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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156248/the-symbolic-violence-of-outbreak-a-mixed-methods-quasi-experimental-impact-evaluation-of-social-protection-on-ebola-survivor-wellbeing
#1
Eugene T Richardson, J Daniel Kelly, Osman Sesay, Michael D Drasher, Ishaan K Desai, Raphael Frankfurter, Paul E Farmer, Mohamed Bailor Barrie
Despite over 28,000 reported cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the 2013-16 outbreak in West Africa, we are only beginning to trace the complex biosocial processes that have promoted its spread. Important questions remain, including the effects on survivors of clinical sequelae, loss of family and livelihood, and other psychological and social trauma. Another poorly understood question is what effect social protection and job creation programs have had on survivors' wellbeing. Several clinical and social protection programs have been developed to respond to the needs of EVD survivors; however, little in the way of impact evaluation has taken place...
November 11, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155827/the-asian-house-shrew-suncus-murinus-as-a-reservoir-and-source-of-human-outbreaks-of-plague-in-madagascar
#2
Soanandrasana Rahelinirina, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Sandra Telfer, Cyril Savin, Elisabeth Carniel, Jean-Marc Duplantier
Identifying key reservoirs for zoonoses is crucial for understanding variation in incidence. Plague re-emerged in Mahajanga, Madagascar in the 1990s but there has been no confirmed case since 1999. Here we combine ecological and genetic data, from during and after the epidemics, with experimental infections to examine the role of the shrew Suncus murinus in the plague epidemiological cycle. The predominance of S. murinus captures during the epidemics, their carriage of the flea vector and their infection with Yersinia pestis suggest they played an important role in the maintenance and transmission of plague...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155672/establishment-of-cdc-global-rapid-response-team-to-ensure-global-health-security
#3
Tasha Stehling-Ariza, Adrienne Lefevre, Dinorah Calles, Kpandja Djawe, Richard Garfield, Michael Gerber, Margherita Ghiselli, Coralie Giese, Ashley L Greiner, Adela Hoffman, Leigh Ann Miller, Lisa Moorhouse, Carlos Navarro-Colorado, James Walsh, Dante Bugli, Cyrus Shahpar
The 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa highlighted challenges faced by the global response to a large public health emergency. Consequently, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention established the Global Rapid Response Team (GRRT) to strengthen emergency response capacity to global health threats, thereby ensuring global health security. Dedicated GRRT staff can be rapidly mobilized for extended missions, improving partner coordination and the continuity of response operations. A large, agencywide roster of surge staff enables rapid mobilization of qualified responders with wide-ranging experience and expertise...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155670/lessons-learned-from-emergency-response-vaccination-efforts-for-cholera-typhoid-yellow-fever-and-ebola
#4
Jenny A Walldorf, Kashmira A Date, Nandini Sreenivasan, Jennifer B Harris, Terri B Hyde
Countries must be prepared to respond to public health threats associated with emergencies, such as natural disasters, sociopolitical conflicts, or uncontrolled disease outbreaks. Rapid vaccination of populations vulnerable to epidemic-prone vaccine-preventable diseases is a major component of emergency response. Emergency vaccination planning presents challenges, including how to predict resource needs, expand vaccine availability during global shortages, and address regulatory barriers to deliver new products...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155667/use-of-a-diagonal-approach-to-health-system-strengthening-and-measles-elimination-after-a-large-nationwide-outbreak-in-mongolia
#5
José E Hagan, Ashley Greiner, Ulzii-Orshikh Luvsansharav, Jason Lake, Christopher Lee, Roberta Pastore, Yoshihiro Takashima, Amarzaya Sarankhuu, Sodbayar Demberelsuren, Rachel Smith, Benjamin Park, James L Goodson
Measles is a highly transmissible infectious disease that causes serious illness and death worldwide. Efforts to eliminate measles through achieving high immunization coverage, well-performing surveillance systems, and rapid and effective outbreak response mechanisms while strategically engaging and strengthening health systems have been termed a diagonal approach. In March 2015, a large nationwide measles epidemic occurred in Mongolia, 1 year after verification of measles elimination in this country. A multidisciplinary team conducted an outbreak investigation that included a broad health system assessment, organized around the Global Health Security Agenda framework of Prevent-Detect-Respond, to provide recommendations for evidence-based interventions to interrupt the epidemic and strengthen the overall health system to prevent future outbreaks of measles and other epidemic-prone infectious threats...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155665/cholera-mortality-during-urban-epidemic-dar-es-salaam-tanzania-august-16-2015-january-16-2016-1
#6
Lindsey S McCrickard, Amani Elibariki Massay, Rupa Narra, Janneth Mghamba, Ahmed Abade Mohamed, Rogath Saika Kishimba, Loveness John Urio, Neema Rusibayamila, Grace Magembe, Muhammud Bakari, James J Gibson, Rachel Barwick Eidex, Robert E Quick
In 2015, a cholera epidemic occurred in Tanzania; most cases and deaths occurred in Dar es Salaam early in the outbreak. We evaluated cholera mortality through passive surveillance, burial permits, and interviews conducted with decedents' caretakers. Active case finding identified 101 suspected cholera deaths. Routine surveillance had captured only 48 (48%) of all cholera deaths, and burial permit assessments captured the remainder. We interviewed caregivers of 56 decedents to assess cholera management behaviors...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155660/real-time-surveillance-in-emergencies-using-the-early-warning-alert-and-response-network
#7
Kristina M Cordes, Susan T Cookson, Andrew T Boyd, Colleen Hardy, Mamunur Rahman Malik, Peter Mala, Khalid El Tahir, Marthe Everard, Mohamad Jasiem, Farah Husain
