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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350152/epidemic-varicella-zoster-virus-among-university-students-india
#1
Josh Meyers, Muthunarayanan Logaraj, Balaji Ramraj, Padmanesan Narasimhan, C Raina MacIntyre
We investigated a yearlong varicella zoster virus outbreak in a highly susceptible young adult population at a large university in India. Outbreaks of varicella infection among adults are not well described in the literature. Infection control measures and vaccination policy for this age group and setting are needed.
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350142/lethal-respiratory-disease-associated-with-human-rhinovirus%C3%A2-c-in-wild-chimpanzees-uganda-2013
#2
Erik J Scully, Sarmi Basnet, Richard W Wrangham, Martin N Muller, Emily Otali, David Hyeroba, Kristine A Grindle, Tressa E Pappas, Melissa Emery Thompson, Zarin Machanda, Kelly E Watters, Ann C Palmenberg, James E Gern, Tony L Goldberg
We describe a lethal respiratory outbreak among wild chimpanzees in Uganda in 2013 for which molecular and epidemiologic analyses implicate human rhinovirus C as the cause. Postmortem samples from an infant chimpanzee yielded near-complete genome sequences throughout the respiratory tract; other pathogens were absent. Epidemiologic modeling estimated the basic reproductive number (R0) for the epidemic as 1.83, consistent with the common cold in humans. Genotyping of 41 chimpanzees and examination of 24 published chimpanzee genomes from subspecies across Africa showed universal homozygosity for the cadherin-related family member 3 CDHR3-Y529 allele, which increases risk for rhinovirus C infection and asthma in human children...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350136/ecologic-features-of-plague-outbreak-areas-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-2004-2014
#3
Aaron Aruna Abedi, Jean-Christophe Shako, Jean Gaudart, Bertrand Sudre, Benoit Kebela Ilunga, Stomy Karhemere Bi Shamamba, Georges Diatta, Bernard Davoust, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum, Renaud Piarroux, Martine Piarroux
During 2004-2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) declared 54% of plague cases worldwide. Using national data, we characterized the epidemiology of human plague in DRC for this period. All 4,630 suspected human plague cases and 349 deaths recorded in DRC came from Orientale Province. Pneumonic plague cases (8.8% of total) occurred during 2 major outbreaks in mining camps in the equatorial forest, and some limited outbreaks occurred in the Ituri highlands. Epidemics originated in 5 health zones clustered in Ituri, where sporadic bubonic cases were recorded throughout every year...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347176/optimal-allocation-of-resources-for-suppressing-epidemic-spreading-on-networks
#4
Hanshuang Chen, Guofeng Li, Haifeng Zhang, Zhonghuai Hou
Efficient allocation of limited medical resources is crucial for controlling epidemic spreading on networks. Based on the susceptible-infected-susceptible model, we solve the optimization problem of how best to allocate the limited resources so as to minimize prevalence, providing that the curing rate of each node is positively correlated to its medical resource. By quenched mean-field theory and heterogeneous mean-field (HMF) theory, we prove that an epidemic outbreak will be suppressed to the greatest extent if the curing rate of each node is directly proportional to its degree, under which the effective infection rate λ has a maximal threshold λ_{c}^{opt}=1/〈k〉, where 〈k〉 is the average degree of the underlying network...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346387/inferring-the-risk-factors-behind-the-geographical-spread-and-transmission-of-zika-in-the-americas
#5
Lauren M Gardner, András Bóta, Karthik Gangavarapu, Moritz U G Kraemer, Nathan D Grubaugh
BACKGROUND: An unprecedented Zika virus epidemic occurred in the Americas during 2015-2016. The size of the epidemic in conjunction with newly recognized health risks associated with the virus attracted significant attention across the research community. Our study complements several recent studies which have mapped epidemiological elements of Zika, by introducing a newly proposed methodology to simultaneously estimate the contribution of various risk factors for geographic spread resulting in local transmission and to compute the risk of spread (or re-introductions) between each pair of regions...
