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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936190/two-isoforms-of-yersinia-pestis-plasminogen-activator-pla-intraspecies-distribution-intrinsic-disorder-propensity-and-contribution-to-virulence
#1
Svetlana V Dentovskaya, Mikhail E Platonov, Tat'yana E Svetoch, Pavel Kh Kopylov, Tat'yana I Kombarova, Sergey A Ivanov, Rima Z Shaikhutdinova, Lyubov' V Kolombet, Sadhana Chauhan, Vitaly G Ablamunits, Vladimir L Motin, Vladimir N Uversky, Andrey P Anisimov
It has been shown previously that several endemic Y. pestis isolates with limited virulence contained the I259 isoform of the outer membrane protease Pla, while the epidemic highly virulent strains possessed only the T259 Pla isoform. Our sequence analysis of the pla gene from 118 Y. pestis subsp. microtus strains revealed that the I259 isoform was present exclusively in the endemic strains providing a convictive evidence of more ancestral origin of this isoform. Analysis of the effects of the I259T polymorphism on the intrinsic disorder propensity of Pla revealed that the I259T mutation slightly increases the intrinsic disorder propensity of the C-terminal tail of Pla and makes this protein slightly more prone for disorder-based protein-protein interactions, suggesting that the T259 Pla could be functionally more active than the I259 Pla...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936019/ultrasensitive-detection-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-from-fecal-samples-using-functionalized-nanoparticles
#2
Na Xing, Xiaoxiao Guan, Bin An, Beibei Cui, Zengguo Wang, Xiaoya Wang, Xiujuan Zhang, Qian Du, Xiaomin Zhao, Yong Huang, Dewen Tong
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the main causative agent of porcine diarrhea, which has resulted in devastating damage to swine industry and become a perplexed global problem. PEDV infection causes lesions and clinical symptoms, and infected pigs often succumb to severe dehydration. If there is not a timely and effective method to control its infection, PEDV will spread rapidly across the whole swine farm. Therefore, preclinical identification of PEDV is of great significance for preventing the outbreak and spread of this disease...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932442/contraceptive-sales-in-the-setting-of-the-zika-virus-epidemic
#3
Luis Bahamondes, Moazzam Ali, Ilza Monteiro, Arlete Fernandes
STUDY QUESTION: Has there been any influence of the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak on the sales of contraceptive methods in Brazil? SUMMARY ANSWER: Contraceptive sales in the 24 months of evaluation showed little variation and no significant change has been observed since the ZIKV outbreak. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Transmission of ZIKV is primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes; however, sexual transmission has also been described. The association of several birth defects and the ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been established, and it was estimated in Bahia, Brazil that the infection rate could range from 10% to 80%...
December 7, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931998/-between-combat-boots-and-birkenstocks-lessons-from-hiv-aids-sars-h1n1-and-ebola
#4
R Crawford, D C Rutz, D P Evans
OBJECTIVES: In late 2013, an Ebola outbreak quickly grew into an epidemic of extraordinary magnitude, killing more people than all previous Ebola outbreaks combined. Although the epidemic was unprecedented, the world had previously experienced several acute public health emergencies requiring global coordination. HIV/AIDS, SARS and H1N1 tested global response, and in each case coordination proved problematic, making the 2013-2015 Ebola epidemic no exception. The purpose of this project was to identify persistent vulnerabilities within global public health emergency response and to identify areas for future research and improvement...
December 2016: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928079/factors-associated-with-fatal-outcomes-following-cholera-like-syndrome-in-far-north-region-of-cameroon-a-community-based-survey
#5
Fabrice N Djouma, Jerome Ateudjieu, Malathi Ram, Amanda K Debes, David A Sack
This study demonstrates that most cholera deaths in this region of Cameroon occur out of hospital. This is a region which is prone to cholera, and interventions are needed to improve access to emergency medical care, especially during cholera outbreaks. Cameroon has experienced 14 cholera epidemics during the last 20 years, and these have had high case fatality rates. This study attempted to assess the effect of delays in seeking care and the locations of care as possible risk factors for cholera mortality...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926790/molecular-surveillance-of-dengue-in-minas-gerais-provides-insights-on-dengue-virus-1-and-4-circulation-in-brazil
#6
Karina Rocha Dutra, Betânia Paiva Drumond, Izabela Maurício de Rezende, Maurício Lacerda Nogueira, Débora de Oliveira Lopes, Carlos Eduardo Calzavara Silva, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira Ferreira, Luciana Lara Dos Santos
Dengue, caused by any of the four types of Dengue virus (DENV) is the most important arbovirus in the world. In this study we performed a molecular surveillance of dengue during the greatest dengue outbreak that took place in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais state, Southeast Brazil, in 2013. Samples from 100 patients with clinical symptoms of dengue were studied and 26 were positive. The capsid/premembrane (CprM) and envelope gene sequences of some samples were amplified and sequenced. Molecular analyses demonstrated that two DENV-1 lineages, belonging to genotype V were introduced and co-circulated in Divinópolis...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925844/a-two-dose-heterologous-prime-boost-vaccine-regimen-eliciting-sustained-immune-responses-to-ebola-zaire-could-support-a-preventive-strategy-for-future-outbreaks
