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Aaron Sidney Wright
This article is about structural realism, historical continuity, laws of nature, and ceteris paribus clauses. Fresnel's Laws of optics support Structural Realism because they are a scientific structure that has survived theory change. However, the history of Fresnel's Laws which has been depicted in debates over realism since the 1980s is badly distorted. Specifically, claims that J. C. Maxwell or his followers believed in an ontologically-subsistent electromagnetic field, and gave up the aether, before Einstein's annus mirabilis in 1905 are indefensible...
August 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
Jin-Lei Wu, Xin Ji, Shou Zhang
We construct a shortcut to an adiabatic passage in a three-level system by choosing a dressed state acting as an evolutive path. Two designed auxiliary pulses are added into the original pulses to eliminate the couplings between the chosen evolutive-path state and the other two dressed states. The same target state as one gotten by adiabatic passage can be rapidly obtained, and the population of the lossy intermediate state can be controlled by setting proper parameters. Furthermore, as an example, we use this method in the adiabatic-passage scheme [Opt...
September 4, 2017: Optics Express
Rafi Weill, Alexander Bekker, Boris Levit, Michael Zhurahov, Baruch Fischer
We demonstrate thermalization and Bose-Einstein (BE) distribution of photons in standard erbium-doped fibers (edf) in a broad spectral range up to ~200nm at the 1550nm wavelength regime. Our measurements were done at a room temperature ~300K and 77K. It is a special demonstration of thermalization of photons in fiber cavities and even in open fibers. They are one-dimensional (1D), meters-long, with low finesse, high loss and small capture fraction of the spontaneous emission. Moreover, we find in the edf cavities coexistence of thermal-equilibrium (TE) and thermal lasing without an overall inversion (T-LWI)...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
Ofira Einstein, Nina Fainstein, Olga Touloumi, Roza Lagoudaki, Ester Hanya, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Abram Katz, Tamir Ben-Hur
BACKGROUND: Conflicting results exist on the effects of exercise training (ET) on Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE), nor is it known how exercise impacts on disease progression. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether ET ameliorates the development of EAE by modulating the systemic immune system or exerting direct neuroprotective effects on the CNS. METHODS: Healthy mice were subjected to 6weeks of motorized treadmill running. The Proteolipid protein (PLP)-induced transfer EAE model in mice was utilized...
October 11, 2017: Experimental Neurology
T D Xu, X D Wang, H Zhang, Q P Cao, D X Zhang, J Z Jiang
The composition and temperature dependence of static and dynamic structures in NixNb1-x (x = 50-70 at. %) were systematically studied using molecular dynamics with a new-released semi-empirical embedded atom method potential by Mendelev. The calculated pair correlation functions and the structure factor match well with the experimental data, demonstrating the reliability of the potential within relatively wide composition and temperature ranges. The local atomic structures were then characterized by bond angle distributions and Voronoi tessellation methods, demonstrating that the icosahedral ⟨0,0,12,0⟩ is only a small fraction in the liquid state but increases significantly during cooling and becomes dominant at 300 K...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Mario E Flores, Toshimichi Shibue, Natsuhiko Sugimura, Hiroyuki Nishide, Ignacio Moreno-Villoslada
Upon titration of n-hexanol / cyclohexane mixtures of different molar compositions with water, water / n-hexanol clusters are formed in cyclohexane. Here, we develop a new method to estimate the water and n-hexanol aggregation numbers in the clusters that combines integration analysis in 1D 1H-NMR spectra, diffusion coefficients calculated by diffusion ordered NM R spectroscopy, and further application of the Stokes-Einstein equation to calculate the hydrodynamic volume of the clusters. Aggregation numbers of 5 - 15 molecules of n-hexanol / cluster in the absence of water were observed in the whole range of n-hexanol / cyclohexane molar fractions studied...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Allaman Allamani, Franca Beccaria, S Einstein
Providing one set of policy measures for all countries as if they were a single, homogeneous entity does not appear to be evidence-based, according to recent research on the effectiveness of alcoholic beverage control policies. Contextual and cultural determinants-social, economic, demographic, cultural and political-appear to be major factors of influencing change in drinking trends, drinking patterns and drinking-related harms. The variable interplay between contextual determinants and alcohol control policy measures implies diverse impacts on consumption and harm according to time, and to the different countries and groups of countries...