January 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342444/scarlet-fever-epidemic-in-china-caused-by-streptococcus-pyogenes-serotype-m12-epidemiologic-and-molecular-analysis
#6
Yuanhai You, Mark R Davies, Melinda Protani, Liam McIntyre, Mark J Walker, Jianzhong Zhang
From 2011, Hong Kong and mainland China have witnessed a sharp increase in reported cases, with subsequent reports of epidemic scarlet fever in North Asia and the United Kingdom. Here we examine epidemiological data and investigate the genomic context of the predominantly serotype M12 Streptococcus pyogenes scarlet fever isolates from mainland China. Incident case data was obtained from the Chinese Nationwide Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System. The relative risk of scarlet fever in recent outbreak years 2011-2016 was calculated using the median age-standardised incidence rate, compared to years 2003-2010 prior this outbreak...
January 11, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341945/lessons-about-causes-and-management-of-an-ebola-outbreak
#7
Aida Elargoubi, Anis W Belhaj Khelifa, Ons Haddad, Salma Mhalla, Nabil Sakly, Maha Mastouri
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is one of the deadliest viral diseases. It is characterized by a high mortality rate due to the lack of effective and safe treatments or vaccines and its ability to spread at an unstoppable pace. The West Africa outbreak ended but the disease may strike again at any time. The latest epidemic was, by far, the deadliest to date. The most concern was why this outbreak was so different from the previous ones. We proposed in this review firstly to summarize the principal causes of its unprecedented spread and secondly to identify the steps for an effective management approach of a future Ebola outbreak...
December 20, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341490/containing-influenza-outbreaks-with-antiviral-use-in-long-term-care-facilities-in-taiwan-2008-2014
#8
Hao-Yuan Cheng, Wan-Chin Chen, Yu-Ru Chou, Angela Song-En Huang, Wan-Ting Huang
BACKGROUNDS: Influenza can spread rapidly in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) and residents are usually at higher risk for influenza infections. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of antiviral interventions on outbreak control. METHODS: Taiwan Centers for Disease Control used a syndromic surveillance system to monitor outbreaks in LTCFs. Local public health authorities verified those outbreaks and logged reports to the Epidemic Investigation Report Files Management System (EIRFMS)...
January 17, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339753/efficient-isolation-on-vero-dogslamtag-cells-and-full-genome-characterization-of-dolphin-morbillivirus-dmv-by-next-generation-sequencing
#9
Simone Peletto, Claudio Caruso, Francesco Cerutti, Paola Modesto, Cristina Biolatti, Alessandra Pautasso, Carla Grattarola, Federica Giorda, Sandro Mazzariol, Walter Mignone, Loretta Masoero, Cristina Casalone, Pier Luigi Acutis
The Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV) genome from the first Mediterranean epidemic (1990-'92) is the only cetacean Morbillivirus that has been completely sequenced. Here, we report the first application of next generation sequencing (NGS) to morbillivirus infection of aquatic mammals. A viral isolate, representative of the 2006-'08 Mediterranean epidemic (DMV_IZSPLV_2008), efficiently grew on Vero.DogSLAMtag cells and was submitted to whole genome characterization by NGS. The final genome length was 15,673 nucleotides, covering 99...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339508/human-ectoparasites-and-the-spread-of-plague-in-europe-during-the-second-pandemic
#10
Katharine R Dean, Fabienne Krauer, Lars Walløe, Ole Christian Lingjærde, Barbara Bramanti, Nils Chr Stenseth, Boris V Schmid
Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can spread through human populations by multiple transmission pathways. Today, most human plague cases are bubonic, caused by spillover of infected fleas from rodent epizootics, or pneumonic, caused by inhalation of infectious droplets. However, little is known about the historical spread of plague in Europe during the Second Pandemic (14-19th centuries), including the Black Death, which led to high mortality and recurrent epidemics for hundreds of years. Several studies have suggested that human ectoparasite vectors, such as human fleas (Pulex irritans) or body lice (Pediculus humanus humanus), caused the rapidly spreading epidemics...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339468/molecular-epidemiology-reveals-the-role-of-war-in-the-spread-of-hiv-in-ukraine
