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N-acetylcysteine cognitive

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438466/the-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-nac-on-human-cognition-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
David R Skvarc, Olivia M Dean, Linda K Byrne, Laura Gray, Stephen Lane, Matthew Lewis, Brisa S Fernandes, Michael Berk, Andrew Marriott
Oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurogenesis are commonly implicated as cognitive modulators across a range of disorders. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a glutathione precursor with potent antioxidant, pro-neurogenesis and anti-inflammatory properties and a favourable safety profile. A systematic review of the literature specifically examining the effect of NAC administration on human cognition revealed twelve suitable articles for inclusion: four examining Alzheimer's disease; three examining healthy participants; two examining physical trauma; one examining bipolar disorder, one examining schizophrenia, and one examining ketamine-induced psychosis...
April 21, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384832/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#2
Matthew E Hirschtritt, Michael H Bloch, Carol A Mathews
Importance: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder associated with significant impairment and a lifetime prevalence of 1% to 3%; however, it is often missed in primary care settings and frequently undertreated. Objective: To review the most current data regarding screening, diagnosis, and treatment options for OCD. Evidence Review: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs), meta-analyses, and systematic reviews that addressed screening and diagnostic and treatment approaches for OCD among adults (≥18 years), published between January 1, 2011, and September 30, 2016...
April 4, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047652/su-f-sps-07-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-findings-in-early-phase-psychosis
#3
A Wright, R Ma, T Hummer, M Francis, N Mehdiyoun, U Dydak, A Breier
PURPOSE: Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by disordered thoughts, abnormal social behaviors, flat affect, and auditory or visual hallucinations. The current study aims to investigate alterations in brain metabolism in patients near the onset of psychosis (early-phase psychosis, EPP), to characterize abnormalities during the early stages of schizophrenia. To this end, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to measure metabolite levels and subsequently monitor the effect of treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923259/-established-therapies-and-new-therapeutic-strategies-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#4
Helmut Karl Seitz, Sebastian Mueller
Chronical alcohol abuse causes more than 200 diseases and/or symptoms and among these alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is of special importance since it occurs frequently and may be life-threatening. In Europe alcohol consumption as well as ALD increased as compared to the rest of the world. It has been estimated that in Europe approximately 500 000 people die every year due to ALD. ALD consists of alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatocellar cancer (HCC ). Alcohol hepatitis (AH) is a clinical feature with jaundice and liver failure and a high mortality...
March 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908784/cisplatin-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-is-associated-with-impaired-cognitive-function-in-rats
#5
Naomi Lomeli, Kaijun Di, Jennifer Czerniawski, John F Guzowski, Daniela A Bota
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is commonly reported following the administration of chemotherapeutic agents and comprises a wide variety of neurological problems. No effective treatments for CRCI are currently available. Here we examined the mechanisms involving cisplatin-induced hippocampal damage following cisplatin administration in a rat model and in cultured rat hippocampal neurons and neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs). We also assessed the protective effects of the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine in mitigating these damages...
January 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894373/cognitive-effects-of-adjunctive-n-acetyl-cysteine-in-psychosis
#6
M Rapado-Castro, S Dodd, A I Bush, G S Malhi, D R Skvarc, Z X On, M Berk, O M Dean
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are predictors of functional outcome in patients with psychosis. While conventional antipsychotics are relatively effective on positive symptoms, their impact on negative and cognitive symptoms is limited. Recent studies have established a link between oxidative stress and neurocognitive deficits in psychosis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a glutathione precursor with glutamatergic properties, has shown efficacy on negative symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively...
April 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736051/a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial-of-n-acetylcysteine-in-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-substance-use-disorders
#7
Sudie E Back, Jenna L McCauley, Kristina J Korte, Daniel F Gros, Virginia Leavitt, Kevin M Gray, Mark B Hamner, Stacia M DeSantis, Robert Malcolm, Kathleen T Brady, Peter W Kalivas
OBJECTIVE: The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine is being increasingly investigated as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs). This study explored the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which frequently co-occurs with SUD and shares impaired prefrontal cortex regulation of basal ganglia circuitry, in particular at glutamate synapses in the nucleus accumbens. METHODS: Veterans with PTSD and SUD per DSM-IV criteria (N = 35) were randomly assigned to receive a double-blind, 8-week course of N-acetylcysteine (2,400 mg/d) or placebo plus cognitive-behavioral therapy for SUD (between March 2013 and April 2014)...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629871/n-acetylcysteine-nac-in-schizophrenia-resistant-to-clozapine-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial-targeting-negative-symptoms
#8
Susan L Rossell, Paul S Francis, Cherrie Galletly, Anthony Harris, Dan Siskind, Michael Berk, Kiymet Bozaoglu, Frances Dark, Olivia Dean, Dennis Liu, Denny Meyer, Erica Neill, Andrea Phillipou, Jerome Sarris, David J Castle
BACKGROUND: Clozapine is an effective treatment for a proportion of people with schizophrenia (SZ) who are resistant to the beneficial effects of other antipsychotic drugs. However, anything from 40-60 % of people on clozapine experience residual symptoms even on adequate doses of the medication, and thus could be considered 'clozapine resistant'. Agents that could work alongside clozapine to improve efficacy whilst not increasing the adverse effect burden are both desired and necessary to improve the lives of individuals with clozapine-resistant SZ...