August 9, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Anthony J Marsella
Presents an obituary for Martin M. Katz, who passed away on January 12, 2017 in Rockville, Maryland. Katz was the director of clinical research at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH; 1968-1978). Following Katz's retirement from his administration and scientific career at NIMH, he served as professor and director of clinical psychology training at Albert Einstein College of Medicine Medical College in New York (1984-1994). Until his final days, Katz served as a participating and consulting scientist in the longitudinal collaborative research projects he and colleagues initiated to investigate psychopharmacological treatments for depression...
October 2017: American Psychologist
Pavel Afanasyev, Charlotte Seer-Linnemayr, Raimond B G Ravelli, Rishi Matadeen, Sacha De Carlo, Bart Alewijnse, Rodrigo V Portugal, Navraj S Pannu, Michael Schatz, Marin van Heel
Single-particle cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) can now yield near-atomic resolution structures of biological complexes. However, the reference-based alignment algorithms commonly used in cryo-EM suffer from reference bias, limiting their applicability (also known as the 'Einstein from random noise' problem). Low-dose cryo-EM therefore requires robust and objective approaches to reveal the structural information contained in the extremely noisy data, especially when dealing with small structures. A reference-free pipeline is presented for obtaining near-atomic resolution three-dimensional reconstructions from heterogeneous ('four-dimensional') cryo-EM data sets...
September 1, 2017: IUCrJ
Mahek Shah, Soumya Patnaik, Brijesh Patel, Shilpkumar Arora, Nilay Patel, Sopan Lahewala, Vincent M Figueredo, Matthew W Martinez, Larry Jacobs
BACKGROUND: In-hospital care may be constrained during the weekend due to lesser resources. Impact on outcomes of weekend versus weekday care in congestive heart failure (HF) needs further study. METHODS: Admissions with a primary diagnosis of HF using ICD-9CM codes were studied. 22,287 HF-admissions from Einstein Medical Center (2003-2013) and 2,248,482 HF-admissions from the 2002-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) were analyzed separately. Primary outcomes were 30-day HF-readmission and in-hospital mortality...
September 29, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
V V Novikov, K S Pilipenko, A V Matovnikov, N V Mitroshenkov, B I Kornev, M S Likhanov, A S Tyablikov, A V Shevelkov
The temperature dependencies of heat capacity, CP(T), and cubic unit cell parameter, a(T), were experimentally obtained in the range of 2-300 K for the compounds Sn24P19.2I8, Sn20Zn4P20.8I8, and Sn17Zn7P22I8, which belong to a family of type-I clathrates. The experimental data were analyzed in the frames of the Debye-Einstein approximation, further accounting for the contributions of positional disorder in the clathrate frameworks as well as those of defect modes arising from the distribution of guest atoms over unequal in energy but close in space positions inside the framework cages...
October 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Philip Mocz, Mark Vogelsberger, Victor H Robles, Jesús Zavala, Michael Boylan-Kolchin, Anastasia Fialkov, Lars Hernquist
We present a theoretical analysis of some unexplored aspects of relaxed Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter (BECDM) haloes. This type of ultralight bosonic scalar field dark matter is a viable alternative to the standard cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm, as it makes the same large-scale predictions as CDM and potentially overcomes CDM's small-scale problems via a galaxy-scale de Broglie wavelength. We simulate BECDM halo formation through mergers, evolved under the Schrödinger-Poisson equations. The formed haloes consist of a soliton core supported against gravitational collapse by the quantum pressure tensor and an asymptotic r(-3) NFW-like profile...
