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infant of a diabetic mother

Fulvia Gloria-Bottini, Anna Neri, Luca Coppeta, Andrea Magrini, Egidio Bottini
OBJECTIVE: The birth weight/placental weight ratio has an important predictive value for perinatal mortality and morbidity and for cardiovascular diseases in adult life. In this study, we compared the birth weight/placental weight (BW/PW) ratio and the correlation between the two parameters in diabetic women with that observed in healthy women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 347 consecutive newborn infants from healthy puerperae, 164 newborns from puerperae with gestational diabetes, 148 newborns from puerperae with preexisting type 1 diabetes, and 40 newborns from puerperae with preexisting type 2 diabetes have been studied from the White population of Rome...
October 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Lucilla Poston, Rishi Caleyachetty, Sven Cnattingius, Camila Corvalán, Ricardo Uauy, Sharron Herring, Matthew W Gillman
Obesity in women of reproductive age is increasing in prevelance worldwide. Obesity reduces fertility and increases time taken to conceive, and obesity-related comorbidities (such as type 2 diabetes and chronic hypertension) heighten the risk of adverse outcomes for mother and child if the woman becomes pregnant. Pregnant women who are obese are more likely to have early pregnancy loss, and have increased risk of congenital fetal malformations, delivery of large for gestational age infants, shoulder dystocia, spontaneous and medically indicated premature birth, and stillbirth...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Giridhara R Babu, Gvs Murthy, R Deepa, Yamuna, Prafulla, H Kiran Kumar, Maithili Karthik, Keerti Deshpande, Sara E Benjamin Neelon, D Prabhakaran, Anura Kurpad, Sanjay Kinra
BACKGROUND: India is experiencing an epidemic of obesity-hyperglycaemia, which coincides with child bearing age for women. The epidemic can be sustained and augmented through transgenerational transmission of adiposity and glucose intolerance in women. This presents an opportunity for exploring a clear strategy for the control of this epidemic in India. We conducted a study between November 2013 and May 2015 to inform the design of a large pregnancy cohort study. Based on the findings of this pilot, we developed the protocol for the proposed birth cohort of 5000 women, the recruitment for which will start in April 2016...
October 14, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Melissa Borelli, Rebecca J Baer, Christina D Chambers, Tyler C Smith, Laura L Jelliffe-Pawlowski
We examined the association between maternal characteristics, routinely collected first- and second-trimester biomarkers and the risk of having an infant with a critical congenital heart defect (CCHD). Included were women who participated in the California Prenatal Screening Program who had nuchal translucency (NT) measurement and first- and second-trimester serum screening. All pregnancies ended in a live birth of an infant without aneuploidy or a neural tube defect. Poisson regression analyses were used to estimate the relative risk and 95% confidence interval of a CCHD by maternal characteristics, first- and second-trimester serum biomarkers or NT measurements...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Sofie Ingdam Halkjaer, Lisbeth Nilas, Emma Malchau Carlsen, Dina Cortes, Thórhallur Ingi Halldórsson, Sjúrdur Frodi Olsen, Anders Elm Pedersen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Andreas Munk Petersen
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy-related complications and outcomes for both mothers and infants. Overweight and obese women have an increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Infant Body Mass index (BMI) and the risk of obesity in adulthood are related to maternal gestational weight gain (GWG). Preventive lifestyle and dietary interventions are time-consuming and do not always reduce GWG or the risk of maternal pregnancy complications...
October 11, 2016: Trials
Anita M Nucci, Suvi M Virtanen, Susa Sorkio, Sonja Bärlund, David Cuthbertson, Ulla Uusitalo, Margaret L Lawson, Marja Salonen, Carol L Berseth, Anne Ormisson, Eveliina Lehtonen, Erkki Savilahti, Dorothy J Becker, John Dupré, Jeffrey P Krischer, Mikael Knip, Hans K Åkerblom
Differences in breastfeeding, other milk feeding and complementary feeding patterns were evaluated in infants at increased genetic risk with and without maternal type 1 diabetes (T1D). The Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk is an international nutritional primary prevention double-blinded randomized trial to test whether weaning to extensively hydrolyzed vs. intact cow's milk protein formula will decrease the development of T1D-associated autoantibodies and T1D. Infant diet was prospectively assessed at two visits and seven telephone interviews between birth and 8 months...
