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infant of a diabetic mother

Jeffrey R Kaiser, Shasha Bai, Paul J Rozance
BACKGROUND: The glucose concentrations and times to nadir for newborns of all gestational ages when intrapartum glucose-containing solutions are not routinely provided are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To characterize and compare patterns of initial glucose concentration nadirs by gestational-age groups. METHODS: A cross-sectional cohort study of 1,366 newborns born in 1998 at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, appropriate for gestational age, nonasphyxiated, nonpolycythemic, and not infants of diabetic mothers, were included...
March 6, 2018: Neonatology
Nurah M Hammoud, Gerard H A Visser, Lenie van Rossem, Douwe H Biesma, Jan M Wit, Harold W de Valk
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is reported to be associated with childhood obesity, however the magnitude of this association and relation to intrauterine growth is uncertain. We, therefore, aimed to assess whether the growth trajectories of large for gestational age (LGA) and non-LGA offspring of mothers with GDM (OGDM) are different until early adolescence. We also aimed to explore whether growth trajectories of OGDM differ from those of offspring of mothers with type 1 or 2 diabetes (ODM1, ODM2)...
February 28, 2018: Diabetologia
Jessie V Madden, Christopher J Flatley, Sailesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants (birthweight <10th centile) are at increased risk of perinatal complications but are frequently not identified antenatally, particularly in low risk women delivering at term (>37 weeks gestation). This is compounded by the fact that late pregnancy ultrasound is not the norm in many jurisdictions for this cohort of women. We thus investigated the relationship between birthweight <10th centile and serious neonatal outcomes in low risk women at term...
February 17, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Dilek Dilli, Nazan Neslihan Doğan, Mehmet Şah İpek, Yunus Çavuş, Serdar Ceylaner, Haldun Doğan, Arzu Dursun, Tuncay Küçüközkan, Ayşegül Zenciroğlu
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effects of maternal fish oil supplementation in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on birthweight and DNA methylation at insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene in their offspring. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial. A total of 120 women with GDM were randomized to one of the two groups between 24 and 28 weeks of the pregnancy: Group 1 (n = 52) received fish oil liquid softgel (Ocean plus®) and Group 2 (Placebo) (n = 68) sunflower oil liquid softgel...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Cornelia R Graves, Stacy F Davis
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death during pregnancy, accounting for ≈33% of the maternal deaths in the United States.1 There is also increasing evidence that there is a significant link between complications of pregnancy and CVD later in life. Pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, preterm delivery, and delivery of an infant with growth restriction provide signals about the mother's cardiovascular adaptability of physiological stress...
February 19, 2018: Circulation
Patricia D Suplee, Joan Rosen Bloch, Amy Hillier, Tasha Herbert
OBJECTIVE: To describe maternal morbidity, birth outcomes, and neighborhood characteristics of urban women from a racially segregated city with the use of a geographic information system. DESIGN: Exploratory neighborhood-level study. Existing birth certificate data were linked and aggregated to neighborhood-level data for spatial analyses. SETTING: Southern city in New Jersey. SAMPLE: Women and their 7,858 live births that occurred between 2009 and 2013...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
L Vranken, P Emonts, O Bruyère, E Cavalier
Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem, also during pregnancy. Inadequate maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy is associated with poor fetal growth, impaired bone development and rickets in infants after birth. Furthermore, higher rates of preeclampsia and gestational diabetes are associated with low maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy. Toxicity of vitamin D is rare. Most countries recommend vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy but guidelines are controversial and inadequate compared to real mother's and child's needs...
January 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
Orli Silverberg, Alison L Park, Eyal Cohen, Deshayne B Fell, Joel G Ray
Importance: Women with an infant with preterm birth (PTB) or who was severely small for gestational age (SGA) are at higher future risk of premature cardiovascular disease and related death. Objective: To determine the risk of cardiac disease or death among women with an infant with both PTB and SGA. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study used electronic health records from the province of Ontario, Canada, where health care is universally available, between April 1, 2002, and March 31, 2016...
January 31, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
Hanah Z Nasri, Kara Houde Ng, Marie-Noel Westgate, Anne-Therese Hunt, Lewis B Holmes
BACKGROUND: Infants of diabetic mothers have been shown in several studies to have an increased frequency of malformations. In previous studies, an increased frequency of several specific malformations has been noted, including anencephaly, bilateral renal agenesis, and double outlet right ventricle. Surveillance, used to identify all malformed infants in a consecutive sample of births, can identify a distinctive pattern of malformations among the affected infants. METHODS: The infants of insulin-dependent, pregestational diabetic mothers were identified in the daily review of the medical records of each newborn infant with a malformation and her/his mother's medical record...
January 2018: Birth defects research
Kimberly Truong, Christian Guilleminault
Numerous physiologic and anatomic changes during pregnancy exacerbate or unmask obstructive sleep apnea in women. Left untreated, upper airway flow limitation during pregnancy may lead to dire maternal and fetal health consequences. Areas covered: This review outlines the relationship between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes. It also discusses the implications of SDB on fetal and maternal health and concludes with a review of the emerging literature of treatment options for SDB in pregnancy and its benefit...
