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Christoph Hoffmann, Alexandre Métraux
With the death of Ernst Mach on February 19, 1916, one day after his seventy-eighth birthday, a question finally became explicit that had been looming for some time. It was as simple as it was fundamental: who, in the end, was this man, a scientist or a philosopher? The importance of this question for contemporaries can easily be gleaned from the obituaries that appeared in the weeks following Mach's death: one in the Physikalische Zeitschrift, written by Albert Einstein, and another in the Archiv für die Geschichte der Philosophie, written by Mach's former student Heinrich Gomperz...
December 2016: Science in Context
Jacyr Pasternak, Sidney Glina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Einstein
Carlos Eduardo Saldanha de Almeida
Vascular punctures are often necessary in critically ill patients. They are secure, but not free of complications. Ultrasonography enhances safety of the procedure by decreasing puncture attempts, complications and costs. This study reviews important publications and the puncture technique using ultrasound, bringing part of the experience of the intensive care unit of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo (SP), Brazil, and discussing issues that should be considered in future studies. RESUMO Punções vasculares são muitas vezes necessárias em pacientes gravemente enfermos...
October 2016: Einstein
Ilya A Fedorov, Alexander E Ulanov, Yury V Kurochkin, A I Lvovsky
We propose and implement a new scheme of generating the optical Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state. Parametric down-conversion in two nonlinear crystals, positioned back-to-back in the waist of a pump beam, produces single-mode squeezed vacuum states in orthogonal polarization modes; a subsequent beam splitting entangles them and generates the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state. The technique takes advantage of the strong nonlinearity associated with type-0 phase-matching configuration while, at the same time, eliminating the need for actively stabilizing the optical phase between the two single-mode squeezers...
January 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Shaopeng Pan, Z W Wu, W H Wang, M Z Li, Limei Xu
In many glass-forming liquids, fractional Stokes-Einstein relation (SER) is observed above the glass transition temperature. However, the origin of such phenomenon remains elusive. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the break- down of SER and the onset of fractional SER in a model of metallic glass-forming liquid. We find that SER breaks down when the size of the largest cluster consisting of trapped atoms starts to increase sharply at which the largest cluster spans half of the simulations box along one direction, and the fractional SER starts to follows when the largest cluster percolates the entire system and forms 3-dimentional network structures...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
R Mueller, Y Hao, J Hesser, W Ngwa
PURPOSE: Recent studies have shown that the presence of Gold Nanoparticles (GNPs) in tumor tissue can lead to significant dose enhancement (DE) during External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT). In this in-silico study we investigate EBRT with in-situ dose painting using GNPs released from cylindrically shaped GNP-loaded fiducials. METHODS: Reported Biologically Target/Tumor Volumes (BTVs) for 12 prostate carcinoma patients were employed in this study. Distribution of the GNPs after burst release from the fiducial (1...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Emmanuel Guillaud, Samy Merabia, Dominique de Ligny, Laurent Joly
During the last few decades, many experimental and numerical studies have tried to understand the special dynamics of water at low temperatures by measuring structural relaxation times or shear viscosity, but their conclusions strongly depended on the chosen observable and on the range of temperatures considered. Moreover, recent work [J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 138, 12A526] showed that viscosity and relaxation times could decouple at low temperature in a model binary mixture, raising questions on their equivalence to study supercooled water...
January 3, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jong-Chan Lee, Kwang-Kyoon Park, Tian-Ming Zhao, Yoon-Ho Kim
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement introduced in 1935 deals with two particles that are entangled in their positions and momenta. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of EPR position-momentum entanglement of narrow-band photon pairs generated from cold atoms. By using two-photon quantum ghost imaging and ghost interference, we demonstrate explicitly that the narrow-band photon pairs violate the separability criterion, confirming EPR entanglement. We further demonstrate continuous variable EPR steering for positions and momenta of the two photons...
December 16, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Han-Liou Yi, Liang-Je Lai, Jung-Shiun Jiang, Chi-Chung Hua
This study revealed, for the first time, that dilute solutions made of a representative series of commercial ethylcellulose (EC; molecular weights 77-305 kDa, provided by the manufacturer) and four distinct organic solvents (α-terpineol, 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol monoisobutyrate (TPIB), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and benzene) can be used to foster stabilized, nearly monodisperse, nanoscale (pure) polymer colloid, with no isolated chains present. Using combined light-scattering (dynamic light scattering, static form factor, and Zimm/Berry plots) and intrinsic viscosity (Tanglertpaibul-Rao, Huggins, and Kraemer plots) analyses, the structural features of colloidal EC aggregates, ρ = ⟨Rg⟩/⟨Rh⟩ = 0...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Ruth E Baltus, Appala Raju Badireddy, Armin Delavari, Shankararaman Chellam
The aqueous bulk diffusivities of several near-spherical (icosahedral) and non-spherical (tailed) bacterial viruses were experimentally determined by measuring their flux across large pore membranes and using dynamic light scattering, with excellent agreement between values measured using the two techniques. For the icosahedral viruses, good agreement was also found between measured diffusivity values and values predicted with the Stokes-Einstein equation. However, when the tailed viruses were approximated as spheres, poor agreement was found between measured values and Stokes-Einstein predictions...