September 15, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530256/treatment-strategies-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-review-with-focus-on-selenium-supplementation
#9
Jan Aaseth, Jan Alexander, Geir Bjørklund, Knut Hestad, Petr Dusek, Per M Roos, Urban Alehagen
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder presenting one of the biggest healthcare challenges in developed countries. No effective treatment exists. In recent years the main focus of AD research has been on the amyloid hypothesis, which postulates that extracellular precipitates of beta amyloid (Aβ) derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) are responsible for the cognitive impairment seen in AD. Treatment strategies have been to reduce Aβ production through inhibition of enzymes responsible for its formation, or to promote resolution of existing cerebral Aβ plaques...
October 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502769/the-post-anaesthesia-n-acetylcysteine-cognitive-evaluation-panacea-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
David R Skvarc, Olivia M Dean, Linda K Byrne, Laura J Gray, Kathryn Ives, Stephen E Lane, Matthew Lewis, Cameron Osborne, Richard Page, Douglas Stupart, Alyna Turner, Michael Berk, Andrew J Marriott
BACKGROUND: Some degree of cognitive decline after surgery occurs in as many as one quarter of elderly surgical patients, and this decline is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Cognition may be affected across a range of domains, including memory, psychomotor skills, and executive function. Whilst the exact mechanisms of cognitive change after surgery are not precisely known, oxidative stress and subsequent neuroinflammation have been implicated. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) acts via multiple interrelated mechanisms to influence oxidative homeostasis, neuronal transmission, and inflammation...
2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403880/a-combination-of-an-iron-chelator-with-an-antioxidant-effectively-diminishes-the-dendritic-loss-tau-hyperphosphorylation-amyloids-%C3%AE-accumulation-and-brain-mitochondrial-dynamic-disruption-in-rats-with-chronic-iron-overload
#11
Jirapas Sripetchwandee, Suwakon Wongjaikam, Warunsorn Krintratun, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Iron-overload can cause cognitive impairment due to blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and brain mitochondrial dysfunction. Although deferiprone (DFP) has been shown to exert neuroprotection, the head-to-head comparison among iron chelators used clinically on brain iron-overload has not been investigated. Moreover, since antioxidant has been shown to be beneficial in iron-overload condition, its combined effect with iron chelator has not been tested. Therefore, the hypothesis is that all chelators provide neuroprotection under iron-overload condition, and that a combination of an iron chelator with an antioxidant has greater efficacy than monotherapy...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325640/effects-of-combined-radiofrequency-field-exposure-on-amyloid-beta-induced-cytotoxicity-in-ht22-mouse-hippocampal-neurones
#12
Jong-Sun Lee, Jeong-Yub Kim, Hee-Jin Kim, Jeong Cheol Kim, Jae-Seon Lee, Nam Kim, Myung-Jin Park
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease and it is caused by neuronal death in the brain. Recent studies have shown that non-ionizing radiofrequency (RF) radiation has some beneficial cognitive effects in animal models of AD. In this study, we examined the effect of combined RF radiation on amyloid-beta (Aβ)-induced cytotoxicity in HT22 rat hippocampal neurons. Treatment with Aβ suppressed HT22 cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner...
November 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27284100/treatment-of-severe-refractory-and-rapidly-evolving-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura
#13
Rey R Acedillo, Mayur Govind, Abdullah Kashgary, William F Clark
A 36-year-old man presented to hospital with gross haematuria and evidence of severe, refractory thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Initial treatment with high-volume plasma exchange therapy and early administration of rituximab failed to achieve a sustained clinical response. His clinical course was complicated by left hemianopsia and despite an urgent splenectomy he developed a large right-sided stroke with malignant cerebral oedema that required an emergent decompressive craniotomy. He also had numerous infectious complications as a consequence of an aggressive immunosuppressive strategy...