#11
Tetyana I Vasylyeva, Mariia Liulchuk, Samuel R Friedman, Iana Sazonova, Nuno R Faria, Aris Katzourakis, Nataliia Babii, Alla Scherbinska, Julien Thézé, Oliver G Pybus, Pavlo Smyrnov, Jean L Mbisa, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Angelos Hatzakis, Gkikas Magiorkinis
Ukraine has one of the largest HIV epidemics in Europe, historically driven by people who inject drugs (PWID). The epidemic showed signs of stabilization in 2012, but the recent war in eastern Ukraine may be reigniting virus spread. We investigated the movement of HIV-infected people within Ukraine before and during the conflict. We analyzed HIV-1 subtype-A pol nucleotide sequences sampled during 2012-2015 from 427 patients of 24 regional AIDS centers and used phylogeographic analysis to reconstruct virus movement among different locations in Ukraine...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338001/modelling-the-large-scale-yellow-fever-outbreak-in-luanda-angola-and-the-impact-of-vaccination
#12
Shi Zhao, Lewi Stone, Daozhou Gao, Daihai He
BACKGROUND: Yellow fever (YF), transmitted via bites of infected mosquitoes, is a life-threatening viral disease endemic to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. YF has largely been controlled by widespread national vaccination campaigns. Nevertheless, between December 2015 and August 2016, YF resurged in Angola, quickly spread and becoming the largest YF outbreak for the last 30 years. Recently, YF resurged again in Brazil (December 2016). Thus, there is an urgent need to gain better understanding of the transmission pattern of YF...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336306/mers-cov-spillover-at-the-camel-human-interface
#13
Gytis Dudas, Luiz Max Carvalho, Andrew Rambaut, Trevor Bedford
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic virus from camels causing significant mortality and morbidity in humans in the Arabian Peninsula. The epidemiology of the virus remains poorly understood, and while case-based and seroepidemiological studies have been employed extensively throughout the epidemic, viral sequence data have not been utilised to their full potential. Here we use existing MERS-CoV sequence data to explore its phylodynamics in two of its known major hosts, humans and camels...
January 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335577/salmonella-enterica-genomes-from-victims-of-a-major-sixteenth-century-epidemic-in-mexico
#14
Åshild J Vågene, Alexander Herbig, Michael G Campana, Nelly M Robles García, Christina Warinner, Susanna Sabin, Maria A Spyrou, Aida Andrades Valtueña, Daniel Huson, Noreen Tuross, Kirsten I Bos, Johannes Krause
Indigenous populations of the Americas experienced high mortality rates during the early contact period as a result of infectious diseases, many of which were introduced by Europeans. Most of the pathogenic agents that caused these outbreaks remain unknown. Through the introduction of a new metagenomic analysis tool called MALT, applied here to search for traces of ancient pathogen DNA, we were able to identify Salmonella enterica in individuals buried in an early contact era epidemic cemetery at Teposcolula-Yucundaa, Oaxaca in southern Mexico...
January 15, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335021/seroprevalence-of-dengue-among-healthy-adults-in-a-rural-community-in-southern-malaysia-a-pilot-study
#15
Amreeta Dhanoa, Sharifah Syed Hassan, Nowrozy Kamar Jahan, Daniel D Reidpath, Quek Kia Fatt, Mohtar Pungut Ahmad, Cheong Yuet Meng, Lau Wee Ming, Anuar Zaini Zain, Maude Elvira Phipps, Iekhsan Othman, Aman Bin Rabu, Rowther Sirajudeen, Ahmad Abdul Basitz Ahmad Fatan, Faidzal Adlee Ghafar, Hamdan Bin Ahmad, Pascale Allotey
BACKGROUND: The frequency and magnitude of dengue epidemics continue to increase exponentially in Malaysia, with a shift in the age range predominance toward adults and an expansion to rural areas. Despite this, information pertaining to the extent of transmission of dengue virus (DENV) in the rural community is lacking. This community-based pilot study was conducted to establish DENV seroprevalence amongst healthy adults in a rural district in Southern Malaysia, and to identify influencing factors...