October 7, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Taylor M Mehta, Ryan J Van Lieshout
Clozapine is an antipsychotic used in the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, little is known about clozapine use during pregnancy and lactation, or its impact on the mother, foetus, and infant. This review aims to summarize the available literature on the safety of clozapine use during the perinatal period. EMBASE, PsycINFO, and MEDLINE were searched from their inceptions through June 2016. The review encompasses 21 studies that have examined clozapine use during pregnancy and lactation...
October 4, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Serafina Perrone, Maria Luisa Tataranno, Simona Negro, Mariangela Longini, Maria Stefania Toti, Maria Gabriella Alagna, Fabrizio Proietti, Francesco Bazzini, Paolo Toti, Giuseppe Buonocore
BACKGROUND: Prenatal conditions of enhanced oxidative stress (OS) linked to inflammation or hypoxia have been associated with impaired fetal growth and preterm delivery. Little is known regarding biomarkers of OS in the cord blood of preterm infants and placental histological patterns. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that placental lesions indicating chorioamnionitis (CA) or vascular underperfusion (VU) are associated with increased OS in the offspring. METHODS: 120 neonates born below 29(+6) weeks of gestational age (GA) were enrolled...
October 2016: Placenta
Claire L Meek
Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a common pregnancy disorder which is generally managed with diet, exercise, metformin or insulin treatment and which usually resolves after delivery of the infant. Identifying and treating GDM improves maternal and fetal outcomes, and allows for health promotion to reduce the mother's risk of type 2 diabetes in later life. However, there remains considerable controversy about the optimal method of identification and diagnosis of women with GDM. The NICE-2015 diagnostic criteria (75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 0 hr ⩾5...
September 28, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Ellie Wernham, Jason Gurney, James Stanley, Lis Ellison-Loschmann, Diana Sarfati
BACKGROUND: Internationally, a typical model of maternity care is a medically led system with varying levels of midwifery input. New Zealand has a midwife-led model of care, and there are movements in other countries to adopt such a system. There is a paucity of systemic evaluation that formally investigates safety-related outcomes in relationship to midwife-led care within an entire maternity service. The main objective of this study was to compare major adverse perinatal outcomes between midwife-led and medical-led maternity care in New Zealand...
September 2016: PLoS Medicine
M B Azad, B L Moyce, L Guillemette, C D Pascoe, B Wicklow, J M McGavock, A J Halayko, V W Dolinsky
Diabetes is an increasingly common complication of pregnancy. In parallel with this trend, a rise in chronic lung disease in children has been observed in recent decades. While several adverse health outcomes associated with exposure to diabetes in utero have been documented in epidemiological and experimental studies, few have examined the impact of diabetes in pregnancy on offspring lung health and respiratory disease. We provide a comprehensive overview of current literature on this topic, finding suggestive evidence that exposure to diabetes in utero may have adverse effects on lung development...
August 19, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Monera Mm Mohammed, Sirageldin Mk Abdel Rahman
Hyperglycaemia has become a significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality of the smaller fragile infants surviving the neonatal period. Its risk is inversely related to gestational age, birth weight and baby's clinical condition. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, some clinical aspects and immediate outcome of hyperglycaemia in neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Gaafar Ibnauf Children's Hospital, Khartoum. The study was a prospective, descriptive and hospital-based, conducted during the period of 1st January to 31st December 2014...
