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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742879/epidemiological-investigations-of-the-introduction-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-in-chile-2013-2015
#1
Víctor Neira, Barbara Brito, Juan Mena, Marie Culhane, Maria Ignacia Apel, Vanessa Max, Patricio Perez, Valentina Moreno, Christian Mathieu, Magdalena Johow, Catalina Badia, Montserrat Torremorell, Rafael Medina, Rene Ortega
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is endemic in most pork producing countries. In Chile, eradication of PRRS virus (PRRSV) was successfully achieved in 2009 as a result of the combined efforts of producers and the animal health authorities. In October 2013, after several years without detecting PRRSV under surveillance activities, suspected cases were confirmed on a commercial swine farm. Here, we describe the PRRS epidemic in Chile between October 2013 and April 2015, and we studied the origins and spread of PRRSV throughout the country using official surveillance data and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742814/wetlands-wild-bovidae-species-richness-and-sheep-density-delineate-risk-of-rift-valley-fever-outbreaks-in-the-african-continent-and-arabian-peninsula
#2
Michael G Walsh, Allard Willem de Smalen, Siobhan M Mor
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging, vector-borne viral zoonosis that has significantly impacted public health, livestock health and production, and food security over the last three decades across large regions of the African continent and the Arabian Peninsula. The potential for expansion of RVF outbreaks within and beyond the range of previous occurrence is unknown. Despite many large national and international epidemics, the landscape epidemiology of RVF remains obscure, particularly with respect to the ecological roles of wildlife reservoirs and surface water features...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738473/-hoof-genotyping-characteristics-of-brucella-melitensis-strains-isolated-in-ulanqab-of-inner-mongolia-autonomous-region
#3
Z G Liu, M Wang, R H Liu, X J Shang, B Y Cui
Objective: To investigate the HOOF genotyping characteristics of 83 Brucella (B.) melitensis strains isolated in Ulanqab of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region from 2012 to 2015. Methods: A total of 83 B. melitensis strains were detected by convention identification and AMOS-PCR, then HOOF protocol with eight VNTR locus were used for the genotyping of the strains, and the allelic diversity of each VNTR locus and the discriminatory power of VNTR typing of HOOF were assessed by Hunter-Gaston Discriminatory index...
July 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735858/asymmetric-disease-dynamics-in-multihost-interconnected-networks
#4
Shai Pilosof, Gili Greenbaum, Boris R Krasnov, Yuval R Zelnik
Epidemic spread in single-host systems strongly depends on the population's transmission network. However, little is known regarding the spread of epidemics across networks representing populations of multiple hosts. We explored cross-species transmission in a multilayer network where layers represent populations of two distinct hosts, and disease can spread across intralayer (within-host) and interlayer (between-host) edges. We developed an analytic framework for the SIR epidemic model to examine the effect of (i) source of infection and (ii) between-host asymmetry in infection probabilities, on disease risk...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734630/management-of-an-acinetobacter-baumannii-outbreak-in-an-intensive-care-unit
#5
M Tanguy, A Kouatchet, B Tanguy, É Pichard, S Fanello, M-L Joly-Guillou
INTRODUCTION: Acinetobacter baumannii is a ubiquitous pathogen resistant to desiccation and responsible for healthcare-associated infections (HAI), especially in intensive care units (ICU) where it is responsible for 5-10% of HAIs. An A. baumannii outbreak occurred in the ICU of the University Hospital of Angers, France. OBJECTIVES: To describe the A. baumannii outbreak and to evaluate the control measures taken. The secondary objective was to evaluate the impact of the electronic alert system on the incidence of multidrug resistance to antibiotics...
July 19, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734617/epidemiology-evolution-and-pathogenesis-of-h7n9-influenza-viruses-in-five-epidemic-waves-since-2013-in-china
#6
REVIEW
Shuo Su, Min Gu, Di Liu, Jie Cui, George F Gao, Jiyong Zhou, Xiufan Liu
H7N9 influenza viruses were first isolated in 2013 and continue to cause human infections. H7N9 infections represent an ongoing public health threat that has resulted in 1344 cases with 511 deaths as of April 9, 2017. This highlights the continued threat posed by the current poultry trade and live poultry market system in China. Until now, there have been five H7N9 influenza epidemic waves in China; however, the steep increase in the number of humans infected with H7N9 viruses observed in the fifth wave, beginning in October 2016, the spread into western provinces, and the emergence of highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 influenza outbreaks in chickens and infection in humans have caused domestic and international concern...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734432/outbreak-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-causes-high-fatality-after-cardiac-operations
#7
Rakan I Nazer
Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) resembles a severe form of community-acquired pneumonia initially reported in Saudi Arabia in 2012. The MERS-CoV epidemic poses a big challenge because of its high mortality. In January 2015, a patient who was potentially incubating MERS-CoV arrived from the emergency department of another hospital and was admitted with acute coronary syndrome. This resulted in an outbreak in the cardiac surgery ward that caused the deaths of 5 of 6 patients who had undergone cardiac operations...
