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N-acetylcysteine cognitive

Sudie E Back, Jenna L McCauley, Kristina J Korte, Daniel F Gros, Virginia Leavitt, Kevin M Gray, Mark B Hamner, Stacia M DeSantis, Robert Malcolm, Kathleen T Brady, Peter W Kalivas
OBJECTIVE: The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine is being increasingly investigated as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs). This study explored the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which frequently co-occurs with SUD and shares impaired prefrontal cortex regulation of basal ganglia circuitry, in particular at glutamate synapses in the nucleus accumbens. METHODS: Veterans with PTSD and SUD per DSM-IV criteria (N = 35) were randomly assigned to receive a double-blind, 8-week course of N-acetylcysteine (2,400 mg/d) or placebo plus cognitive-behavioral therapy for SUD (between March 2013 and April 2014)...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Susan L Rossell, Paul S Francis, Cherrie Galletly, Anthony Harris, Dan Siskind, Michael Berk, Kiymet Bozaoglu, Frances Dark, Olivia Dean, Dennis Liu, Denny Meyer, Erica Neill, Andrea Phillipou, Jerome Sarris, David J Castle
BACKGROUND: Clozapine is an effective treatment for a proportion of people with schizophrenia (SZ) who are resistant to the beneficial effects of other antipsychotic drugs. However, anything from 40-60 % of people on clozapine experience residual symptoms even on adequate doses of the medication, and thus could be considered 'clozapine resistant'. Agents that could work alongside clozapine to improve efficacy whilst not increasing the adverse effect burden are both desired and necessary to improve the lives of individuals with clozapine-resistant SZ...
September 15, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Jan Aaseth, Jan Alexander, Geir Bjørklund, Knut Hestad, Petr Dusek, Per M Roos, Urban Alehagen
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder presenting one of the biggest healthcare challenges in developed countries. No effective treatment exists. In recent years the main focus of AD research has been on the amyloid hypothesis, which postulates that extracellular precipitates of beta amyloid (Aβ) derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) are responsible for the cognitive impairment seen in AD. Treatment strategies have been to reduce Aβ production through inhibition of enzymes responsible for its formation, or to promote resolution of existing cerebral Aβ plaques...
October 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
David R Skvarc, Olivia M Dean, Linda K Byrne, Laura J Gray, Kathryn Ives, Stephen E Lane, Matthew Lewis, Cameron Osborne, Richard Page, Douglas Stupart, Alyna Turner, Michael Berk, Andrew J Marriott
BACKGROUND: Some degree of cognitive decline after surgery occurs in as many as one quarter of elderly surgical patients, and this decline is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Cognition may be affected across a range of domains, including memory, psychomotor skills, and executive function. Whilst the exact mechanisms of cognitive change after surgery are not precisely known, oxidative stress and subsequent neuroinflammation have been implicated. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) acts via multiple interrelated mechanisms to influence oxidative homeostasis, neuronal transmission, and inflammation...
