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Cancan Zhang, Haixia Rao, Kongshuang Zhao
Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy of ([Bmim][BF4]/TX-100/P-xylene) microemulsions and ([Bmim][BF4]/TX-100) micelles ionic liquids (ILs) formed was measured. A specific dielectric relaxation dependent on the concentration of ILs was observed in the range of 106~108Hz. Combined dielectric parameters with the Einstein displacement equation and Bruggeman's effective-medium approximation, the interaction between [Bmim][BF4] and TX-100 in microemulsions/micelles was presented: Due to electrostatic interaction and van der Waals' force, [Bmim][BF4] is bound around the PEO chains of TX-100, and once added electric field, ions of [Bmim][BF4] will move along the PEO chain...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Yusuke Matsuura, Naoko Ouchi, Ayako Nakamura, Haruhisa Kato
The particle tracking analysis (PTA) method has been widely used to determine the size of nanoparticles from their Brownian motion, using the Stokes-Einstein assumption. However, the size distribution obtained by PTA is broader than the true distribution because of the uncertainties in determining the diffusion coefficients, and a correction of such a broadening effect is essential to obtain reliable results. In order to transform the apparent broadened size distribution from the PTA method to the true size distribution, we begin by approximating the true size distribution as a gamma distribution determined by a shape parameter and a scale parameter, and then we perform a hybrid analysis based on the maximum likelihood estimation and Bayesian parameter inference that accounts for the uncertainties in determining the diffusion coefficients...
June 20, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Piotr J Slomka, Julian Betancur, Joanna X Liang, Yuka Otaki, Lien-Hsin Hu, Tali Sharir, Sharmila Dorbala, Marcelo Di Carli, Mathews B Fish, Terrence D Ruddy, Timothy M Bateman, Andrew J Einstein, Philipp A Kaufmann, Edward J Miller, Albert J Sinusas, Peyman N Azadani, Heidi Gransar, Balaji K Tamarappoo, Damini Dey, Daniel S Berman, Guido Germano
BACKGROUND: We aim to establish a multicenter registry collecting clinical, imaging, and follow-up data for patients who undergo myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with the latest generation SPECT scanners. METHODS: REFINE SPECT (REgistry of Fast Myocardial Perfusion Imaging with NExt generation SPECT) uses a collaborative design with multicenter contribution of clinical data and images into a comprehensive clinical-imaging database. All images are processed by quantitative software...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
Benoit Charbonneau, Patrick Charbonneau, Grzegorz Szamel
The Stokes-Einstein relation (SER) is one of the most robust and widely employed results from the theory of liquids. Yet sizable deviations can be observed for self-solvation, which cannot be explained by the standard hydrodynamic derivation. Here, we revisit the work of Masters and Madden [J. Chem. Phys. 74, 2450-2459 (1981)], who first solved a statistical mechanics model of the SER using the projection operator formalism. By generalizing their analysis to all spatial dimensions and to partially structured solvents, we identify a potential microscopic origin of some of these deviations...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
B A Malomed, N N Rosanov, S V Fedorov
We consider the evolution of the 2-soliton (breather) of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation on a semi-infinite line with the zero boundary condition and a linear potential, which corresponds to the gravity field in the presence of a hard floor. This setting can be implemented in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, and in a nonlinear planar waveguide in optics. In the absence of the gravity, repulsion of the breather from the floor leads to its splitting into constituent fundamental solitons, if the initial distance from the floor is smaller than a critical value; otherwise, the moving breather persists...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Bin Wang, Jingning Zhang, H T Quan
We extend the well-known static duality [M. Girardeau, J. Math. Phys. 1, 516 (1960)JMAPAQ0022-248810.1063/1.1703687; T. Cheon and T. Shigehara, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2536 (1999)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.82.2536] between one-dimensional (1D) bosons and 1D fermions to the dynamical version. By utilizing this dynamical duality, we find the duality of nonequilibrium work distributions between interacting 1D bosonic (Lieb-Liniger model) and 1D fermionic (Cheon-Shigehara model) systems with dual contact interactions...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
M Landini, N Dogra, K Kroeger, L Hruby, T Donner, T Esslinger