August 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734191/evolutionary-dynamics-of-recent-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-epidemic-in-china-during-2013-2014
#8
Jingyue Bao, Qinghua Wang, Lin Li, Chunju Liu, Zhicheng Zhang, Jinming Li, Shujuan Wang, Xiaodong Wu, Zhiliang Wang
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a highly contagious disease, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), in sheep and goats which has been considered as a serious threat to the local economy in Africa and Asia. However, the in-depth evolutionary dynamics of PPRV during an epidemic is not well understood. We conducted phylogenetic analysis on genomic sequences of 25 PPRV strains from China 2013-2014 outbreaks. All these strains clustered into a novel clade in lineage 4. An evolutionary rate of 2.61 × 10(-6) nucleotide substitutions per site per day was estimated, dating the most recent common ancestor of PPRV China 2013-2014 strains to early August 2013...
July 19, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734093/scaling-up-hcv-prevention-and-treatment-interventions-in-rural-usa-model-projections-for-tackling-an-increasing-epidemic
#9
Hannah Fraser, Jon Zibbell, Thomas Hoerger, Susan Hariri, Claudia Vellozzi, Natasha K Martin, Alex H Kral, Matthew Hickman, John W Ward, Peter Vickerman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Effective strategies are needed to address dramatic increases in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in rural settings of the United States (US). We determined the required scale-up of HCV treatment with or without scale-up of HCV prevention interventions to achieve a 90% reduction in HCV chronic prevalence or incidence by 2025 and 2030 in a rural US setting. DESIGN: An ordinary differential equation model of HCV transmission calibrated to HCV epidemiological data obtained primarily from a HIV-outbreak investigation in Indiana...
July 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733078/respiratory-protection-against-pandemic-and-epidemic-diseases
#10
Ilaria Rubino, Hyo-Jick Choi
Respiratory protection against airborne pathogens is crucial for pandemic/epidemic preparedness in the context of personal protection, healthcare systems, and governance. We expect that the development of technologies that overcome the existing challenges in current respiratory protective devices will lead to a timely and effective response to the next outbreak.
July 18, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729711/an-ecological-and-digital-epidemiology-analysis-on-the-role-of-human-behavior-on-the-2014-chikungunya-outbreak-in-martinique
#11
Benjamin Roche, Béatrice Gaillard, Lucas Léger, Renélise Pélagie-Moutenda, Thomas Sochacki, Bernard Cazelles, Martine Ledrans, Alain Blateau, Didier Fontenille, Manuel Etienne, Frédéric Simard, Marcel Salathé, André Yébakima
Understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of endemic infections is of critical importance for a deeper understanding of pathogen transmission, and for the design of more efficient public health strategies. However, very few studies in this domain have focused on emerging infections, generating a gap of knowledge that hampers epidemiological response planning. Here, we analyze the case of a Chikungunya outbreak that occurred in Martinique in 2014. Using time series estimates from a network of sentinel practitioners covering the entire island, we first analyze the spatio-temporal dynamics and show that the largest city has served as the epicenter of this epidemic...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728470/influence-of-infectious-disease-seasonality-on-the-performance-of-the-outbreak-detection-algorithm-in-the-china-infectious-disease-automated-alert-and-response-system
#12
Ruiping Wang, Yonggen Jiang, Xiaoqin Guo, Yiling Wu, Genming Zhao
Objective The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention developed the China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS) in 2008. The CIDARS can detect outbreak signals in a timely manner but generates many false-positive signals, especially for diseases with seasonality. We assessed the influence of seasonality on infectious disease outbreak detection performance. Methods Chickenpox surveillance data in Songjiang District, Shanghai were used. The optimized early alert thresholds for chickenpox were selected according to three algorithm evaluation indexes: sensitivity (Se), false alarm rate (FAR), and time to detection (TTD)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727803/role-of-fomites-in-sars-transmission-during-the-largest-hospital-outbreak-in-hong-kong
#13
Shenglan Xiao, Yuguo Li, Tze-Wai Wong, David S C Hui
The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) had a significant effect on global society in the early 2000s and the potential of its resurgence exists. Studies on the modes of transmission of SARS are limited though a number of outbreak studies have revealed the possible airborne route. To develop more specific and effective control strategies, we conducted a detailed mechanism-based investigation that explored the role of fomite transmission in the well-known Ward 8A outbreak. We considered three hypothetical transmission routes, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725019/high-dose-sertraline-monotherapy-fails-to-protect-rhesus-macaques-from-lethal-challenge-with-ebola-virus-makona
#14
Anna N Honko, Joshua C Johnson, Jonathan S Marchand, Louis Huzella, Ricky D Adams, Nicholas Oberlander, Lisa M Torzewski, Richard S Bennett, Lisa E Hensley, Peter B Jahrling, Gene G Olinger
The recent epidemic of Ebola virus disease in West Africa resulted in an unprecedented number of cases and deaths. Due to the scope of the outbreak combined with the lack of available approved treatment options, there was strong motivation to investigate any potential drug which had existing data reporting anti-Ebola activity. Drugs with demonstrated antiviral activity in the nonhuman primate models already approved for another indication or for which there was existing safety data were considered to be priorities for evaluation by the World Health Organization...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724972/asymptomatic-transmission-and-the-dynamics-of-zika-infection