2016: Trials
Jirapas Sripetchwandee, Suwakon Wongjaikam, Warunsorn Krintratun, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Iron-overload can cause cognitive impairment due to blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and brain mitochondrial dysfunction. Although deferiprone (DFP) has been shown to exert neuroprotection, the head-to-head comparison among iron chelators used clinically on brain iron-overload has not been investigated. Moreover, since antioxidant has been shown to be beneficial in iron-overload condition, its combined effect with iron chelator has not been tested. Therefore, the hypothesis is that all chelators provide neuroprotection under iron-overload condition, and that a combination of an iron chelator with an antioxidant has greater efficacy than monotherapy...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience
Jong-Sun Lee, Jeong-Yub Kim, Hee-Jin Kim, Jeong Cheol Kim, Jae-Seon Lee, Nam Kim, Myung-Jin Park
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease and it is caused by neuronal death in the brain. Recent studies have shown that non-ionizing radiofrequency (RF) radiation has some beneficial cognitive effects in animal models of AD. In this study, we examined the effect of combined RF radiation on amyloid-beta (Aβ)-induced cytotoxicity in HT22 rat hippocampal neurons. Treatment with Aβ suppressed HT22 cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Rey R Acedillo, Mayur Govind, Abdullah Kashgary, William F Clark
A 36-year-old man presented to hospital with gross haematuria and evidence of severe, refractory thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Initial treatment with high-volume plasma exchange therapy and early administration of rituximab failed to achieve a sustained clinical response. His clinical course was complicated by left hemianopsia and despite an urgent splenectomy he developed a large right-sided stroke with malignant cerebral oedema that required an emergent decompressive craniotomy. He also had numerous infectious complications as a consequence of an aggressive immunosuppressive strategy...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Elizabeth A Cabrera, Corinde E Wiers, Elsa Lindgren, Gregg Miller, Nora D Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang
Neuroimaging techniques to measure the function and biochemistry of the human brain such as positron emission tomography (PET), proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), are powerful tools for assessing neurobiological mechanisms underlying the response to treatments in substance use disorders. Here, we review the neuroimaging literature on pharmacological and behavioral treatment in substance use disorder. We focus on neural effects of medications that reduce craving (e...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
B Pósfai, C Cserép, P Hegedüs, E Szabadits, D M Otte, A Zimmer, M Watanabe, T F Freund, G Nyiri
Genetic studies have linked the primate-specific gene locus G72 to the development of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Transgenic mice carrying the entire gene locus express G72 mRNA in dentate gyrus (DG) and entorhinal cortex, causing altered electrophysiological properties of their connections. These transgenic mice exhibit behavioral alterations related to psychiatric diseases, including cognitive deficits that can be reversed by treatment with N-acetylcysteine, which was also found to be effective in human patients...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Michael Costa, Jamile Bernardi, Tiago Fiuza, Lidiane Costa, Ricardo Brandão, Maria E Pereira
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cognitive impairment, associated with a reduced concentration of acetylcholine (ACh) in brain cortex and hippocampus. Recently we reported that the N-acetylcysteine (NAC) decreases brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in vitro. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of NAC against streptozotocin (STZ) induced AD in mice. Mice were divided into four groups: I) Sham, II) NAC, III) STZ and IV) NAC + STZ...
June 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Brian J Sherman, Aimee L McRae-Clark
Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States. Rates of cannabis use and cannabis use disorder (CUD) have increased in the past decade, paralleling changes in the legal and political climate favoring legalization. Almost 20 million people 12 years or older report past-month cannabis use, and 8 million report daily or near-daily use. Concurrently, the perception that cannabis use poses a significant risk of negative consequences has decreased. Contrary to this perception, heavy cannabis use is associated with cognitive impairment, increased risk for psychotic disorders and other mental health problems, lower education attainment, and unemployment...
May 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Jon E Grant, Samuel R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Eric W Leppink, Brian L Odlaug, Suck Won Kim
IMPORTANCE: Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder (SPD) is a disabling, underrecognized condition in which individuals repeatedly pick at their skin, leading to noticeable tissue damage. To date, there has been no clearly effective pharmacologic or psychological treatment for SPD. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether N-acetylcysteine, an amino acid that appears to restore extracellular glutamate concentration in the nucleus accumbens, will be more effective than placebo in reducing compulsive picking behavior...
May 1, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
N A Dowling, S S Merkouris, F K Lorains
Despite significant psychiatric comorbidity in problem gambling, there is little evidence on which to base treatment recommendations for subpopulations of problem gamblers with comorbid psychiatric disorders. This mini-review draws on two separate systematic searches to identify possible interventions for comorbid problem gambling and psychiatric disorders, highlight the gaps in the currently available evidence base, and stimulate further research in this area. In this mini-review, only 21 studies that have conducted post-hoc analyses to explore the influence of psychiatric disorders or problem gambling subtypes on gambling outcomes from different types of treatment were identified...
