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Marcus A Bachhuber, Denis Nash, William N Southern, Moonseong Heo, Matthew Berger, Mark Schepis, Chinazo O Cunningham
INTRODUCTION: As opioid analgesic consumption has grown, so have opioid use disorder and opioid-related overdoses. Reducing the quantity of opioid analgesics prescribed for acute non-cancer pain can potentially reduce risks to the individual receiving the prescription and to others who might unintentionally or intentionally consume any leftover tablets. Reducing the default dispense quantity for new opioid analgesic prescriptions in the electronic health record (EHR) is a promising intervention to reduce prescribing...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
Anu Kadyan, Siddharth Pandey
Salt-added ionic liquid media have emerged as versatile alternative to the conventional electrolytes in several applications. Lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTf2N)-added ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([emim][Tf2N]) system up to LiTf2N mole fraction (x_(LiTf_2 N)) of 0.40 is investigated using fluorophore-quencher pair of pyrene-nitromethane in 298.15 - 358.15 K temperature range. Excited-state intensity decay of pyrene fits best to a single exponential decay function irrespective of the concentration of nitromethane, x_(LiTf_2 N) and the temperature...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Hoang Tung Nguyen, Tae Jung Kim, Han Gyeol Park, Van Long Le, Jinsu Kim, Myung-Hwa Jung, Young Dong Kim
The complex dielectric function and band-edge critical point structures of Bi1.85Gd0.15Te3 are reported for temperatures from 28 to 300 K and energies from 0.74 to 6 eV, obtained on bulk Bi1.85Gd0.15Te3 by rotating-compensator spectroscopic ellipsometry. The critical point (CP) energies are determined using numerically calculated second energy derivatives of the data. At low temperature, eight CP structures are identified, while only four CPs are observed at room temperature. As temperature decreases, we also observe blue shifts and significantly enhanced CP structures relative to those obtained at room temperature...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Bonnie Salomon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Lisa Einstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2018: Scientific American
Omar Mahmoud, Mark H Einstein
The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Markus M Hoffmann, Sarah Bothe, Torsten Gutmann, Gerd Buntkowsky
The colligative property freezing point depression is evaluated as a means for estimating the extent of aggregation for solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) alcohol (C10E6) nonionic surfactant in cyclohexane. Combined with additional measurements of self-diffusion coefficients, it is shown that both un-aggregated C10E6 as well as reverse micelles are significantly present for the entire range of measured C10E6 concentration (0.048 mol·kg-1 - 2.35 mol·kg-1). A change in speciation near 0.2 mol·kg-1 is indicated by both the results from freezing point depression and self-diffusion coefficients measurements...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Tanja E Mehlstäubler, Gesine Grosche, Christian Lisdat, Piet O Schmidt, Heiner Denker
We review experimental progress on optical atomic clocks and frequency transfer, and consider the prospects of using these technologies for geodetic measurements. Today, optical atomic frequency standards have reached relative frequency inaccuracies below 10-17 , opening new fields of fundamental and applied research. The dependence of atomic frequencies on the gravitational potential makes atomic clocks ideal candidates for the search for deviations in the predictions of Einstein's general relativity, tests of modern unifying theories and the development of new gravity field sensors...
April 18, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Katherine A Muratore, Charles P Najt, Nicholas M Livezey, James Marti, Douglas G Mashek, Edgar A Arriaga
The significance of lipid droplets in lipid metabolism, cell signaling, and regulating longevity is increasingly recognized, yet the lipid droplet's unique properties and architecture make it difficult to size and study using conventional methods. To begin to address this issue, we demonstrate the capabilities of nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) for sizing of lipid droplets. NTA was found to be adequate to assess lipid droplet stability over time, indicating that lipid droplet preparations are stable for up to 24 h...
April 17, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Wei Yuan, Qiong Zhu, Tang Su, Yunyan Yao, Wenyu Xing, Yangyang Chen, Yang Ma, Xi Lin, Jing Shi, Ryuichi Shindou, X C Xie, Wei Han
Spin superfluid is a novel emerging quantum matter arising from the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of spin-1 bosons. We demonstrate the spin superfluid ground state in canted antiferromagnetic Cr2 O3 thin film at low temperatures via nonlocal spin transport. A large enhancement of the nonlocal spin signal is observed below ~20 K, and it saturates from ~5 down to 2 K. We show that the spins can propagate over very long distances (~20 μm) in such spin superfluid ground state and that the nonlocal spin signal decreases very slowly as the spacing increases with an inverse relationship, which is consistent with theoretical prediction...
April 2018: Science Advances
Florian F Krause, Dennis Bredemeier, Marco Schowalter, Thorsten Mehrtens, Tim Grieb, Andreas Rosenauer
For simulation of transmission electron microscopic images and diffraction patterns, the accurate inclusion of thermal diffuse scattering by phonons is important. In the frozen phonon multislice algorithm, this is possible, if thermal displacements according to the realistic, quantum mechanical distribution can be generated. For pure crystals, quantum mechanical calculations based on DFT yield those displacements. But for alloys one is usually restricted to the Einstein approximation, where correlations between atoms are neglected...
