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E Compagno, G De Chiara, D G Angelakis, G M Palma
A toolbox for the quantum simulation of polarons in ultracold atoms is presented. Motivated by the impressive experimental advances in the area of ultracold atomic mixtures, we theoretically study the problem of ultracold atomic impurities immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate mixture (BEC). The coupling between impurity and BEC gives rise to the formation of polarons whose mutual interaction can be effectively tuned using an external laser driving a quasi-resonant Raman transition between the BEC components...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Carolina R Ponzoni, Thiago D Corrêa, Roberto R Filho, Ary Serpa Neto, Murillo Sc Assunção, Andreia Pardini, Guilherme Pp Schettino
RATIONALE: Readmission to intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with poor clinical outcomes, increased length of ICU and hospital stay and higher costs. Nevertheless, knowledge on epidemiology of ICU readmissions, risk factors and attributable outcomes are restricted to developed countries. OBJECTIVES: Determine the effect of ICU readmissions on in-hospital mortality, incidence of ICU readmissions, identify predictors of ICU readmissions and hospital mortality and compare resource use and outcomes between readmitted and nonreadmitted patients in a developing country...
May 21, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Toby Crisford, Jorge E Santos
We consider time-dependent solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations using anti-de Sitter (AdS) boundary conditions, and provide the first counterexample to the weak cosmic censorship conjecture in four spacetime dimensions. Our counterexample is entirely formulated in the Poincaré patch of AdS. We claim that our results have important consequences for quantum gravity, most notably to the weak gravity conjecture.
May 5, 2017: Physical Review Letters
V M Kovalev, I G Savenko
We study the pseudo-spin density response of a disordered two-dimensional spin-polarized Bose gas to weak alternating magnetic field, assuming that one of the spin states of the doublet is macroscopically occupied and Bose-condensed while the occupation of the other state remains much smaller. We calculate spatial and temporal dispersions of spin susceptibility of the gas taking into account spin-flip processes due to the transverse-longitudinal splitting, considering microcavity exciton polaritons as a testbed...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Marieke Heisen, Maarten J Treur, Harald E Heemstra, Eric B W Giesen, Maarten J Postma
BACKGROUND: Until recently, standard treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) concerned a combination of short-term low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and long-term vitamin-K antagonist (VKA). Risk of bleeding and the requirement for regular anticoagulation monitoring are, however, limiting their use. Rivaroxaban is a novel oral anticoagulant associated with a significantly lower risk of major bleeds (hazard ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.37-0.79) compared to LMWH/VKA therapy and does not require regular anticoagulation monitoring...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
Manotosh Chakravorty, A K Raychaudhuri, Tapati Sarkar, Mikael Svante Andersson
In this paper we report the observation of a proposed Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of magnons in a temperature range of around 15-20 K in nanostructured films of Gd with grain sizes that are much larger than the size range where superparamagentism is expected. The observation was carried out using magnetic as well as high precision resistivity and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements performed to low temperatures. We observe that the experimental observations depend crucially on one parameter, namely softening of the spin wave stiffness parameter D at BEC and the resistivity as well as MR can be related quantitatively to magnetic measurements through the temperature variation of the constant D in the vicinity of the transition...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Kevin D Hill, Donald P Frush, B Kelly Han, Brian G Abbott, Aimee K Armstrong, Robert A DeKemp, Andrew C Glatz, S Bruce Greenberg, Alexander Sheldon Herbert, Henri Justino, Douglas Mah, Mahadevappa Mahesh, Cynthia K Rigsby, Timothy C Slesnick, Keith J Strauss, Sigal Trattner, Mohan N Viswanathan, Andrew J Einstein
There is a need for consensus recommendations for ionizing radiation dose optimization during multi-modality medical imaging in children with congenital and acquired heart disease (CAHD). These children often have complex diseases and may be exposed to a relatively high cumulative burden of ionizing radiation from medical imaging procedures including cardiac computed tomography, nuclear cardiology studies and fluoroscopically guided diagnostic and interventional catheterization and electrophysiology procedures...