December 30, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Sabry G Moustafa, Andrew J Schultz, David A Kofke
Four methods for calculation of the classical free energy of crystalline systems are compared with respect to their efficiency and accuracy. Two of the methods involve thermodynamic integration along an unphysical path (λ integration, λI), and two involve integration in temperature from the low-temperature harmonic limit (T integration, TI). Specifically, the methods considered are (1) Frenkel-Ladd integration from a noninteracting Einstein crystal reference (ECR-λI); (2) conventional integration in temperature (Conv-TI); (3) integration from an interacting quasi-harmonic reference (QHR-λI); and (4) temperature integration using harmonically mapped averaging to evaluate the integrand (HMA-TI)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Zhigang Wu, G M Bruun
We show that a 2D spin-polarized Fermi gas immersed in a 3D Bose-Einstein condensate constitutes a very promising system for realizing a p_{x}+ip_{y} superfluid. The fermions attract each other via an induced interaction mediated by the bosons, and the resulting pairing is analyzed with retardation effects fully taken into account. This is further combined with Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) theory to obtain reliable results for the superfluid critical temperature. We show that both the strength and the range of the induced interaction can be tuned experimentally, which can be used to make the critical temperature approach the maximum value allowed by general BKT theory...
December 9, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Woo Jin Kwon, Joon Hyun Kim, Sang Won Seo, Y Shin
We report on the experimental observation of vortex cluster shedding from a moving obstacle in an oblate atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. At low obstacle velocities v above a critical value, vortex clusters consisting of two like-sign vortices are generated to form a regular configuration like a von Kármán street, and as v is increased, the shedding pattern becomes irregular with many different kinds of vortex clusters. In particular, we observe that the Stouhal number associated with the shedding frequency exhibits saturation behavior with increasing v...
December 9, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Xiaolong Su, Caixing Tian, Xiaowei Deng, Qiang Li, Changde Xie, Kunchi Peng
Quantum entanglement swapping is one of the most promising ways to realize the quantum connection among local quantum nodes. In this Letter, we present an experimental demonstration of the entanglement swapping between two independent multipartite entangled states, each of which involves a tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled state of an optical field. The entanglement swapping is implemented deterministically by means of a joint measurement on two optical modes coming from the two multipartite entangled states respectively and the classical feedforward of the measurement results...
December 9, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Nicolas Wentzensen, Marc Arbyn, Johannes Berkhof, Mark Bower, Karen Canfell, Mark Einstein, Christopher Farley, Joseph Monsonego, Silvia Franceschi
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the necessary cause of most cervical cancers, a large proportion of other anogenital cancers, and a subset of oropharyngeal cancers. The knowledge about HPV has led to development of novel HPV-based prevention strategies with important impact on clinical and public health practice. Two complementary reviews have been prepared following the 2015 Eurogin Conference to evaluate how knowledge about HPV is changing practice in HPV infection and disease control through vaccination and screening...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
P B Wigley, P J Everitt, K S Hardman, M R Hush, C H Wei, M A Sooriyabandara, P Manju, J D Close, N P Robins, C C N Kuhn
An imaging system is presented that is capable of far-detuned non-destructive imaging of a Bose-Einstein condensate with the signal proportional to the second spatial derivative of the density. Whilst demonstrated with application to Rb85, the technique generalizes to other atomic species and is shown to be capable of a signal-to-noise of ∼25 at 1 GHz detuning with 100 in-trap images showing no observable heating or atom loss. The technique is also applied to the observation of individual trajectories of stochastic dynamics inaccessible to single shot imaging...
October 15, 2016: Optics Letters
Minju Lee, Tony Merle, Daniel Rentsch, Silvio Canonica, Urs von Gunten
The abatement of 9 polychloro-1,3-butadienes (CBDs) in aqueous solution by ozone, UV-C(254 nm) photolysis, and the corresponding advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) (i.e., O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2) was investigated. The following parameters were determined for 9 CBDs: second-order rate constants for the reactions of CBDs with ozone (kO3) (<0.1-7.9 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) or with hydroxyl radicals (k(•)OH) (0.9 × 10(9) - 6.5 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)), photon fluence-based rate constants (k') (210-2730 m(2) einstein(-1)), and quantum yields (Φ) (0...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Mikko Närhi, Benjamin Wetzel, Cyril Billet, Shanti Toenger, Thibaut Sylvestre, Jean-Marc Merolla, Roberto Morandotti, Frederic Dias, Goëry Genty, John M Dudley
Modulation instability is a fundamental process of nonlinear science, leading to the unstable breakup of a constant amplitude solution of a physical system. There has been particular interest in studying modulation instability in the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, a generic model for a host of nonlinear systems including superfluids, fibre optics, plasmas and Bose-Einstein condensates. Modulation instability is also a significant area of study in the context of understanding the emergence of high amplitude events that satisfy rogue wave statistical criteria...
December 19, 2016: Nature Communications
Erin E Sundermann, Mindy J Katz, Richard B Lipton
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between depressive symptoms and subsequent cognitive impairment in older adults is controversial. Sex differences and the differences in the method of categorizing depressive symptoms may contribute to the inconsistencies. The authors examined the effect of severity of baseline depressive symptoms on risk of incident amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) separately in men and women. METHODS: Community-dwelling and cognitively healthy older adults (aged ≥ 70 years) from the Einstein Aging Study completed the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) at their baseline visit...
January 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Kalynka Gabriella do Livramento, Flávio Meira Borém, Anderson Cleiton José, Agenor Valadares Santos, Darlan Einstein do Livramento, José Donizeti Alves, Luciano Vilela Paiva
Many biochemical events occur inside grains during post-harvest processes. Several methods have been developed to relate the chemical composition of the coffee grain to the beverage quality, including identification of possible molecular markers for flavor characterizing. This study was aimed at evaluating the changes in the proteomic profile of pulped and natural C. arabica grains dried in a yard or dryer at 60°C. It was observed that fruits dried in a dryer at 60°C showed an altered proteomic profile, with a reduction in the most abundant proteins compared to those yard-dried grains...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
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