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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926015/an-economic-assessment-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-japan
#1
Y Hayama, Y Osada, D Oushiki, T Tsutsui
A large-scale foot and mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in Japan in 2010 caused severe economic losses for livestock and related industries. In this paper, the authors develop a clear and usable framework to estimate the economic impact of this FMD outbreak. An economic analysis is then conducted by combining this framework with an epidemiological model. The framework estimates the direct and indirect costs to livestock and related industries by applying an input-output model, as well as by addressing expenditure on disease control...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925976/shiga-toxin-therapeutics-beyond-neutralization
#2
REVIEW
Gregory Hall, Shinichiro Kurosawa, Deborah J Stearns-Kurosawa
Ribotoxic Shiga toxins are the primary cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in patients infected with Shiga toxin-producing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (STEC), a pathogen class responsible for epidemic outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease around the globe. HUS is a leading cause of pediatric renal failure in otherwise healthy children, resulting in a mortality rate of 10% and a chronic morbidity rate near 25%. There are currently no available therapeutics to prevent or treat HUS in STEC patients despite decades of work elucidating the mechanisms of Shiga toxicity in sensitive cells...
September 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924489/identification-of-an-enterovirus-recombinant-with-a-torovirus-like-gene-insertion-during-a-diarrhea-outbreak-in-fattening-pigs
#3
Nádia Conceição-Neto, Sebastiaan Theuns, Tingting Cui, Mark Zeller, Claude Kwe Yinda, Isaura Christiaens, Elisabeth Heylen, Marc Van Ranst, Sebastien Carpentier, Hans J Nauwynck, Jelle Matthijnssens
Diarrhea outbreaks in pig farms have raised major concerns in Europe and USA, as they can lead to dramatic pig losses. During a suspected outbreak in Belgium of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), we performed viral metagenomics to assess other potential viral pathogens. Although PEDV was detected, its low abundance indicated that other viruses were involved in the outbreak. Interestingly, a porcine bocavirus and several enteroviruses were most abundant in the sample. We also observed the presence of a porcine enterovirus genome with a gene insertion, resembling a C28 peptidase gene found in toroviruses, which was confirmed using re-sequencing, bioinformatics, and proteomics approaches...
July 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923814/new-method-for-real-time-influenza-surveillance-in-primary-care-a-wisconsin-research-and-education-network-wren-supported-study
#4
Jonathan L Temte, Shari Barlow, Amber Schemmel, Emily Temte, David L Hahn, Erik Reisdorf, Peter Shult, John Tamerius
INTRODUCTION: The goal of public health infectious disease surveillance systems is to provide accurate laboratory results in near-real time. When it comes to influenza surveillance, most current systems are encumbered with inherent delays encountered in the real-life chaos of medical practice. To combat this, we implemented and tested near-real-time surveillance using a rapid influenza detection test (RIDT) coupled with immediate, wireless transmission of results to public health entities...
September 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921551/zika-virus-rna-detection-in-asymptomatic-blood-donors-during-an-outbreak-in-the-northeast-region-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil-2016
#5
Svetoslav N Slavov, Marta R Hespanhol, Evandra S Rodrigues, José E Levi, Eugênia M A Ubiali, Dimas T Covas, Simone Kashima
BACKGROUND: In 2015, there was a large Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Brazil. The proportion of asymptomatic infections is very high, and it is possible for transfusion-transmitted ZIKV (TT-ZIKV) infection to occur. The prevalence of asymptomatic ZIKV infection among Brazilian blood donors during this epidemic outbreak is unknown. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma samples obtained between October 2015 and May 2016 from 1393 volunteer blood donors were tested for ZIKV RNA...
September 16, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918539/accelerating-vaccine-development-during-the-2013-2016-west-african-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak
#6
Elizabeth S Higgs, Sheri A Dubey, Beth A G Coller, Jakub K Simon, Laura Bollinger, Robert A Sorenson, Barthalomew Wilson, Martha C Nason, Lisa E Hensley
The Ebola virus disease outbreak that began in Western Africa in December 2013 was unprecedented in both scope and spread, and the global response was slower and less coherent than was optimal given the scale and pace of the epidemic. Past experience with limited localized outbreaks, lack of licensed medical countermeasures, reluctance by first responders to direct scarce resources to clinical research, community resistance to outside interventions, and lack of local infrastructure were among the factors delaying clinical research during the outbreak...