#7
Georgi Shukarev, Benoit Callendret, Kerstin Luhn, Macaya Douoguih, The Ebovac Consortium
The consequences of the 2013-16 Ebola Zaire virus disease epidemic in West Africa were grave. The economies, healthcare systems and communities of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia were devastated by over 18 months of active Ebola virus transmission, followed by sporadic resurgences potentially related to sexual transmission by survivors with viral persistence in body fluids following recovery. The need to develop and implement strategies to prevent and mitigate future outbreaks is now beyond dispute. The potential for unpredictable outbreaks of indeterminate duration, and control challenges posed by the possibility of sporadic re-emergence, mean that implementation of an effective vaccination programme for outbreak containment necessitates a vaccine providing durable immunity...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923768/detection-and-genetic-characterization-of-the-emergent-gii-17_2014norovirus-genotype-among-children-with-gastroenteritis-from-northern-brazil
#8
Luciana Damascena da Silva, Renato da Silva Bandeira, Edivaldo Costa Sousa Junior, Ian Carlos Gomes de Lima, Edvaldo Tavares da Penha Júnior, Dielle Monteiro Teixeira, Jones Anderson Monteiro Siqueira, Hugo Reis Resque, Erika Maria Nogueira de Abreu Campos, Maria Cleonice Aguiar Justino, Alexandre Costa Linhares, Yvone Benchimol Gabbay
Norovirus is the most important cause of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Recently, a novel GII.17 norovirus variant emerged and caused epidemics in Asian countries, replacing the GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain in hospitalized cases. In this study we describe the emergence of this novel NoV GII.17_2014 strain in Brazil.
December 3, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920172/how-chikungunya-virus-virology-affects-its-epidemiology-and-transmission-implications-for-influencing-public-health
#9
Ann M Powers
Chikungunya virus has been causing a series of ongoing epidemics around the globe for the past 12 years. During that time, estimates indicate that >4 million cases occurred worldwide. Despite the magnitude of these outbreaks and the broad interest in understanding the virus and disease, significant gaps still exist in our knowledge base. An in-depth understanding of the basic virological elements that can affect the epidemiology of the agent is critical for future development of control and treatment products...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920169/chikungunya-its-history-in-africa-and-asia-and-its-spread-to-new-regions-in-2013-2014
#10
Herve Zeller, Wim Van Bortel, Bertrand Sudre
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and causes febrile illness with severe arthralgia in humans. There are 3 circulating CHIKV genotypes, Asia, East/Central/South Africa, and West Africa. CHIKV was first reported in 1953 in Tanzania, and up until the early 2000s, a few outbreaks and sporadic cases of CHIKV were mainly reported in Africa and Asia. However, from 2004 to 2005, a large epidemic spanned from Kenya over to the southwestern Indian Ocean region, India, and Southeast Asia...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916410/meeting-report-who-consultation-on-considerations-for-regulatory-expectations-of-zika-virus-vaccines-for-use-during-an-emergency
#11
K S Vannice, B K Giersing, D C Kaslow, E Griffiths, H Meyer, A Barrett, A P Durbin, D Wood, J Hombach
On 1 February 2016, in the context of the ongoing Zika virus epidemic, the WHO declared that the recently reported clusters of microcephaly and other neurological disorders constituted a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). In response, WHO in collaboration with UNICEF and a working group of independent subject matter experts developed a Zika virus vaccine Target Product Profile (TPP) for use in an emergency, or in a future outbreak scenario. The drafting process of the Zika virus vaccine TPP included the opportunity for public comment, as well as consultation with epidemiologists, flavivirus vaccine subject matter experts, vaccine developers and global regulators to consider the regulatory expectations and potential emergency use pathways for a vaccine with the characteristics described in the TPP...
December 1, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913131/using-phenomenological-models-for-forecasting-the-2015-ebola-challenge
#12
Bruce Pell, Yang Kuang, Cecile Viboud, Gerardo Chowell
BACKGROUND: The rising number of novel pathogens threatening the human population has motivated the application of mathematical modeling for forecasting the trajectory and size of epidemics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We summarize the real-time forecasting results of the logistic equation during the 2015 Ebola challenge focused on predicting synthetic data derived from a detailed individual-based model of Ebola transmission dynamics and control. We also carry out a post-challenge comparison of two simple phenomenological models...
November 19, 2016: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905938/the-impact-of-epidemics-on-labor-market-identifying-victims-of-the-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-in-the-korean-labor-market
#13
Ayoung Lee, Joonmo Cho
BACKGROUND: The vulnerability approach suggests that disasters such as epidemics have different effects according not only to physical vulnerability but also to economic class (status). This paper examines the effect of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome epidemic on the labor market to investigate whether vulnerable groups become more vulnerable due to an interaction between the socio-economic structure and physical risk. METHODS: This paper examines the effect of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome epidemic on the labor market by considering unemployment status, job status, working hours, reason for unemployment and underemployment status...