May 17, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Peter W Stokes, Bronson Philippa, Daniel Cocks, Ronald D White
A generalized phase-space kinetic Boltzmann equation for highly nonequilibrium charged particle transport via localized and delocalized states is used to develop continuity, momentum, and energy balance equations, accounting explicitly for scattering, trapping and detrapping, and recombination loss processes. Analytic expressions detail the effect of these microscopic processes on mobility and diffusivity. Generalized Einstein relations (GER) are developed that enable the anisotropic nature of diffusion to be determined in terms of the measured field dependence of the mobility...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
Guoqiang Zhang, Zhenya Yan, Xiao-Yong Wen, Yong Chen
We investigate the defocusing coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations from a 3×3 Lax pair. The Darboux transformations with the nonzero plane-wave solutions are presented to derive the newly localized wave solutions including dark-dark and bright-dark solitons, breather-breather solutions, and different types of new vector rogue wave solutions, as well as interactions between distinct types of localized wave solutions. Moreover, we analyze these solutions by means of parameters modulation. Finally, the perturbed wave propagations of some obtained solutions are explored by means of systematic simulations, which demonstrates that nearly stable and strongly unstable solutions...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
Fausto Borgonovi, Francesco Mattiotti, Felix M Izrailev
The onset of thermalization in a closed system of randomly interacting bosons at the level of a single eigenstate is discussed. We focus on the emergence of Bose-Einstein distribution of single-particle occupation numbers, and we give a local criterion for thermalization dependent on the eigenstate energy. We show how to define the temperature of an eigenstate, provided that it has a chaotic structure in the basis defined by the single-particle states. The analytical expression for the eigenstate temperature as a function of both interparticle interaction and energy is complemented by numerical data...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
Amani L Lee, Clifford T Gee, Bradley P Weegman, Samuel A Einstein, Adam R Juelfs, Hattie L Ring, Katie R Hurley, Sam M Egger, Garrett Swindlehurst, Michael Garwood, William C K Pomerantz, Christy L Haynes
Oxygen homeostasis is important in the regulation of biological function. Disease progression can be monitored by measuring oxygen levels, thus producing information for the design of therapeutic treatments. Noninvasive measurements of tissue oxygenation require the development of tools with minimal adverse effects and facile detection of features of interest. Fluorine magnetic resonance imaging ((19)F MRI) exploits the intrinsic properties of perfluorocarbon (PFC) liquids for anatomical imaging, cell tracking, and oxygen sensing...
May 22, 2017: ACS Nano
Hideki Ozawa, Shintaro Taie, Tomohiro Ichinose, Yoshiro Takahashi
We report the momentum-resolved measurement of Bloch bands in an optical Lieb lattice for a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). A BEC in the lattice is transported to a desired quasimomentum by applying a constant force. The energy dispersion of the lowest band is obtained by integrating measured group velocities. We also measure the gap from the lowest band to the higher bands with the same quasimomentum, which can be extracted from the oscillation of the sublattice populations after preparing a superposition of the band eigenstates...
April 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Mateus Henrique Köhler, José Rafael Bordin, Leandro B da Silva, Marcia C Barbosa
In this paper the transport properties of water confined inside hydrophobic and hydrophilic nanotubes are compared for different nanotube radii and densities. While for wider nanotubes the nature of the wall plays no relevant role in the water mobility, for small nanotubes the hydrophobic confinement presents a peculiar behavior. As the density is increased the viscosity shows a huge increase associated with a small increase in the diffusion coefficient. This breakdown in the Stokes-Einstein relation for diffusion and viscosity was observed in the hydrophobic, but not in the hydrophilic nanotubes...
May 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Sumanta Bose, Sushant Shendre, Zhigang Song, Vijay Kumar Sharma, Dao Hua Zhang, Cuong Dang, Weijun Fan, Hilmi Volkan Demir
Colloidal cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoplatelets (NPLs) are a recently developed class of efficient luminescent nanomaterials suitable for optoelectronic device applications. A change in temperature greatly affects their electronic bandstructure and luminescence properties. It is important to understand how and why the characteristics of NPLs are influenced, particularly at elevated temperatures, where both reversible and irreversible quenching processes come into the picture. Here we present a study of the effect of elevated temperatures on the characteristics of colloidal CdSe NPLs...