September 17, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915257/outbreaks-of-epidemic-keratoconjunctivitis-caused-by-human-adenovirus-type-8-in-the-tibet-autonomous-region-of-china-in-2016
#7
Zhenqiang Lei, Zhen Zhu, Bai Ma Ci Wang, Hong Mei, Hong Li, Dan Zeng Gong Ga, Guo Jie, Mi Ma Bu Chi, Sheng Zhang, Chaofeng Ma, Wenbo Xu
From April to November 2016, two outbreaks of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) occurred successively at primary and middle schools in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, and a total of 197 clinically diagnosed cases were reported. Real-time PCR analyses confirmed that human adenovirus (HAdV) infection was related to these outbreaks. Further studies involving sequence determination and phylogenetic analysis based on the penton base, hexon, and fiber genes indicated that human adenovirus type 8 (HAdV-8), belonging to species D, was responsible for the outbreaks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914224/rapid-risk-assessment-report-for-schistosomiasis-epidemic-in-jianli-county-caused-by-the-sunk-oriental-star-cruise-ship
#8
Ziling Ni, Xiaodong Tan, Bei Liu, Zhaoyu Ying, Xudong Gao, Fen Yang
BACKGROUND: At 9:28 pm on June 1, 2015, the cruise ship "Oriental Star" sank into Yangtze River in Jianli County, with 422 people killed. When the accident occurred, the Chinese government took immediate action and dispatched more than 9000 rescuers. The risk for outbreak of schistosomiasis was increased because of the shipwreck. Obviously it is critical to carry out risk assessment as soon as possible. METHODS: By means of the Delphi method, the situation was analyzed so that the government could fathom the severity of the accident...
September 15, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913991/seasonal-cycle-and-relationship-of-seasonal-rhino-and-influenza-virus-epidemics-with-episodes-of-asthma-exacerbation-in-different-age-groups
#9
Seung Won Lee, Shinhae Lee, Youn Ho Sheen, Eun Kyo Ha, Sun Hee Choi, Min Suk Yang, Sohyun Hwang, Sung Soon Kim, Jang Hoon Choi, Man Yong Han
PURPOSE: Seasonal variations in asthma exacerbation (AE) are associated with respiratory virus outbreaks and the return of children to school after vacation. This study aims to elucidate the period, phase, and amplitude of seasonal cycles of AE in 5 different age groups with regard to rhino- and influenza virus epidemics in Korea. METHODS: The number of daily emergency department (ED) visits for AE in all age groups of Korea and the nationwide weekly incidence of rhino- and influenza virus, were obtained for 2008-2012...
November 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913794/wheat-improvement-in-india-present-and-future
#10
Sonia Goel, Kalpana Singh, N K Singh
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) contributes substantially to global food and nutritional security. With the growing demands under the constraints of depleting natural resources, environmental fluctuation, and increased risk of epidemic outbreaks, the task of increasing wheat production has become daunting. The factors responsible for first green revolution seem to be exhausting rapidly, and there is an immediate need to develop the technologies which can not only increase the wheat production but also sustain the same at a higher level without adversely affecting the natural resources...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912442/the-association-between-respiratory-tract-infection-incidence-and-localised-meningitis-epidemics-an-analysis-of-high-resolution-surveillance-data-from-burkina-faso
#11
Judith E Mueller, Maxime Woringer, Souleymane Porgho, Yoann Madec, Haoua Tall, Nadège Martiny, Brice W Bicaba
Meningococcal meningitis epidemics in the African meningitis belt consist of localised meningitis epidemics (LME) that reach attack proportions of 1% within a few weeks. A meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine was introduced in meningitis belt countries from 2010 on, but LME due to other serogroups continue to occur. The mechanisms underlying LME are poorly understood, but an association with respiratory pathogens has been hypothesised. We analysed national routine surveillance data in high spatial resolution (health centre level) from 13 districts in Burkina Faso, 2004-2014...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905395/st-louis-encephalitis-virus-possibly-transmitted-through-blood-transfusion-arizona-2015
#12
Heather Venkat, Laura Adams, Rebecca Sunenshine, Elisabeth Krow-Lucal, Craig Levy, Tammy Kafenbaum, Tammy Sylvester, Kirk Smith, John Townsend, Melissa Dosmann, Hany Kamel, Roberto Patron, Matthew Kuehnert, Pallavi Annambhotla, Sridhar V Basavaraju, Ingrid B Rabe
BACKGROUND: St. Louis encephalitis virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that infrequently causes epidemic central nervous system infections. In the United States, blood donors are not screened for St. Louis encephalitis virus infection, and transmission through blood transfusion has not been reported. During September 2015, St. Louis encephalitis virus infection was confirmed in an Arizona kidney transplant recipient. An investigation was initiated to determine the infection source. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The patient was interviewed, and medical records were reviewed...
September 14, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904700/descriptive-epidemiology-of-a-cholera-outbreak-in-kaduna-state-northwest-nigeria-2014
#13
Ibrahim Baffa Sule, Mohammed Yahaya, Abubakar Ahmed Aisha, Ahmed Datti Zainab, Bajoga Ummulkhulthum, Patrick Nguku
INTRODUCTION: Cholera is an acute gastrointestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae, which may lead to severe dehydration and death if not treated. This analysis is aimed at highlighting the magnitude, pattern and trend of cholera outbreak that occurred in Kaduna State in 2014. METHODS: We obtained the 2014 cholera line-list from the Kaduna State Disease Surveillance and Notification officer (DSNO). We described the outbreaks in time, place and person using Epi-info 7 and Health Mapper...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903728/increased-survival-and-proliferation-of-the-epidemic-strain-mycobacterium-abscessus-subsp-massiliense-crm0019-in-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#14
Giovanni Monteiro Ribeiro, Cristianne Kayoko Matsumoto, Fernando Real, Daniela Teixeira, Rafael Silva Duarte, Renato Arruda Mortara, Sylvia Cardoso Leão, Cristiane de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of infections caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria have been reported worldwide generally associated with medical procedures. Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense CRM0019 was obtained during an epidemic of postsurgical infections and was characterized by increased persistence in vivo. To better understand the successful survival strategies of this microorganism, we evaluated its infectivity and proliferation in macrophages (RAW and BMDM) and alveolar epithelial cells (A549)...