#15
Seyed M Moghadas, Affan Shoukat, Aquino L Espindola, Rafael S Pereira, Fatima Abdirizak, Marek Laskowski, Cecile Viboud, Gerardo Chowell
Following the 2013-14 outbreak in French Polynesia, the Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic spread widely to many countries where Aedes Aegypti as the main transmitting vector is endemic. The lack of a second wave of ZIKV infection in most affected regions may suggest that a sufficiently high level of herd immunity was reached during the first wave. We developed an agent-based transmission model to investigate the role of asymptomatic infection on the likelihood of observing a second wave, while accounting for its relative transmissibility...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722640/the-role-of-risk-proximity-in-the-beliefs-and-behaviors-related-to-mosquito-borne-diseases-the-case-of-chikungunya-in-french-guiana
#16
Claude Flamand, Camille Fritzell, Pauline Obale, Philippe Quenel, Jocelyn Raude
Human behaviors are increasingly recognized to play a key role in the spread of infectious diseases. Although a set of social and cognitive determinants has been consistently found to affect the adoption of health protective behaviors aiming to control and prevent a variety of infections, little is currently known about the ecological drivers of these behaviors in epidemic settings. In this article, we took advantage of the outbreak of chikungunya, a reemerging mosquito-borne disease, that occurred in French Guiana in 2014-15 to test empirically the assumption proposed by Zielinski-Gutierrez and Hayden that the proximity of the disease and perceptions of the natural environment may considerably shape public response to an emerging health threat...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722609/differences-in-mortality-and-clinical-manifestations-of-dengue-hemorrhagic-fever-in-taiwan-in-different-years-a-comparison-for-cases-in-2014-and-2015-epidemics
#17
Ko Chang, Chung-Hao Huang, Ing-Kit Lee, Po-Liang Lu, Chun-Yu Lin, Tun-Chieh Chen, Ping-Chang Lai, Hsiao-Cheng Hsieh, Hsin-Liang Yu, Chih-Hsing Hung, Meng-Chieh Wu, Yi-Ying Chin, Chun-Chi Huang, Deng-Chyang Wu, Yen-Hsu Chen
People in southern Taiwan experienced two major dengue outbreaks in 2014 and 2015. The mortality and clinical features were very different between these 2 years. Dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1) caused epidemic outbreak in 2014 and DENV-2 was predominant in 2015. The characteristics of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) cases in the 2 years was analyzed. We conducted a retrospective chart review to analyze the clinical and laboratory features of 206 adult patients with DHF in southern Taiwan in 2014 and 2015. The mortality rate of DHF cases in 2015 was higher than that of cases in 2014 (38...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722564/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-and-chikungunya-description-of-all-cases-diagnosed-during-the-2014-outbreak-in-the-french-west-indies
#18
Stephanie Balavoine, Mathilde Pircher, Bruno Hoen, Cecile Herrmann-Storck, Fatiha Najioullah, Benjamin Madeux, Aissatou Signate, Ruddy Valentino, Annie Lannuzel, Magali Saint Louis, Sylvie Cassadou, André Cabié, Kinda Schepers
The Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has been reported as a possible complication of acute chikungunya infection. The chikungunya epidemics, which occurred in Martinique and Guadeloupe in 2014, affected 308,000 people in these two islands. GBS occurred during or immediately after acute chikungunya infection in 13 patients (10 men, three women; mean age: 61 years). Median time from acute chikungunya to GBS onset was 9 days. Twelve patients were treated with intravenous polyvalent immunoglobulins, nine of whom improved within 7 days...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721176/from-one-to-the-other-responding-to-ebola-cases-on-either-side-of-the-line
#19
Rebecca Day Merrill, Sadie Elizabeth Ward, Marydale Cauble Oppert, Dana Allison Schneider
This case study is adapted from events that occurred along the Sierra Leone and Guinea land border during the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa. The response activities involved Sierra Leone and Guinea officials, along with assistance from U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organisation (WHO). This case study builds upon an understanding of basic surveillance systems and outbreak response activities. Through this exercise, students will understand how to incorporate communication and coordination into surveillance and response efforts with counterparts across the border in neighbouring countries...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721170/an-epidemic-of-spastic-paraparesis-of-unknown-aetiology-in-northern-mozambique
#20
Cátia Luciana Abdulfattáhe Taibo, Julie Cliff, Hans Rosling, Casey Daniel Hall, Meeyoung Mattie Park, Joseph Asamoah Frimpong
This case study is based on a real-life outbreak investigation undertaken in Mozambique in 1981. This case study describes and promotes one particular approach to unknown disease outbreak investigation. Investigational procedures, however, may vary depending on location and outbreak. It is anticipated that the epidemiologist investigating an unknown disease outbreak will work within the framework of a "multidisciplinary investigation team". It is through the collaborative efforts of this team, with each member playing a critical role, that outbreak investigations are successfully completed...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
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