We observe cavity mediated spin-dependent interactions in an off-resonantly driven multilevel atomic Bose-Einstein condensate that is strongly coupled to an optical cavity. Applying a driving field with adjustable polarization, we identify the roles of the scalar and the vectorial components of the atomic polarizability tensor for single and multicomponent condensates. Beyond a critical strength of the vectorial coupling, we infer the formation of a spin texture in a condensate of two internal states from the analysis of the cavity output field...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Karapet Mkrtchyan
In this Letter, we take the first step towards construction of nontrivial Lagrangian theories of higher-spin gravity in a metriclike formulation in three dimensions. The crucial feature of a metriclike formulation is that it is known how to incorporate matter interactions into the description. We derive a complete classification of cubic interactions for arbitrary triples s_{1}, s_{2}, s_{3} of massless fields, which are the building blocks of any interacting theory with massless higher spins. We find that there is, at most, one vertex for any given triple of spins in 3D (with one exception, s_{1}=s_{2}=s_{3}=1, which allows for two vertices)...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Antonio Martinez, John R Barker, Riccardo Di Prieto
A methodology describing Coulomb blockade in the Non-equilibrium Green Function formalism is presented. We carried out ballistic and dissipative simulations through a 1D quantum dot using an Einstein phonon model. Inelastic phonons with different energies have been considered. The methodology incorporates the short-range Coulomb interaction between two electrons through the use of a two-particle Green's function. Unlike previous work, the quantum dot has spatial resolution i.e. it is not just parameterized by the energy level and coupling constants of the dot...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Jiguo Wang, Shi-Jie Yang
We study the ground-state phases of two-dimensional spin-orbit
 coupled spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate loaded in a plane
 quadrupole field. In the absence of rotation, for the fixed SOC
 strength, the ordinary stripe phase is found when the strength of
 magnetics field gradient is small. As the strength of magnetic
 field gradient enhances, the system realizes the phases with three
 layer vortices along the radial direction. The number of vortices
 in the second layer is successive increased and the vortices in
 the outermost layer are disappeared when the strength of magnetic
 field gradient surpass the critical value...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Francisco Frutos-Alfaro, Hernando Quevedo, Pedro A Sanchez
We investigate the properties of static and axisymmetric vacuum solutions of Einstein equations which generalize the Schwarzschild spherically symmetric solution to include a quadrupole parameter. We test all the solutions with respect to elementary and asymptotic flatness and curvature regularity. Analysing their multipole structure, according to the relativistic invariant Geroch definition, we show that all of them are equivalent up to the level of the quadrupole. We conclude that the q -metric, a variant of the Zipoy-Voorhees metric, is the simplest generalization of the Schwarzschild metric, containing a quadrupole parameter...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Shuangquan Xie, Panayotis G Kevrekidis, Theodore Kolokolnikov
We consider vortex dynamics in the context of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with a rotating trap, with or without anisotropy. Starting with the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) partial differential equation (PDE), we derive a novel reduced system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that describes stable configurations of multiple co-rotating vortices (vortex crystals). This description is found to be quite accurate quantitatively especially in the case of multiple vortices. In the limit of many vortices, BECs are known to form vortex crystal structures, whereby vortices tend to arrange themselves in a hexagonal-like spatial configuration...
May 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Juro Kawachi
The anatomical uniqueness of Einstein's brain is thought to be the seat of his intellectual prowess. Einstein's brain has been reported to contain: a higher neuron/glia ratio in the left inferior parietal lobule, greater neuron density in the frontal lobe, a larger expansion of the inferior parietal lobule, complex gyrification in many parts of the cerebral cortex, and a thick corpus callosum, especially the splenium. Individual differences in brain anatomy and current brain research were used to test the validity of these assertions...
