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Jia-Bin You, Wanli Yang
The thermodynamic quantities which are related to energy-level statistics are used to characterize the real-space topology of the Rice-Mele model. Through studying the energy spectrum of the model under different boundary conditions, we found that the non-normalizable wave function for the infinite domain is reduced to the edge state adhered to the boundary. For the finite domain with symmetric boundary condition, the critical point for the topological phase transition is equal to the inverse of the domain length...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Brian S Peters, Priscila R Armijo, Crystal Krause, Songita A Choudhury, Dmitry Oleynikov
BACKGROUND: The use of laparoscopic and robotic procedures has increased in general surgery. Minimally invasive robotic surgery has made tremendous progress in a relatively short period of time, realizing improvements for both the patient and surgeon. This has led to an increase in the use and development of robotic devices and platforms for general surgery. The purpose of this review is to explore current and emerging surgical robotic technologies in a growing and dynamic environment of research and development...
February 13, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Wenzhu B Mowrey, Richard B Lipton, Mindy J Katz, Wendy S Ramratan, David A Loewenstein, Molly E Zimmerman, Herman Buschke
BACKGROUND: The Memory Binding Test (MBT) demonstrated good cross-sectional discriminative validity and predicted incident aMCI. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the MBT predicts incident dementia better than a conventional list learning test in a longitudinal community-based study. METHODS: As a sub-study in the Einstein Aging Study, 309 participants age≥70 initially free of dementia were administered the MBT and followed annually for incident dementia for up to 13 years...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Subhradeep Misra, Michael Stern, Arjun Joshua, Vladimir Umansky, Israel Bar-Joseph
We study the exciton gas-liquid transition in GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum wells. Below a critical temperature, T_{C}=4.8  K, and above a threshold laser power density the system undergoes a phase transition into a liquid state. We determine the density-temperature phase diagram over the temperature range 0.1-4.8 K. We find that the latent heat increases linearly with temperature at T≲1.1  K, similarly to a Bose-Einstein condensate transition, and becomes constant at 1.1≲T<4.8  K. Resonant Rayleigh scattering measurements reveal that the disorder in the sample is strongly suppressed and the diffusion coefficient sharply increases with decreasing temperature at T<T_{C}, allowing the liquid to spread over large distances away from the excitation region...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Henry J Hesten, Robert A Nyman, Florian Mintert
We investigate the steady state of a system of photons in a pumped dye-filled microcavity. By varying pump and thermalization the system can be tuned between Bose-Einstein condensation, multimode condensation, and lasing. We present a rich nonequilibrium phase diagram which exhibits transitions between these phases, including decondensation of individual modes under conditions that would typically favor condensation.
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Wen-Rong Sun, Lei Wang
To show the existence and properties of matter rogue waves in an F=1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), we work on the three-component Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations. Via the Darboux-dressing transformation, we obtain a family of rational solutions describing the extreme events, i.e. rogue waves. This family of solutions includes bright-dark-bright and bright-bright-bright rogue waves. The algebraic construction depends on Lax matrices and their Jordan form. The conditions for the existence of rogue wave solutions in an F=1 spinor BEC are discussed...
January 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Enchi Liu, Dai Wang, Reisa Sperling, Stephen Salloway, Nick C Fox, Kaj Blennow, Philip Scheltens, Mark E Schmidt, Johannes Streffer, Gerald Novak, Steve Einstein, Kevin Booth, Nzeera Ketter, H Robert Brashear
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether amyloid-related imaging abnormalities with edema/effusion (ARIA-E) observed in bapineuzumab clinical trials was associated with specific biomarker patterns. METHODS: Bapineuzumab, an anti-β-amyloid monoclonal antibody, was evaluated in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. Amyloid PET imaging, CSF biomarkers, or volumetric MRI (vMRI) were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 1,512 participants underwent one or more biomarker assessments; 154 developed incident ARIA-E...
February 2, 2018: Neurology
Matthew R Ponte, Alexander D Hudson, Kalaichelvi Saravanamuttu
Many of the extraordinary three-dimensional architectures that pattern our physical world emerge from complex nonlinear systems or dynamic populations whose individual constituents are only weakly correlated to each other. Shoals of fish, murmuration behaviours in birds, congestion patterns in traffic and even networks of social conventions are examples of spontaneous pattern formation, which cannot be predicted from the properties of individual elements alone. Pattern formation at a different scale has been observed or predicted in weakly correlated systems including superconductors, atomic gases near Bose Einstein condensation and incoherent optical fields...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Bruce A Kowert
The translational diffusion constants, D, of benzene and a series of alkylbenzenes have been determined in n-pentadecane, 2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane (pristane), 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (isocetane), and 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyltetracosane (squalane) using capillary flow techniques. The solutes' D values are compared with the predictions of a cylinder diffusion model as are those for (a) benzene and alkylbenzenes in n-nonane, n-decane, n-dodecane, and supercritical CO2 and (b) n-alkanes and 1-alkenes in n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, benzene, and toluene...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Anne Strate, Viviane Overbeck, Viktoria Lehde, Jan Neumann, Anne-Marie Bonsa, Thomas Niemann, Dietmar Paschek, Dirk Michalik, Ralf Ludwig
Ion pairing is one of the most fundamental atomic interactions in chemistry and biology. In contrast, pairing between like-charged ions remains an elusive concept. So far, this phenomenon was observed only for large-scaled structures, assemblies, stabilizing frameworks, or in aqueous solution wherein like-charge attraction is supported by mediating water molecules. Recently, we reported the formation of cationic clusters in pure ionic liquids (ILs) which all include hydroxyl groups (OH) for possible hydrogen bonding...