2016: Sudan J Paediatr
Izzuddin M Aris, Jonathan Y Bernard, Ling-Wei Chen, Mya Thway Tint, Wei Wei Pang, Wai Yee Lim, Shu E Soh, Seang-Mei Saw, Keith M Godfrey, Peter D Gluckman, Yap-Seng Chong, Fabian Yap, Michael S Kramer, Yung Seng Lee
BACKGROUND: Infant body mass index (BMI) peak has received much interest recently as a potential predictor of future obesity and metabolic risk. No studies, however, have examined infant BMI peak in Asian populations, in whom the risk of metabolic disease is higher. METHODS: We utilized data among 1020 infants from a mother-offspring cohort, who were Singapore citizens or permanent residents of Chinese, Malay or Indian ethnicity with homogeneous parental ethnic backgrounds, and did not receive chemotherapy, psychotropic drugs or have diabetes mellitus...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Junhong Leng, John Hay, Gongshu Liu, Jing Zhang, Jing Wang, Huihuan Liu, Xilin Yang, Jian Liu
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether maternal low blood glucose (BG), low body mass index (BMI) and small stature have a joint effect on the risk of delivery of a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant. DESIGN: Women from a perinatal cohort were followed up from receiving perinatal healthcare to giving birth. SETTING: Beichen District, Tianjin, China between June 2011 and October 2012. PARTICIPANTS: 1572 women aged 19-39 years with valid values of stature, BMI and BG level at gestational diabetes mellitus screening (gestational weeks 24-28), glucose challenge test <7...
September 15, 2016: BMJ Open
Chui-Yee Fong, Arijit Biswas, Walter Stunkel, Yap-Seng Chong, Ariff Bongso
The infants of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. It has been difficult to study the direct effects of maternal hyperglycemia on the fetus because of inaccessibility of fetal tissues. The development of tissues that simulate the function of fetal organs using stem cell technology provides an unprecedented opportunity to study this disorder. Stem cells in the Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord (hWJSCs), possess unique properties that are different from other stem cells...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Shirong Cai, Anqi Qiu, Birit F P Broekman, Eric Qinlong Wong, Peter D Gluckman, Keith M Godfrey, Seang Mei Saw, Shu-E Soh, Kenneth Kwek, Yap-Seng Chong, Michael J Meaney, Michael S Kramer, Anne Rifkin-Graboi
OBJECTIVE: Analyze the relation of gestational diabetes and maternal blood glucose levels to early cognitive functions in the first two years of life. METHODS: In a prospective Singaporean birth cohort study, pregnant women were screened for gestational diabetes at 26-28 weeks gestation using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Four hundred and seventy three children (n = 74 and n = 399 born to mothers with and without gestational diabetes respectively) underwent neurocognitive assessments at 6, 18, and/or 24 month, including electrophysiology during an attentional task and behavioral measures of attention, memory and cognition...
2016: PloS One
Julie Brown, Tineke J Crawford, Jane Alsweiler, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of glucose intolerance that first presents and is recognised during pregnancy and usually resolves after the birth of the baby. GDM is associated with increased short- and long-term morbidity for the mother and her baby. Treatment usually includes lifestyle modification and/or pharmacological therapy (oral antidiabetic agents or insulin) with the aim to maintain treatment targets for blood glucose concentrations. Finding novel treatment agents which are effective, acceptable and safe for the mother and her baby are important...
September 7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Fekede Asefa, Dereje Nemomsa
BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain is an important factor that supports optimal outcome for mothers and their infant. Whereas women who do not gain enough weight during pregnancy have a risk of bearing a baby with low birth weight, those who gain excessive weight are at increased risk of preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. Nonetheless, data on gestational weight gain and its determinants are scarce in developing countries, as it is difficult to collect the information throughout the pregnancy period...
2016: Reproductive Health
Joice Monaliza Vernini, Jusciele Brogin Moreli, Claudia Garcia Magalhães, Roberto Antônio Araújo Costa, Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge, Iracema Mattos Paranhos Calderon
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are associated with pregnancy complications and adverse perinatal outcomes, posing short and long-term risks for maternal and child health. This study evaluated maternal, delivery and neonatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by overweight and obesity. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study included 258 pregnant women. According to prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese...
2016: Reproductive Health
Xianwei Cui, Yun Li, Lei Yang, Lianghui You, Xing Wang, Chunmei Shi, Chenbo Ji, Xirong Guo
Breastfeeding is associated with a lower incidence of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in life. While macrosomic infants have a higher risk of developing obesity and other metabolic disorders. Breast milk may contain special nutrients to meet the different growth needs of different infants. Whether mothers make breast milk different to meet the requirement of macrosomic infants is still unknown. Here, we conducted a comparison between mothers delivering macrosomic and non-macrosomic infants in colostrum endogenous peptides...
August 23, 2016: Oncotarget
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