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M R Madhav, S Einstein Mariya David, R S Suresh Kumar, J S Swathy, M Bhuvaneshwari, Amitava Mukherjee, N Chandrasekaran
Metal nanoparticles production rate and its applications have raised concerns about their release and toxicity to the aquatic and terrestrial organisms. The primary size of Copper Oxide nanoparticles (CuO NP's) was found to be 114±36nm using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and a significant increase in the hydrodynamic diameter of CuO NP was seen within 1h of interaction. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values obtained from the acute toxicity studies on different life stages of Artemia salina was found to be 61...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Maurizio Dondi, Thomas Pascual, Diana Paez, Andrew J Einstein
The field of nuclear cardiology has changed considerably over recent years, with greater attention paid to safety and radiation protection issues. The wider usage of technetium-99m (Tc-99m)-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging using gamma cameras has contributed to better quality studies and lower radiation exposure to patients. Increased availability of tracers and scanners for positron emission tomography (PET) will help further improve the quality of studies and quantify myocardial blood flow and myocardial flow reserve, thus enhancing the contribution of non-invasive imaging to the management of coronary artery disease...
April 25, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
Shahar Rinott, K B Chashka, Amit Ribak, Emile D L Rienks, Amina Taleb-Ibrahimi, Patrick Le Fevre, François Bertran, Mohit Randeria, Amit Kanigel
The crossover from Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductivity to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is difficult to realize in quantum materials because, unlike in ultracold atoms, one cannot tune the pairing interaction. We realize the BCS-BEC crossover in a nearly compensated semimetal, Fe1+y Se x Te1-x , by tuning the Fermi energy εF via chemical doping, which permits us to systematically change Δ/εF from 0.16 to 0.50, where Δ is the superconducting (SC) gap. We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to measure the Fermi energy, the SC gap, and characteristic changes in the SC state electronic dispersion as the system evolves from a BCS to a BEC regime...
April 2017: Science Advances
Michael C Einstein, Pierre-Olivier Polack, Duy T Tran, Peyman Golshani
Low frequency membrane potential (Vm) oscillations were once thought to only occur in sleeping and anesthetized states. Recently, low frequency Vm oscillations have been described in inactive awake animals, but it is unclear if they shape sensory processing in neurons and whether they occur during active awake behavioral states. To answer these questions, we performed two-photon guided whole-cell Vm recordings from primary visual cortex layer 2/3 excitatory and inhibitory neurons in awake mice during passive visual stimulation and performance of visual and auditory discrimination tasks...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Erkan Senses, Siyam M Ansar, Christopher L Kitchens, Yimin Mao, Suresh Narayanan, Bharath Natarajan, Antonio Faraone
Using neutron spin-echo spectroscopy, x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, and bulk rheology, we studied the effect of particle size on the single-chain dynamics, particle mobility, and bulk viscosity in athermal polyethylene oxide-gold nanoparticle composites. The results reveal a ≈25% increase in the reptation tube diameter with the addition of nanoparticles smaller than the entanglement mesh size (≈5  nm), at a volume fraction of 20%. The tube diameter remains unchanged in the composite with larger (20 nm) nanoparticles at the same loading...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Yongbao Sun, Patrick Wen, Yoseob Yoon, Gangqiang Liu, Mark Steger, Loren N Pfeiffer, Ken West, David W Snoke, Keith A Nelson
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.016602.
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Ya Xiao, Xiang-Jun Ye, Kai Sun, Jin-Shi Xu, Chuan-Feng Li, Guang-Can Guo
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering describes the ability of one party to remotely affect another's state through local measurements. One of the most distinguishable properties of EPR steering is its asymmetric aspect. Steering can work in one direction but fail in the opposite direction. This type of one-way steering, which is different from the symmetry concepts of entanglement and Bell nonlocality, has garnered much interest. However, an experimental demonstration of genuine one-way EPR steering in the simplest scenario, i...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Sandro Stringari
By developing the hydrodynamic theory of spinor superfluids, we calculate the moment of inertia of a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate with spin-orbit coupling. We show that the velocity field associated with the rotation of the fluid exhibits diffused vorticity, in contrast to the irrotational behavior characterizing a superfluid. Both Raman-induced and Rashba spin-orbit couplings are considered. In the first case the moment of inertia takes the rigid value at the transition between the plane wave and the single minimum phase, while in the latter case the rigid value is achieved in the limit of isotropic Rashba coupling...
