin in prediction of risk of obstructive sleep apnea. Methods: We included all individuals participating in a check-up program at the Preventive Medicine Center of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein in 2014. The Berlin questionnaire for risk of obstructive sleep apnea was used, and the high sensitivity C-reactive protein and glycated hemoglobin levels were evaluated...
April 2017: Einstein
Z Wojnarowska, M Rams-Baron, J Knapik-Kowalczuk, A Połatyńska, M Pochylski, J Gapinski, A Patkowski, P Wlodarczyk, M Paluch
In this paper the relaxation dynamics of ionic glass-former acebutolol hydrochloride (ACB-HCl) is studied as a function of temperature and pressure by using dynamic light scattering and broadband dielectric spectroscopy. These unique experimental data provide the first direct evidence that the decoupling between the charge transport and structural relaxation exists in proton conductors over a wide T-P thermodynamic space, with the time scale of structural relaxation being constant at the liquid-glass transition (τα = 1000 s)...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Zhenya Yan, Yong Chen
We investigate the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with generalized nonlinearities and complex non-Hermitian potentials and present the novel parity-time-( PT-) symmetric potentials for the NLS equation with power-law nonlinearities supporting some bright solitons. For distinct types of PT-symmetric potentials including Scarf-II, Hermite-Gaussian, and asymptotically periodic potentials, we, respectively, explore the phase transitions for the linear Hamiltonian operators. Moreover, we analytically find stable bright solitons in the generalized NLS equations with several types of PT-symmetric potentials, and their stability is corroborated by the linear stability spectrum and direct wave-propagation simulations...
July 2017: Chaos
Thangarasu Sriraman, Barnali Chakrabarti, Andrea Trombettoni, Paulsamy Muruganandam
Calculation of the Shannon information entropy (S) and its connection with the order-disorder transition and with inter-particle interaction provide a challenging research area in the field of quantum information. Experimental progress with cold trapped atoms has corroborated this interest. In the present work, S is calculated for the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with dominant dipolar interaction for different dipole strengths, trap aspect ratios, and number of particles (N). Trapped dipolar bosons in an anisotropic trap provide an example of a system where the effective interaction is strongly determined by the trap geometry...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Tobias Damm, David Dung, Frank Vewinger, Martin Weitz, Julian Schmitt
Phase transitions between different states of matter can profoundly modify the order in physical systems, with the emergence of ferromagnetic or topological order constituting important examples. Correlations allow the quantification of the degree of order and the classification of different phases. Here we report measurements of first-order spatial correlations in a harmonically trapped two-dimensional photon gas below, at and above the critical particle number for Bose-Einstein condensation, using interferometric measurements of the emission of a dye-filled optical microcavity...
July 31, 2017: Nature Communications
S Kiesewetter, R Y Teh, P D Drummond, M D Reid
A strategy for generating entanglement between two separated optomechanical oscillators is analyzed, using entangled radiation produced from down-conversion and stored in an initiating cavity. We show that the use of pulsed entanglement with optimally shaped temporal modes can efficiently transfer quantum entanglement into a mechanical mode, then remove it after a fixed waiting time for measurement. This protocol could provide new avenues for testing for bounds on decoherence in massive systems that are spatially separated, as originally suggested by Furry not long after the discussion by Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen and Schrödinger of entanglement...
July 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Xiaoze Liu, Wei Bao, Quanwei Li, Chad Ropp, Yuan Wang, Xiang Zhang
Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) with confined 2D Wannier-Mott excitons are intriguing for the fundamental study of strong light-matter interactions and the exploration of exciton polaritons at high temperatures. However, the research of 2D exciton polaritons has been hindered because the polaritons in these atomically thin semiconductors discovered so far can hardly support strong nonlinear interactions and quantum coherence due to uncontrollable polariton dynamics and weakened coherent coupling...
July 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Michele Dall'Arno, Sarah Brandsen, Alessandro Tosini, Francesco Buscemi, Vlatko Vedral
A paramount topic in quantum foundations, rooted in the study of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox and Bell inequalities, is that of characterizing quantum theory in terms of the spacelike correlations it allows. Here, we show that to focus only on spacelike correlations is not enough: we explicitly construct a toy model theory that, while not contradicting classical and quantum theories at the level of spacelike correlations, still displays an anomalous behavior in its timelike correlations. We call this anomaly, quantified in terms of a specific communication game, the "hypersignaling" phenomena...
July 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Ana C Bohórquez, Chuncheng Yang, Donald Bejleri, Carlos Rinaldi
The rotational diffusion of polyethylene glycol coated magnetic nanoparticles in serum albumin solutions was investigated in a range spanning 0mgmL(-1) to 200mgmL(-1). Rotational diffusivities were determined from dynamic magnetic susceptibility measurements, which provide a non-optical means to probe rotation of nanoparticles in small volume samples. Experimental rotational diffusivities were compared to those estimated using the Stokes-Einstein relation and macroscopic measurements of the viscosity of the protein solutions...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
David J Einstein, David F McDermott
Targeted and immune-based therapies have improved outcomes in advanced kidney cancer, yet novel strategies are needed to extend the duration of these benefits and expand them to more patients. Combined inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the programmed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathways with therapeutic agents already in clinical use may offer such a strategy. Here, we describe the development and clinical evaluation of VEGF inhibitors and, separately, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors...
June 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
Larry Vandervert
BACKGROUND: Mathematicians and scientists have struggled to adequately describe the ultimate foundations of mathematics. Nobel laureates Albert Einstein and Eugene Wigner were perplexed by this issue, with Wigner concluding that the workability of mathematics in the real world is a mystery we cannot explain. In response to this classic enigma, the major purpose of this article is to provide a theoretical model of the ultimate origin of mathematics and "number sense" (as defined by S. Dehaene) that is proposed to involve the learning of inverse dynamics models through the collaboration of the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex (but prominently cerebellum-driven)...
2017: Cerebellum & Ataxias
Azam Afandak, Hossein Eslami
Molecular dynamics simulations are performed on ionic liquid (IL) 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate. The calculated densities, diffusion coefficients, and electrical conductivities are in very good agreement with the experiment. While the Nernst-Einstein equation largely overestimates the electrical conductivities compared to experiment, its correction for the joint translation of counterions substantially improves its accuracy. Taking into account the role of correlated motions of ions, expressed in terms of the collective mean-squared-displacement, predicts electrical conductivities in close agreement with the experiment...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Shifali Dumeer, Andrew J Einstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
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