June 9, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184387/neuroimaging-the-effectiveness-of-substance-use-disorder-treatments
#14
Elizabeth A Cabrera, Corinde E Wiers, Elsa Lindgren, Gregg Miller, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Neuroimaging techniques to measure the function and biochemistry of the human brain such as positron emission tomography (PET), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), are powerful tools for assessing neurobiological mechanisms underlying the response to treatments in substance use disorders. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature on pharmacological and behavioral treatment in substance use disorder. We focus on neural effects of medications that reduce craving (e...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27163208/synaptic-and-cellular-changes-induced-by-the-schizophrenia-susceptibility-gene-g72-are-rescued-by-n-acetylcysteine-treatment
#15
B Pósfai, C Cserép, P Hegedüs, E Szabadits, D M Otte, A Zimmer, M Watanabe, T F Freund, G Nyiri
Genetic studies have linked the primate-specific gene locus G72 to the development of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Transgenic mice carrying the entire gene locus express G72 mRNA in dentate gyrus (DG) and entorhinal cortex, causing altered electrophysiological properties of their connections. These transgenic mice exhibit behavioral alterations related to psychiatric diseases, including cognitive deficits that can be reversed by treatment with N-acetylcysteine, which was also found to be effective in human patients...
May 10, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27087133/n-acetylcysteine-protects-memory-decline-induced-by-streptozotocin-in-mice
#16
Michael Costa, Jamile Bernardi, Tiago Fiuza, Lidiane Costa, Ricardo Brandão, Maria E Pereira
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cognitive impairment, associated with a reduced concentration of acetylcholine (ACh) in brain cortex and hippocampus. Recently we reported that the N-acetylcysteine (NAC) decreases brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in vitro. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of NAC against streptozotocin (STZ) induced AD in mice. Mice were divided into four groups: I) Sham, II) NAC, III) STZ and IV) NAC + STZ...
June 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27027272/treatment-of-cannabis-use-disorder-current-science-and-future-outlook
#17
REVIEW
Brian J Sherman, Aimee L McRae-Clark
Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States. Rates of cannabis use and cannabis use disorder (CUD) have increased in the past decade, paralleling changes in the legal and political climate favoring legalization. Almost 20 million people 12 years or older report past-month cannabis use, and 8 million report daily or near-daily use. Concurrently, the perception that cannabis use poses a significant risk of negative consequences has decreased. Contrary to this perception, heavy cannabis use is associated with cognitive impairment, increased risk for psychotic disorders and other mental health problems, lower education attainment, and unemployment...
2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27007062/n-acetylcysteine-in-the-treatment-of-excoriation-disorder-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
Jon E Grant, Samuel R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Eric W Leppink, Brian L Odlaug, Suck Won Kim
IMPORTANCE: Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) is a disabling, underrecognized condition in which individuals repeatedly pick at their skin, leading to noticeable tissue damage. To date, there has been no clearly effective pharmacologic or psychological treatment for SPD. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether N-acetylcysteine, an amino acid that appears to restore extracellular glutamate concentration in the nucleus accumbens, will be more effective than placebo in reducing compulsive picking behavior...
May 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26900888/interventions-for-comorbid-problem-gambling-and-psychiatric-disorders-advancing-a-developing-field-of-research
#19
REVIEW
N A Dowling, S S Merkouris, F K Lorains
Despite significant psychiatric comorbidity in problem gambling, there is little evidence on which to base treatment recommendations for subpopulations of problem gamblers with comorbid psychiatric disorders. This mini-review draws on two separate systematic searches to identify possible interventions for comorbid problem gambling and psychiatric disorders, highlight the gaps in the currently available evidence base, and stimulate further research in this area. In this mini-review, only 21 studies that have conducted post-hoc analyses to explore the influence of psychiatric disorders or problem gambling subtypes on gambling outcomes from different types of treatment were identified...
July 2016: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26801406/cognitive-remission-a-novel-objective-for-the-treatment-of-major-depression
#20
REVIEW
Beatrice Bortolato, Kamilla W Miskowiak, Cristiano A Köhler, Michael Maes, Brisa S Fernandes, Michael Berk, André F Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) encompasses several domains, including but not limited to executive function, verbal memory, and attention. Furthermore, cognitive dysfunction is a frequent residual manifestation in depression and may persist during the remitted phase. Cognitive deficits may also impede functional recovery, including workforce performance, in patients with MDD. The overarching aims of this opinion article are to critically evaluate the effects of available antidepressants as well as novel therapeutic targets on neurocognitive dysfunction in MDD...
January 22, 2016: BMC Medicine
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