March 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Pauline Léveillé-, Mathieu Hamel, Jean-Luc Ardilouze, Jean-Charles Pasquier, Charles Deacon, Kevin Whittingstall, Mélanie Plourde
BACKGROUND: The goal was to evaluate whether there was neurodevelopmental deficits in newborns born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) compared to control newborns born to healthy mothers. METHODS: Forty-six pregnant women (21 controls and 25 GDM) were recruited. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in the newborns within 48 h after birth. The EEG signal was quantitatively analyzed using power spectral density (PSD); coherence between hemispheres was calculated in paired channels of frontal, temporal, central and occipital regions...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Daniella Anne L Chyne, Indrapal Ishwarji Meshram, Ananthan Rajendran, Venkaiah Kodali, Neeraja Getti, Phrang Roy, Harriet V Kuhnlein, Thingnganing Longvah
A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out with 603 children ages 5 and under and 500 of their mothers from 510 households to examine the prevalence of undernutrition and chronic diseases among the Khasis of North-East India. Anthropometric measurements including Mid-Upper Arm Circumference, height, and weight were taken. Dry blood spots to estimate haemoglobin and vitamin A were collected from children and women separately by finger prick. Mothers provided data about household socio-demographic particulars and infant and young child feeding practices...
November 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Thingnganing Longvah, Bewe Khutsoh, Indrapal Ishwarji Meshram, Sreerama Krishna, Venkaiah Kodali, Phrang Roy, Harriet V Kuhnlein
Despite the importance of the nutritional status and food systems of Indigenous Peoples, the subject has received very little attention, especially in North-East India. Therefore, a community-based cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among Chakhesang mothers with children under 5 years of age to evaluate their nutritional status and prevalence of chronic diseases in the context of their dietary habits. From 558 households (HHs), 661 children and 540 mothers were covered using standard anthropometric measurements as well as blood collection for haemoglobin and vitamin A...
November 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Sarah Jane Schwarzenberg, Michael K Georgieff
Maternal prenatal nutrition and the child's nutrition in the first 2 years of life (1000 days) are crucial factors in a child's neurodevelopment and lifelong mental health. Child and adult health risks, including obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, may be programmed by nutritional status during this period. Calories are essential for growth of both fetus and child but are not sufficient for normal brain development. Although all nutrients are necessary for brain growth, key nutrients that support neurodevelopment include protein; zinc; iron; choline; folate; iodine; vitamins A, D, B6 , and B12 ; and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids...
February 2018: Pediatrics
Heng Yaw Yong, Zalilah Mohd Shariff, Zulida Rejali, Barakatun Nisak Mohd Yusof, Farah Yasmin, Lalitha Palaniveloo
INTRODUCTION: Both gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hyperglycaemia less severe than GDM are associated with risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. We describe the study design of a prospective cohort of pregnant women recruited in early pregnancy with follow-ups of mothers and infants up to 2 years after birth. The primary aim of the study was to identify the determinants and outcomes of maternal glycaemia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Seremban Cohort Study (SECOST) is an ongoing prospective cohort study in which eligible pregnant women in first trimester (<10 weeks of gestation) are recruited from Maternal and Child Health clinics in Seremban District, Negeri Sembilan with seven follow-ups during pregnancy through 2 years postnatally...
January 21, 2018: BMJ Open
Denice S Feig, Helen R Murphy
AIMS: To review the current literature on the use of continuous glucose monitoring during pregnancy in women with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We searched the literature for randomized controlled trials using continuous glucose monitoring during pregnancy in women with Type 1 diabetes. RESULTS: Three randomized trials were found and discussed in this review. One UK study found a reduction in large-for-gestational-age infants; however, only masked continuous glucose monitoring was used in that study...
January 20, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Judith Parsons, Katherine Sparrow, Khalida Ismail, Katharine Hunt, Helen Rogers, Angus Forbes
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an increasingly common condition of pregnancy. It is associated with adverse fetal, infant and maternal outcomes, as well as an increased risk of GDM in future pregnancies and type 2 diabetes for both mother and offspring. Previous studies have shown that GDM can result in an emotionally distressing pregnancy, but there is little research on the patient experience of GDM care, especially of a demographically diverse UK population. The aim of this research was to explore the experiences of GDM and GDM care for a group of women attending a large diabetes pregnancy unit in southeast London, UK, in order to improve care...
January 11, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Christina Santamaria, Wei Guang Bi, Line Leduc, Negar Tabatabaei, Prévost Jantchou, Zhong-Cheng Luo, François Audibert, Anne Monique Nuyt, Shu Qin Wei
In this systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, we aimed to estimate the associations between prenatal vitamin D status and offspring growth, adiposity and metabolic health. We searched the literature in human studies on prenatal vitamin D status and offspring growth in PubMed, up to July 2017. Studies were selected according to their methodological quality and outcomes of interest (anthropometry, fat mass and diabetes in offspring). The inverse variance method was used to calculate the pooled mean difference (MD) with 95 % CI for continuous outcomes, and the Mantel-Haenszel method was used to calculate the pooled OR with 95 % CI for dichotomous outcomes...
January 11, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Linda M Biesty, Aoife M Egan, Fidelma Dunne, Eugene Dempsey, Pauline Meskell, Valerie Smith, G Meabh Ni Bhuinneain, Declan Devane
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. Women with gestational diabetes are more likely to experience adverse health outcomes such as pre-eclampsia or polyhydramnios (excess amniotic fluid). Their babies are also more likely to have health complications such as macrosomia (birthweight > 4000 g) and being large-for-gestational age (birthweight above the 90th percentile for gestational age). Current clinical guidelines support elective birth, at or near term in women with gestational diabetes to minimise perinatal complications, especially those related to macrosomia...
January 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ana Cristina Lindsay, Qun Le, Mary L Greaney
Chinese are a fast-growing immigrant population group in several parts of the world (e.g., Australia, Canada, Europe, Southeast Asia, United States). Research evidence suggests that compared to non-Hispanic whites, individuals of Asian-origin including Chinese are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes at a lower body mass index (BMI). These risks may be possibly due to genetic differences in body composition and metabolic responses. Despite the increasing numbers of Chinese children growing up in immigrant families and the increasing prevalence of obesity among Chinese, little research has been focused on children of Chinese immigrant families...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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