March 30, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
Alon Rabin, Ofira Einstein, Zvi Kozol
CONTEXT:   Altered movement patterns, including increased frontal-plane knee movement and decreased sagittal-plane hip and knee movement, have been associated with several knee disorders. Nevertheless, the ability of clinicians to visually detect such altered movement patterns during high-speed athletic tasks is relatively unknown. OBJECTIVE:   To explore the association between visual assessment and 2-dimensional (2D) analysis of frontal-plane knee movement and sagittal-plane hip and knee movement during a jump-landing task among healthy female athletes...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Thais Borges de Araujo, Wagner Rodrigues Martins, Marco Polo Freitas, Einstein Camargos, Jéssica Mota, Marisete Peralta Safons
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a chronic, progressive dementia syndrome that features cognitive and behavioral symptoms, as well as physical and functional limitations that develop over the course of the disease. As an activity that involves physical and cognitive aspects, equine-assisted therapy (EAT) could be a useful therapeutic approach in conditions that involve physical and cognitive decline. However, to date, there are no reports of the use of this therapy in participants with AD...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
F Puosi, A Pasturel, N Jakse, D Leporini
The breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein (SE) law in fragile glassformers is examined by Molecular-Dynamics simulations of atomic liquids and polymers and consideration of the experimental data concerning the archetypical ortho-terphenyl glassformer. All the four systems comply with the universal scaling between the viscosity (or the structural relaxation) and the Debye-Waller factor ⟨u2 ⟩, the mean square amplitude of the particle rattling in the cage formed by the surrounding neighbors. It is found that the SE breakdown is scaled in a master curve by a reduced ⟨u2 ⟩...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Tomiko Yoneda, Jonathan Rush, Eileen K Graham, Anne Ingeborg Berg, Hannie Comijs, Mindy Katz, Richard B Lipton, Boo Johansson, Daniel K Mroczek, Andrea M Piccinin
Objectives: Although personality change is typically considered a symptom of dementia, some studies suggest that personality change may be an early indication of dementia. One prospective study found increases in neuroticism preceding dementia diagnosis (Yoneda et al, 2017). The current study extends this research by examining trajectories of personality traits in additional longitudinal studies of aging. Method: Three independent series of latent growth curve models were fitted to data from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) and Einstein Aging Study (EAS) to estimate trajectories of personality traits in individuals with incident dementia diagnosis (Total N = 210), in individuals with incident Mild Cognitive Impairment (N = 135), and in individuals who did not receive a diagnosis during follow-up periods (Total N = 1740)...
March 28, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Christian G Böhmer, Piyabut Burikham, Tiberiu Harko, Matthew J Lake
We derive upper and lower limits for the mass-radius ratio of spin-fluid spheres in Einstein-Cartan theory, with matter satisfying a linear barotropic equation of state, and in the presence of a cosmological constant. Adopting a spherically symmetric interior geometry, we obtain the generalized continuity and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for a Weyssenhoff spin fluid in hydrostatic equilibrium, expressed in terms of the effective mass, density and pressure, all of which contain additional contributions from the spin...
2018: European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields
Ramin Skibba
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2018: Nature
Pradeep N Perera, Hang Deng, P James Schuck, Benjamin Gilbert
Accurate assessment of the long-term security of geologic carbon sequestration requires knowledge of the mobility of carbon dioxide in brines under pressure and temperature conditions that prevails in subsurface aquifers. Here, we report Raman spectroscopic measurements of the rate of CO2 diffusion in water and brines as a function of pressure, salinity and the concentration of the CO2. In pure water at 50  2˚C and 90 ± 2 bar, we find that diffusion coefficient, D, to be 3.08 ± 0.03  10-9 m2/s, a value that is consistent with a recent microfluidic study but lower than earlier PVT measurements...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Lisa Barsotti, Jan Harms, Roman Schnabel
A century after Einstein's formulation of General Relativity, the detectors of the
 Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) made the first direct
 detection of gravitational waves. This historic achievement was the culmination of
 a world-wide effort and decades of instrument research. While sufficient for this
 monumental discovery, the current generation of gravitational-wave detectors represent
 the least sensitive devices necessary for the task; improved detectors will be required to
 fully exploit this new window on the Universe...
March 23, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Alok A Khorana, Jeffrey I Weitz
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) presents a continuing clinical burden to healthcare systems and there are patient groups for whom VTE management is challenging. Depending on the patient profile, the optimal duration of anticoagulation for VTE treatment can be unclear. EINSTEIN CHOICE was a Phase III, randomized, double-blind trial that compared the safety and efficacy of two once-daily (od) doses of the direct, oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban (20 and 10 mg) with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 100 mg daily) for prevention of recurrent VTE...
March 22, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
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