July 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Beatrice Bortolato, Kamilla W Miskowiak, Cristiano A Köhler, Michael Maes, Brisa S Fernandes, Michael Berk, André F Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD) encompasses several domains, including but not limited to executive function, verbal memory, and attention. Furthermore, cognitive dysfunction is a frequent residual manifestation in depression and may persist during the remitted phase. Cognitive deficits may also impede functional recovery, including workforce performance, in patients with MDD. The overarching aims of this opinion article are to critically evaluate the effects of available antidepressants as well as novel therapeutic targets on neurocognitive dysfunction in MDD...
2016: BMC Medicine
Nobumi Miyake, Seiya Miyamoto, Yusuke Yamashita, Yuriko Ninomiya, Tomomi Tenjin, Noboru Yamaguchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Mark F McCarty, James J DiNicolantonio
Restricted dietary intakes of protein or essential amino acids tend to slow aging and boost lifespan in rodents, presumably because they downregulate IGF-I/Akt/mTORC1 signaling that acts as a pacesetter for aging and promotes cancer induction. A recent analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III cohort has revealed that relatively low protein intakes in mid-life (under 10 % of calories) are indeed associated with decreased subsequent risk for mortality. However, in those over 65 at baseline, such low protein intakes were associated with increased risk for mortality...
October 2015: Age (2005-)
Maya Katz, Seok Joon Won, Youngja Park, Adrienne Orr, Dean P Jones, Raymond A Swanson, Graham A Glass
INTRODUCTION: Depletion of neuronal glutathione may contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). N-acetylcysteine (NAC) can restore neuronal glutathione levels, but it has not been established whether NAC can cross the blood-brain barrier in humans. METHODS: Twelve patients with PD were given oral NAC twice daily for 2 days. Three doses were compared: 7 mg/kg, 35 mg/kg, and 70 mg/kg. NAC, cysteine, and glutathione were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at baseline and 90 min after the last dose...
May 2015: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Lauren J Rice, Stewart L Einfeld
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a review of the recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). RECENT FINDINGS: Research in the last 12 months has provided a descriptive prognosis of psychosis in PWS and highlighted the possible genes associated with the increased risk of psychosis for those with maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD). Several studies investigating social and communication skills have shown people with PWS to have difficulty with core, receptive and expressive language skills, interpreting emotional valence in faces, playing with children of their own age, understanding personal space and a developmental delay in the theory of mind...
March 2015: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
D J Wright, T Renoir, Z M Smith, A E Frazier, P S Francis, D R Thorburn, S L McGee, A J Hannan, L J Gray
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, involving psychiatric, cognitive and motor symptoms, caused by a CAG-repeat expansion encoding an extended polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. Oxidative stress and excitotoxicity have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of HD. We hypothesized that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may reduce both excitotoxicity and oxidative stress through its actions on glutamate reuptake and antioxidant capacity. The R6/1 transgenic mouse model of HD was used to investigate the effects of NAC on HD pathology...
2015: Translational Psychiatry
Andre F Carvalho, Kamilla K Miskowiak, Thomas N Hyphantis, Cristiano A Kohler, Gilberto S Alves, Beatrice Bortolato, Paulo Marcelo G Sales, Rodrigo Machado-Vieira, Michael Berk, Roger S McIntyre
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with cognitive dysfunction encompassing several domains, including memory, executive function, processing speed and attention. Cognitive deficits persist in a significant proportion of patients even in remission, compromising psychosocial functioning and workforce performance. While monoaminergic antidepressants may improve cognitive performance in MDD, most antidepressants have limited clinical efficacy. The overarching aims of this review were: (1) to synthesize extant literature on putative biological pathways related to cognitive dysfunction in MDD and (2) to review novel neurotherapeutic targets for cognitive enhancement in MDD...
2014: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
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