November 2017: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
L Braglia, E Borfecchia, A Martini, A L Bugaev, A V Soldatov, S Øien-Ødegaard, B T Lønstad-Bleken, U Olsbye, K P Lillerud, K A Lomachenko, G Agostini, M Manzoli, C Lamberti
An X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the UiO-67 Pt functionalized metal organic frameworks (MOFs) demonstrates that under appropriate conditions, at least two types of catalytically active sites can be formed in the cavities of the MOF: isolated Pt-complexes and Pt nanoparticles (Pt-NPs). Both pre-made linker synthesis (PMLS) and post-synthesis functionalization (PSF) methods were adopted. XAS was used to monitor the temperature-dependent behaviour of UiO-67-Pt while heating from RT to 623 K, in different gas feeds (pure He, 3% H2/He and 10% H2/He)...
October 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Eve C Feinberg
Life is like riding a bicycle, to keep your balance you must keep moving. -Albert Einstein.
September 30, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
Marian Kupczynski
Recent experiments allow one to conclude that Bell-type inequalities are indeed violated; thus, it is important to understand what this means and how we can explain the existence of strong correlations between outcomes of distant measurements. Do we have to announce that Einstein was wrong, Nature is non-local and non-local correlations are produced due to quantum magic and emerge, somehow, from outside space-time? Fortunately, such conclusions are unfounded because, if supplementary parameters describing measuring instruments are correctly incorporated in a theoretical model, then Bell-type inequalities may not be proved...
November 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
F Lique, J Kłos, S D Le Picard
Atomic sulfur and silicon are important constituents of the interstellar matter and are both used as tracers of the physical conditions in interstellar shocks and outflows. We present an investigation of the spin-orbit (de-)excitation of S((3)P) and Si((3)P) atoms induced by collisions with helium with the aim to improve the determination of atomic sulfur and silicon abundances in the interstellar medium from S and Si emission spectra. Quantum-mechanical calculations have been performed in order to determine rate coefficients for the fine-structure transitions in the 5-1000 K temperature range...
October 2, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yoonjae Park, Jeongmin Kim, Bong June Sung
Particles in glass-forming liquids may form domains of locally favorable structures (LFSs) upon supercooling. Whether and how the LFS domains would relate to the slow relaxation of the glass-forming liquids have been issues of interest. In this study, we employ tracers of which structures resemble the LFS domains in Wahnström and Kob-Andersen (KA) glass-forming liquids and investigate the translation-rotation decoupling of the tracers. We find that the tracer structure affects how the translation and the rotation of tracers decouple and that information on the local mobility around the LFS domains may be gleaned from the tracer dynamics...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Dmitry A Fedorov, Dustin K Barnes, Sergey A Varganov
We investigate the lifetimes of vibrational states of diatomic alkali-alkaline-earth cations to determine their suitability for ultracold experiments where long decoherence time and controllability by an external electric field are desirable. The potential energy and permanent dipole moment curves for the ground electronic states of LiBe(+), LiMg(+), NaBe(+), and NaMg(+) are obtained using the coupled cluster with singles doubles and triples and multireference configuration interaction methods in combination with large all-electron cc-pCVQZ and aug-cc-pCV5Z basis sets...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Jinxia Feng, Zhenju Wan, Yuanji Li, Kuanshou Zhang
The distribution of continuous variable (CV) Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-entangled beams at a telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm over single-mode fibers is investigated. EPR-entangled beams with quantum entanglement of 8.3 dB are generated using a single nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier based on a type-II periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal. When one beam of the generated EPR-entangled beams is distributed over 20 km of single-mode fiber, 1.02 dB quantum entanglement can still be measured. The degradation of CV quantum entanglement in a noisy fiber channel is theoretically analyzed considering the effect of depolarized guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering in optical fibers...
September 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Ayodele O Kolawole
The interaction of acetaminophen, a non-substrate anionic ligand, with Aldehyde Dehydrogenase was studied by fluorescence, UV-Vis absorption, and circular dichroism spectroscopies under simulated physiological conditions. The fluorescence spectra and data generated showed that acetaminophen binding to ALDH is purely dynamic quenching mechanism. The acetaminophen-ALDH is kinetically rapid reversible interaction with a binding constant, Ka, of 4.91×10(3) L mol(-1). There was an existence of second binding site of ALDH for acetaminophen at saturating acetaminophen concentration...
July 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
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