January 16, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333950/willingness-to-pay-for-an-ebola-vaccine-during-the-2014-2016-ebola-outbreak-in-west-africa-results-from-a-u-s-national-sample
#16
Julia E Painter, Michael E von Fricken, Suyane Viana de O Mesquita, Ralph J DiClemente
The 2014-2016 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa led to advances in the development of vaccines against Ebola. This study examined factors associated with willingness to pay for an Ebola vaccine among a U.S. national sample during the recent Ebola outbreak. From April 30-May 8, 2015, a national survey was conducted using the GfK Group's KnowlegePanel®. Main outcome measures included willingness to pay at least $1; more than $50; and more than $100 for an Ebola vaccine. Analyses were conducted using weighted multivariable logistic regression...
January 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331332/hiv-infection-and-its-effects-on-the-development-of-autoimmune-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Luis E Vega, Luis R Espinoza
More than 35 years have elapsed since the initial outbreak of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the status of a considerable number of patients has changed from a fatal disorder to a chronic one where comorbidities including sarcoidosis and autoimmune diseases have become relevant and dominant. HIV targets the immune system leading to a state of immunodeficiency in a setting of immune activation in which CD4+ T cell depletion plays a critical role. The onset, natural history and course of HIV-associated autoimmune disease has dramatically changed according to the stage of HIV infection and since the introduction of combined anti-retroviral therapy...
January 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330276/cutaneous-mycobacterium-massiliense-infection-from-tattooing-a-common-yet-under-reported-and-persistent-epidemic-hazard-for-dermatologists
#18
Lymaries Velez, Jennifer Harb, Stephanie Anuszewski, Stanton Wesson
Tattoo popularity continues to rise, with 3 in 10 Americans bearing at least one. Among tattoo complications, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has emerged as a global public health concern. NTM infections associated with tattooing of immunocompetent individuals have occurred as sporadic cases and community outbreaks. Water sources are considered the major pathogenic reservoirs. Tattoo-related inoculation has been linked to contamination of ink, either during the manufacturing process or during dilution of black ink using non-sterile water...
January 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330056/growth-scaling-for-the-early-dynamics-of-hiv-aids-epidemics-in-brazil-and-the-influence-of-socio-demographic-factors
#19
L Dinh, G Chowell, R Rothenberg
The early dynamics of an infectious disease outbreak can be affected by various factors including the transmission mode of the disease and host-specific factors. While recent works have highlighted the presence of sub-exponential growth patterns during the early phase of epidemics, empirical studies examining the contribution of different factors to early epidemic growth dynamics are lacking. Here we aim to characterize and explain the early incidence growth patterns of local HIV/AIDS epidemics in Brazil as a function of socio-demographic factors...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327522/clinical-profile-and-outcome-of-pregnant-patients-with-acute-hev-hepatitis-during-water-borne-epidemic-in-himachal-pradesh-a-hospital-based-study
#20
Asha Ranjan, Surinder Thakur, Jatinder Mokta, Rajesh Bhawani, Varsha Ranjan
Background: Recent outbreak of HEV hepatitis epidemic in Himachal Pradesh in Shimla caused significant morbidity and mortality especially among pregnant patients. Overall mortality is 0.5- 4% in patients developing acute hepatic failure (ALF) and is significantly higher in pregnant patients (20%). Present study conducted to observe clinical profile and outcome in pregnant patients. Methodology: this is a retrospective observational study done on admitted pregnant and post partum patients with acute HEV hepatitis during 3 months periods...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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