June 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Craig I Coleman, W Frank Peacock, Thomas J Bunz, Jan Beyer-Westendorf
BACKGROUND: In phase III trials, rivaroxaban demonstrated non-inferiority over enoxaparin/warfarin to prevent recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE), with a reduction of major bleeding. However, compared to provoked VTE, the risk-benefit ratio of rivaroxaban may be different for patients with unprovoked VTE. METHODS: In a retrospective claims data analysis using US MarketScan claims from 1/2012 to 12/2016, we included adults with a primary diagnosis of VTE newly-initiated on rivaroxaban or warfarin within 30-days of the incident VTE and with ≥12-months of continuous insurance benefits prior to the VTE (baseline)...
May 30, 2018: Thrombosis Research
S Autti, V B Eltsov, G E Volovik
We report experimental realization of a quantum time quasicrystal and its transformation to a quantum time crystal. We study Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons, associated with coherent spin precession, created in a flexible trap in superfluid ^{3}He-B. Under a periodic drive with an oscillating magnetic field, the coherent spin precession is stabilized at a frequency smaller than that of the drive, demonstrating spontaneous breaking of discrete time translation symmetry. The induced precession frequency is incommensurate with the drive, and hence, the obtained state is a time quasicrystal...
May 25, 2018: Physical Review Letters
R Mathew, E Tiesinga
Quenches in isolated quantum systems are currently a subject of intense study. Here, we consider quantum few-mode systems that are integrable in their classical mean-field limit and become dynamically unstable after a quench of a system parameter. Specifically, we study a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a double-well potential and an antiferromagnetic spinor BEC constrained to a single spatial mode. We study the time dynamics after the quench within the truncated Wigner approximation (TWA), focus on the role of motion near separatrices, and find that system relaxes to a steady state due to phase-space mixing...
July 2017: Physical Review. A
Cécile Tromeur, Liselotte M van der Pol, Albert T A Mairuhu, Christophe Leroyer, Francis Couturaud, Menno V Huisman, Frederikus A Klok
Anticoagulant therapy is the cornerstone of therapeutic management in acute venous thromboembolism (VTE), consisting of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have become the standard of care because of their good safety profile and ease of use in clinical practice. Indeed, phase 3 randomized trials (AMPLIFY, EINSTEIN, RECOVER, and HOKUSAI studies) showed that DOACs provided a similar efficacy and a better safety than conventional treatment with parenteral heparin with overlapping loading dose of vitamin K antagonists in acute VTE therapeutic management...
June 2018: Seminars in Interventional Radiology
Tun Cao, Chen-Wei Wei, Meng-Jia Cen, Bao Guo, Yong-June Kim, Shuang Zhang, Cheng-Wei Qiu
The transformation optics (TO) technique, which establishes an equivalence between a curved space and a spatial distribution of inhomogeneous constitutive parameters, has enabled an extraordinary paradigm for manipulating wave propagation. However, extreme constitutive parameters, as well as a static nature, inherently limit the simultaneous achievement of broadband performance, ultrafast reconfigurability and versatile reprogrammable functions. Here, we integrate the TO technique with an active phase-change chalcogenide to achieve a reconfigurable multi-mode guided-wave lens...
June 5, 2018: Nanoscale
L Chomaz, R M W van Bijnen, D Petter, G Faraoni, S Baier, J H Becher, M J Mark, F Wächtler, L Santos, F Ferlaino
The concept of a roton, a special kind of elementary excitation, forming a minimum of energy at finite momentum, has been essential to understand the properties of superfluid 4 He 1. In quantum liquids, rotons arise from the strong interparticle interactions, whose microscopic description remains debated 2. In the realm of highly-controllable quantum gases, a roton mode has been predicted to emerge due to magnetic dipole-dipole interactions despite of their weakly-interacting character 3. This prospect has raised considerable interest 4-12; yet roton modes in dipolar quantum gases have remained elusive to observations...
May 2018: Nature Physics
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