September 13, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902274/chikungunya-virus-outbreak-in-sint-maarten-2013-2014
#15
Maria Henry, Lorraine Francis, Virginia Asin, Karen Polson-Edwards, Babatunde Olowokure
This report describes the outbreak of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Sint Maarten, a constituent country of Kingdom of the Netherlands comprising the southern part of the Caribbean island of Saint Martin, from 22 December 2013 (first reported case) through 5 December 2014. The outbreak was first reported by the French overseas collectivity of Saint-Martin in the northern part of the island-the first site in the Americas to report autochthonous transmission of CHIKV. By 5 December 2014, Sint Maarten had reported a total of 658 cases-an overall attack rate of 1...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902273/chikungunya-important-lessons-from-the-jamaican-experience
#16
Jacqueline Duncan, Kelly Ann Gordon-Johnson, Marshall K Tulloch-Reid, Colette Cunningham-Myrie, Kacey Ernst, Nathlee McMorris, Andriene Grant, Marcia Graham, Daisylyn Chin, Karen Webster-Kerr
Objectives: To describe the clinical presentation of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) illness in adults during the 2014 outbreak in Jamaica and to determine the predictive value of the case definition. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using clinical data from suspected cases of CHIKV that were reported to the Ministry of Health in April - December 2014. In addition, charts were reviewed of all individuals over 15 years of age with suspected CHIKV based on a diagnosis of CHIKV or "acute viral illness" that presented to four major health centers in Jamaica during the week prior to and the peak week of the epidemic...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902270/public-health-response-and-lessons-learned-from-the-2014-chikungunya-epidemic-in-grenada
#17
Martin S Forde, Francis Martin, George Mitchell, Satesh Bidaisee
In June 2014, the first cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) were diagnosed on the island of Carriacou, part of the tri-island state of Grenada. In the three months that followed, CHIKV spread rapidly, with conservative estimates of the population infected of at least 60%. Multiple challenges were encountered in the battle to manage the spread and impact of this high-attack rate virus, including 1) limited indigenous laboratory diagnostic capabilities; 2) an under-resourced health care system; 3) a skeptical general public, hesitant to accept facts about the origin and mode of transmission of the new virus; and 4) resistance to the vector control strategies used...
August 21, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898249/projecting-social-contact-matrices-in-152-countries-using-contact-surveys-and-demographic-data
#18
Kiesha Prem, Alex R Cook, Mark Jit
Heterogeneities in contact networks have a major effect in determining whether a pathogen can become epidemic or persist at endemic levels. Epidemic models that determine which interventions can successfully prevent an outbreak need to account for social structure and mixing patterns. Contact patterns vary across age and locations (e.g. home, work, and school), and including them as predictors in transmission dynamic models of pathogens that spread socially will improve the models' realism. Data from population-based contact diaries in eight European countries from the POLYMOD study were projected to 144 other countries using a Bayesian hierarchical model that estimated the proclivity of age-and-location-specific contact patterns for the countries, using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation...
September 12, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894118/persistence-of-zika-virus-in-conjunctival-fluid-of-convalescence-patients
#19
Jeslin J L Tan, Praveen K Balne, Yee-Sin Leo, Louis Tong, Lisa F P Ng, Rupesh Agrawal
A widespread epidemic of Zika fever, caused by Zika virus (ZIKAV) has spread throughout the Pacific islands, the Americas and Southeast Asia. The increased incidences of ocular anomalies observed in ZIKAV-infected infants and adults may be associated with the rapid spread of ZIKAV. The objective of this study was to check if ZIKAV could be detected in human tears after the first week of infection. Twenty-nine patients with PCR confirmed ZIKAV infection during the Singapore August 2016 ZIKAV outbreak were enrolled for the study...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893485/-clinical-characteristics-and-course-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#20
A Mirand, H Peigue-Lafeuille
Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina (HA) are common childhood diseases mostly associated with human enteroviruses (EV). Although usually benign illnesses, neurological complications may be observed during large epidemics when enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is involved, as observed in the Asia Pacific Region and in China since the late 1990s. The occurrence of these complications warrants reinforcing the surveillance of the emergence of EV-A71 infections in France and Europe. Monitoring EV infections associated with HFMD can be considered as an effective tool to detect an upsurge of EV-A71 infections in a timely manner...
September 8, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
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