December 1, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905834/rubella-outbreak-and-outbreak-management-in-a-school-setting-china-2014
#14
Caiyun Chang, Huilai Ma, Wenjia Liang, Pei Hu, Xianghuan Mo, Zhijie An, Huizhen Zheng
BACKGROUND: An active response to a rubella outbreak may interrupt disease transmission, and outbreak response immunization (ORI) can increase immunity among persons who might otherwise not be protected. On March 17, 2014, a rubella outbreak was reported in a middle school in Guangzhou city, China. We conducted an investigation to assess impact of a policy of exclusion of cases from school and of ORI. METHODS: Active surveillance was used to find cases of rubella...
December 1, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904879/the-establishment-and-diversification-of-epidemic-associated-serogroup-w-meningococcus-in-the-african-meningitis-belt-1994-to-2012
#15
Adam C Retchless, Fang Hu, Abdoul-Salam Ouédraogo, Seydou Diarra, Kristen Knipe, Mili Sheth, Lori A Rowe, Lassana Sangaré, Absetou Ky Ba, Soumeya Ouangraoua, Dhwani Batra, Ryan T Novak, Rasmata Ouédraogo Traoré, Xin Wang
Epidemics of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by meningococcal serogroup A have been eliminated from the sub-Saharan African so-called "meningitis belt" by the meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (MACV), and yet, other serogroups continue to cause epidemics. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W remains a major cause of disease in the region, with most isolates belonging to clonal complex 11 (CC11). Here, the genetic variation within and between epidemic-associated strains was assessed by sequencing the genomes of 92 N...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902502/zika-virus-and-patient-blood-management
#16
Lawrence T Goodnough, Marisa B Marques
Sporadic Zika virus infections had only occurred in Africa and Asia until an outbreak in Micronesia (Oceania) in 2007. In 2013 to 2014, several outer Pacific Islands reported local outbreaks. Soon thereafter, the virus was likely introduced in Brazil from competing athletes from French Polynesia and other countries that participated in a competition there. Transmission is thought to have occurred through mosquito bites and spread to the immunologically naive population. Being also a flavivirus, the Zika virus is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito that is endemic in South and Central America that is also the vector of West Nile virus, dengue, and chikungunya...
November 29, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899155/comparative-sequence-analysis-of-cyclospora-cayetanensis-apicoplast-genomes-originating-from-diverse-geographical-regions
#17
Hediye Nese Cinar, Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Yuping Wei-Pridgeon, Wen Li, Fernanda S Nascimento, Michael J Arrowood, Helen R Murphy, AhYoung Jang, Eunje Kim, RaeYoung Kim, Alexandre da Silva, Gopal R Gopinath
BACKGROUND: Cyclospora cayetanensis is an emerging coccidian parasite that causes endemic and epidemic diarrheal disease called cyclosporiasis, and this infection is associated with consumption of contaminated produce or water in developed and developing regions. Food-borne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis have occurred almost every year in the USA since the 1990s. Investigations of these outbreaks are currently hampered due to lack of molecular epidemiological tools for trace back analysis...
November 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898018/combating-ebola-with-repurposed-therapeutics-using-the-cando-platform
#18
Gaurav Chopra, Sashank Kaushik, Peter L Elkin, Ram Samudrala
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is extremely virulent with an estimated mortality rate of up to 90%. However, the state-of-the-art treatment for EVD is limited to quarantine and supportive care. The 2014 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, the largest in history, is believed to have caused more than 11,000 fatalities. The countries worst affected are also among the poorest in the world. Given the complexities, time, and resources required for a novel drug development, finding efficient drug discovery pathways is going to be crucial in the fight against future outbreaks...
November 25, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897973/structure-in-the-variability-of-the-basic-reproductive-number-r0-for-zika-epidemics-in-the-pacific-islands
#19
Clara Champagne, David Georges Salthouse, Richard Paul, Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau, Benjamin Roche, Bernard Cazelles
Before the outbreak that reached the Americas in 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV) circulated in Asia and the Pacific: these past epidemics can be highly informative on the key parameters driving virus transmission, such as the basic reproduction number (R0). We compare two compartmental models with different mosquito representations, using surveillance and seroprevalence data for several ZIKV outbreaks in Pacific islands (Yap, Micronesia 2007, Tahiti and Moorea, French Polynesia 2013-2014, New Caledonia 2014). Models are estimated in a stochastic framework with recent Bayesian techniques...
November 29, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895903/deliberate-exposure-of-humans-to-chlorine-the-aftermath-of-ebola-in-west-africa
#20
Shaheen Mehtar, Andre N H Bulabula, Haurace Nyandemoh, Steve Jambawai
BACKGROUND: During the recent Ebola outbreak, spraying of the environment and humans, including healthcare workers, with chlorine was wide spread in affected African countries; adverse clinical effects are reported here. METHODS: A cross sectional survey by interview of 1550 volunteers consisting of 500 healthcare workers (HCW), 550 Ebola survivors (EVD) and 500 quarantined asymptomatic Ebola contacts (NEVD) was conducted. Demographics, frequency of exposure to chlorine, clinical condition after chlorine exposure particularly eye, respiratory and skin conditions were noted...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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