May 18, 2017: Nanoscale
Song He, Oliver Schlotterer
In this Letter, we extend the tree-level Kawai-Lewellen-Tye (KLT) and Bern-Carrasco-Johansson (BCJ) amplitude relations to loop integrands of gauge theory and gravity. By rearranging the propagators of gauge and gravity loop integrands, we propose the first manifestly gauge- and diffeomorphism-invariant formulation of their double-copy relations. The one-loop KLT formula expresses gravity integrands in terms of more basic gauge invariant building blocks for gauge-theory amplitudes, dubbed partial integrands...
April 21, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Steven E Kirberger, Sofia D Maltseva, Joseph C Manulik, Samuel A Einstein, Bradley P Weegman, Michael Garwood, William C K Pomerantz
(19) F MRI is valuable for in vivo imaging due to the only trace amounts of fluorine in biological systems. Because of the low sensitivity of MRI however, designing new fluorochemicals remains a significant challenge for achieving sufficient (19) F signal. Here, we describe a new class of high-signal, water-soluble fluorochemicals as (19) F MRI imaging agents. A polyamide backbone is used for tuning the proteolytic stability to avoid retention within the body, which is a limitation of current state-of-the-art perfluorochemicals...
June 1, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
W Dmowski, S O Diallo, K Lokshin, G Ehlers, G Ferré, J Boronat, T Egami
Liquid (4)He becomes superfluid and flows without resistance below temperature 2.17 K. Superfluidity has been a subject of intense studies and notable advances were made in elucidating the phenomenon by experiment and theory. Nevertheless, details of the microscopic state, including dynamic atom-atom correlations in the superfluid state, are not fully understood. Here using a technique of neutron dynamic pair-density function (DPDF) analysis we show that (4)He atoms in the Bose-Einstein condensate have environment significantly different from uncondensed atoms, with the interatomic distance larger than the average by about 10%, whereas the average structure changes little through the superfluid transition...
May 4, 2017: Nature Communications
Dalibor Merunka, Miroslav Peric
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of radicals in solution depend on their relative motion, which modulates the Heisenberg spin exchange and dipole-dipole interactions between them. To gain information on radical diffusion from EPR spectra demands both reliable spectral fitting to find the concentration coefficients of EPR parameters and valid expressions between the concentration and diffusion coefficients. Here, we measured EPR spectra of the (14)N- and (15)N-labeled perdeuterated TEMPONE radicals in normal and supercooled water at various concentrations...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Nicolas Bettinger, Omar K Khalique, Joseph M Krepp, Nadira B Hamid, David J Bae, Todd C Pulerwitz, Ming Liao, Rebecca T Hahn, Torsten P Vahl, Tamim M Nazif, Isaac George, Martin B Leon, Andrew J Einstein, Susheel K Kodali
BACKGROUND: The threshold for the optimal computed tomography (CT) number in Hounsfield Units (HU) to quantify aortic valvular calcium on contrast-enhanced scans has not been standardized. Our aim was to find the most accurate threshold to predict paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: 104 patients who underwent TAVR with the CoreValve prosthesis were studied retrospectively. Luminal attenuation (LA) in HU was measured at the level of the aortic annulus...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Puja Banerjee, Subramanian Yashonath, Biman Bagchi
While most of the existing theoretical and simulation studies have focused on simple, spherical, halide and alkali ions, many chemically, biologically, and industrially relevant electrolytes involve complex non-spherical polyatomic ions like nitrate, chlorate, and sulfate to name only a few. Interestingly, some polyatomic ions in spite of being larger in size show anomalously high diffusivity and therefore cause a breakdown of the venerable Stokes-Einstein (S-E) relation between the size and diffusivity. Here we report a detailed analysis of the dynamics of anions in aqueous potassium nitrate (KNO3) and aqueous potassium acetate (CH3COOK) solutions...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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