April 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Wenlong Wang, P G Kevrekidis
In the present work, we revisit two-component Bose-Einstein condensates in their fully three-dimensional (3D) form. Motivated by earlier studies of dark-bright solitons in the 1D case, we explore the stability of these structures in their fully 3D form in two variants. In one the dark soliton is planar and trapping a planar bright (disk) soliton. In the other case, a dark spherical shell soliton creates an effective potential in which a bright spherical shell of atoms is trapped in the second component. We identify these solutions as numerically exact states (up to a prescribed accuracy) and perform a Bogolyubov-de Gennes linearization analysis that illustrates that both structures can be dynamically stable in suitable intervals of sufficiently low chemical potentials...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
Anxo F Biasi, Javier Mas, Angel Paredes
We numerically investigate spherically symmetric collapses in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with attractive nonlinearity in a harmonic potential. Even below threshold for direct collapse, the wave function bounces off from the origin and may eventually become singular after a number of oscillations in the trapping potential. This is reminiscent of the evolution of Einstein gravity sourced by a scalar field in anti de Sitter space where collapse corresponds to black-hole formation. We carefully examine the long time evolution of the wave function for continuous families of initial states in order to sharpen out this qualitative coincidence which may bring new insights in both directions...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
Zhaopin Chen, Boris A Malomed
We introduce a two-component one-dimensional system, which is based on two nonlinear Schrödinger or Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPEs) with spatially periodic modulation of linear coupling ("Rabi lattice") and self-repulsive nonlinearity. The system may be realized in a binary Bose-Einstein condensate, whose components are resonantly coupled by a standing optical wave, as well as in terms of the bimodal light propagation in periodically twisted waveguides. The system supports various types of gap solitons (GSs), which are constructed, and their stability is investigated, in the first two finite bandgaps of the underlying spectrum...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
Zhiwei Fan, Yuhan Shi, Yan Liu, Wei Pang, Yongyao Li, Boris A Malomed
We consider a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in an array of two-well systems with an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles relative to the system's axis. The system can be built as a chain of local traps sliced into two parallel lattices by a repelling laser sheet. It is modeled by a pair of coupled discrete Gross-Pitaevskii equations, with dipole-dipole self-interactions and cross interactions. When the dipoles are not polarized perpendicular or parallel to the lattice, the cross interaction is asymmetric, replacing the familiar symmetric two-component discrete solitons by two new species of cross-symmetric ones, viz...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
Seok-Yeong Chä, Uwe R Fischer
We consider an analogue de Sitter cosmos in an expanding quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate with dominant dipole-dipole interactions between the atoms or molecules in the ultracold gas. It is demonstrated that a hallmark signature of inflationary cosmology, the scale invariance of the power spectrum of inflaton field correlations, experiences strong modifications when, at the initial stage of expansion, the excitation spectrum displays a roton minimum. Dipolar quantum gases thus furnish a viable laboratory tool to experimentally investigate, with well-defined and controllable initial conditions, whether primordial oscillation spectra deviating from Lorentz invariance at trans-Planckian momenta violate standard predictions of inflationary cosmology...
March 31, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Ali Ezzati, Cuiling Wang, Richard B Lipton, Dorothea Altschul, Mindy J Katz, Dennis W Dickson, Carol A Derby
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between vascular pathology and rate of cognitive decline in older adults independent of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Community sample. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals from the Einstein Aging Study autopsy series (N = 62). MEASUREMENTS: The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration (BIMC) test was used to assess global cognitive status...
April 13, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Ivo M B Francischetti, James Szymanski, Daniel Rodriguez, Moonseong Heo, Lucia R Wolgast
PURPOSE: Survival of patients on ECMO has remained stable in every population. Laboratory values predictors of survival are required to improve patient care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical Looking Glass software was used to assess Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) of patients at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center (2007-2014). RESULTS: Our population comprises of 166 adults and was divided in survivors and non-survivors, within 30days...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
Raffaele Pesavento, Ido Iori
BACKGROUND: Rivaroxaban is a direct and selective inhibitor of factor Xa. The randomized clinical trials EINSTEIN evaluated the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) proving that the drug was non-inferior to standard treatment. The aim of this survey was to describe how rivaroxaban was used in a group of "real-life" patients with VTE. METHODS: Between June and October 2014, physicians collected aggregate data, through an online questionnaire, on consecutive patients affected by VTE and treated with rivaroxaban in the previous 6 months...
March 2017: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
Thomas Rüther, Mitsuhiro Kanakubo, Adam S Best, Kenneth R Harris
Transport properties are examined in some detail for samples of the low temperature molten salt N-propyl-N-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide [Pyr13][FSI] from two different commercial suppliers. A similar set of data is presented for two different concentrations of binary lithium-[Pyr13][FSI] salt mixtures from one supplier. A new and significantly different production process is used for the synthesis of Li[FSI] as well as the [Pyr13](+) salt used in the mixtures. Results for the viscosity, conductivity, and self-diffusion coefficients, together with the density and expansivity and apparent molar volume, are reported over the temperature range of (0 to 80) °C...
April 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Edward Zorębski, Michał Zorębski, Marzena Dzida, Piotr Lodowski, Katarzyna Kowalska-Szojda, Sirojiddin Z Mirzaev, Udo Kaatze
At 20, 25, 30, and 40 °C, the ultrasonic absorption spectra of the protic ionic liquid 3-(butoxymethyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium salicylate have been measured between 0.6 and 900 MHz. Below 250 MHz, the absorption coefficient decreases with temperature, potentially indicating a major effect of the viscosity and/or a relaxation time. Essentially the broad spectra can be favorably represented by two relaxation terms in addition to an asymptotic high-frequency contribution. One term reflects an asymmetric relaxation time distribution...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Magnus O Borgh, Janne Ruostekoski
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.275302.
March 24, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Molly Bridget Delaney
PROBLEM: Albert Einstein defines insanity as doing the same thing over again but expecting different results. Although the United States claims to reduce antibiotic abuse, practice strict isolation, and clean meticulously, the burden of Clostridium difficile outpaces goals. Unless innovative approaches are tried, we risk culling elderly, immunosuppressed, and otherwise debilitated populations. Emergency departments are a primary access point for patients who are unable to wait for primary care...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
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