February 7, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yuefei Ji, Yan Yang, Lei Zhou, Lu Wang, Junhe Lu, Corinne Ferronato, Jean-Marc Chovelon
The widespread occurrence of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in natural waters has raised great concerns about their potential risks on human health and ecological systems. This study systematically investigates the degradation of sulfasalazine (SSZ) and its two human metabolites, sulfapyridine (SPD) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), by UV and UV/peroxydisulfate (UV/PDS) processes. Experimental results show that SPD and 5-ASA were readily degraded upon UV 254 nm direct photolysis, with quantum yields measured to be (8...
January 31, 2018: Water Research
Craig I Coleman, Alexander G G Turpie, Thomas J Bunz, William L Baker, Jan Beyer-Westendorf
INTRODUCTION: Screening for primary hypercoagulable states (PHSs) in venous thromboembolism (VTE) patients was not mandated in the EINSTEIN trials; and therefore, few patients with a known PHS were available for analysis. We sought to assess the effectiveness and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin for treatment of VTE in patients with a known PHS. METHODS: Using MarketScan claims data from 1/2012-9/2015, we identified adults with a primary diagnosis of VTE during a hospitalization/emergency department visit (the index event), with ≥180-days of continuous insurance coverage prior to the index event, a documented diagnosis for a PHS and newly-initiated as an outpatient on rivaroxaban or warfarin within 30-days of the index VTE...
January 31, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Sukanta Bose, Kabir Chakravarti, Luciano Rezzolla, B S Sathyaprakash, Kentaro Takami
We show how gravitational-wave observations with advanced detectors of tens to several tens of neutron-star binaries can measure the neutron-star radius with an accuracy of several to a few percent, for mass and spatial distributions that are realistic, and with none of the sources located within 100 Mpc. We achieve such an accuracy by combining measurements of the total mass from the inspiral phase with those of the compactness from the postmerger oscillation frequencies. For estimating the measurement errors of these frequencies, we utilize analytical fits to postmerger numerical relativity waveforms in the time domain, obtained here for the first time, for four nuclear-physics equations of state and a couple of values for the mass...
January 19, 2018: Physical Review Letters
S S Gavrilov
The system of cavity polaritons driven by a plane electromagnetic wave is found to undergo the spontaneous breaking of spatial symmetry, which results in a lifted phase locking with respect to the driving field and, consequently, in the possibility of internal ordering. In particular, periodic spin and intensity patterns arise in polariton wires; they exhibit strong long-range order and can serve as media for signal transmission. Such patterns have the properties of dynamical chimeras: they are formed spontaneously in perfectly homogeneous media and can be partially chaotic...
January 19, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Qiang Zeng, Bo Wang, Pengyun Li, Xiangdong Zhang
Steering nonlocality is the fundamental property of quantum mechanics, which has been widely demonstrated in some systems with qubits. Recently, theoretical works have shown that the high-dimensional (HD) steering effect exhibits novel and important features, such as noise suppression, which appear promising for potential application in quantum information processing (QIP). However, experimental observation of these HD properties remains a great challenge to date. In this work, we demonstrate the HD steering effect by encoding with orbital angular momentum photons for the first time...
January 19, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Bartłomiej Czech
A recent proposal equates the circuit complexity of a quantum gravity state with the gravitational action of a certain patch of spacetime. Since Einstein's equations follow from varying the action, it should be possible to derive them by varying complexity. I present such a derivation for vacuum solutions of pure Einstein gravity in three-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. The argument relies on known facts about holography and on properties of tensor network renormalization, an algorithm for coarse-graining (and optimizing) tensor networks...
January 19, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Michelle Skop, Justin Lorentz, Mobin Jassi, Danny Vesprini, Gillian Einstein
Men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations are at increased risk of developing breast cancer and may have an indication for breast cancer screening using mammography. Since breast cancer is often viewed as a woman's disease, visibilizing and understanding men's experience of having a BRCA mutation and specifically, of screening for breast cancer through mammography, were the objectives of this research study. The theoretical framework of interpretive phenomenology guided the process of data collection, coding, and analysis...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Che-Yu Chen, Mariam Bouhmadi-López, Pisin Chen
The vacuum, static, and spherically symmetric solutions in the mimetic Born-Infeld gravity are studied. The mimetic Born-Infeld gravity is a reformulation of the Eddington-inspired-Born-Infeld (EiBI) model under the mimetic approach. Due to the mimetic field, the theory contains non-trivial vacuum solutions different from those in Einstein gravity. We find that with the existence of the mimetic field, the spacelike singularity inside a Schwarzschild black hole could be altered to a lightlike singularity, even though the curvature invariants still diverge at the singularity...
2018: European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields
Arturo Tozzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2018: Physics of Life Reviews
Fardin Khabaz, Yong Zhang, Lianjie Xue, Edward L Quitevis, Edward J Maginn, Rajesh Khare
Atomistically detailed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to investigate the temperature dependence of the specific volume, dynamic properties, and the viscosity of linear alkyl chain ([CnC1Im][NTf2], n = 3-7) and branched alkyl chain ([(n-2)mCn-1C1Im][NTf2]) ionic liquids (ILs). The density and the coefficient of volume thermal expansion of ILs determined from simulations were in remarkable agreement with the experimental data. The trend of glass transition temperature (Tg) values obtained in the simulations as a function of the alkyl chain length of cations was similar to the trend seen in experiments...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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