Humanitarian emergencies often result in population displacement and increase the risk for transmission of communicable diseases. To address the increased risk for outbreaks during humanitarian emergencies, the World Health Organization developed the Early Warning Alert and Response Network (EWARN) for early detection of epidemic-prone diseases. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has worked with the World Health Organization, ministries of health, and other partners to support EWARN through the implementation and evaluation of these systems and the development of standardized guidance...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155657/frontline-field-epidemiology-training-programs-as-a-strategy-to-improve-disease-surveillance-and-response
#8
A McKenzie André, Augusto Lopez, Samantha Perkins, Stephanie Lambert, Lesley Chace, Nestor Noudeke, Aissatou Fall, Biagio Pedalino
Since 1980, Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) have trained highly qualified field epidemiologists to work for ministries of health (MOH) around the world. However, the 2013-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, which primarily affected Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, demonstrated a lack of field epidemiologists at the local levels. Trained epidemiologists at these levels could have detected the Ebola outbreak earlier. In 2015, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched FETP-Frontline, a 3-month field training program targeting local MOH staff in 24 countries to augment local public health capacity...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155133/seirs-epidemics-with-disease-fatalities-in-growing-populations
#9
REVIEW
Tom Britton, Désiré Ouédraogo
An SEIRS epidemic with disease fatalities is introduced in a growing population (modelled as a super-critical linear birth and death process). The study of the initial phase of the epidemic is stochastic, while the analysis of the major outbreaks is deterministic. Depending on the values of the parameters, the following scenarios are possible. i) The disease dies out quickly, only infecting few; ii) the epidemic takes off, the number of infected individuals grows exponentially, but the fraction of infected individuals remains negligible; iii) the epidemic takes off, the number of infected grows initially quicker than the population, the disease fatalities diminish the growth rate of the population, but it remains super critical, and the fraction of infected go to an endemic equilibrium; iv) the epidemic takes off, the number of infected individuals grows initially quicker than the population, the diseases fatalities turn the exponential growth of the population to an exponential decay...
November 16, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152578/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-nonstructural-protein-16-is-necessary-for-interferon-resistance-and-viral-pathogenesis
#10
Vineet D Menachery, Lisa E Gralinski, Hugh D Mitchell, Kenneth H Dinnon, Sarah R Leist, Boyd L Yount, Rachel L Graham, Eileen T McAnarney, Kelly G Stratton, Adam S Cockrell, Kari Debbink, Amy C Sims, Katrina M Waters, Ralph S Baric
Coronaviruses (CoVs) encode a mixture of highly conserved and novel genes, as well as genetic elements necessary for infection and pathogenesis, raising the possibility of common targets for attenuation and therapeutic design. In this study, we focused on highly conserved nonstructural protein 16 (NSP16), a viral 2'O-methyltransferase (2'O-MTase) that encodes critical functions in immune modulation and infection. Using reverse genetics, we disrupted a key motif in the conserved KDKE motif of Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) NSP16 (D130A) and evaluated the effect on viral infection and pathogenesis...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149310/counting-indirect-crisis-related-deaths-in-the-context-of-a-low-resilience-health-system-the-case-of-maternal-and-neonatal-health-during-the-ebola-epidemic-in-sierra-leone
#11
Laura Sochas, Andrew Amos Channon, Sara Nam
Although the number of direct Ebola-related deaths from the 2013 to 2016 West African Ebola outbreak has been quantified, the number of indirect deaths, resulting from decreased utilization of routine health services, remains unknown. Such information is a key ingredient of health system resilience, essential for adequate allocation of resources to both 'crisis response activities' and 'core functions'. Taking stock of indirect deaths may also help the concept of health system resilience achieve political traction over the traditional approach of disease-specific surveillance...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149298/vector-borne-diseases-and-climate-change-a-european-perspective
#12
Jan C Semenza, Jonathan E Suk
Climate change has already impacted the transmission of a wide-range of vector-borne diseases in Europe, and it will continue to do so in the coming decades. Climate change has been implicated in the observed shift of ticks to elevated altitudes and latitudes, notably including the Ixodes ricinus tick species which is a vector for Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change is also thought to have been a factor in the expansion of other important disease vectors in Europe: Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito), which transmits diseases such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya, and Phlebotomus sandfly species, which transmits diseases including Leishmaniasis...
November 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148958/human-leptospirosis-vaccines-in-china
#13
Yinghua Xu, Qiang Ye
The present incidence of leptospirosis in China is significantly lower than past rates, although small localized outbreaks continue to occur in epidemic regions. Improvements in sanitation, as well as vaccination of high-risk populations, have played crucial roles in reducing the disease burden. Several types of human leptospirosis vaccines have been developed, including inactivated whole-cell, outer-envelope, and recombinant vaccines. Of these, only a multivalent inactivated leptospirosis vaccine is available in China, which was added to the Chinese Expanded Program on Immunization in 2007...
November 17, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148391/outbreaks-of-neuroinvasive-astrovirus-associated-with-encephalomyelitis-weakness-and-paralysis-among-weaned-pigs-hungary
#14
Ákos Boros, Mihály Albert, Péter Pankovics, Hunor Bíró, Patricia A Pesavento, Tung Gia Phan, Eric Delwart, Gábor Reuter
A large, highly prolific swine farm in Hungary had a 2-year history of neurologic disease among newly weaned (25- to 35-day-old) pigs, with clinical signs of posterior paraplegia and a high mortality rate. Affected pigs that were necropsied had encephalomyelitis and neural necrosis. Porcine astrovirus type 3 was identified by reverse transcription PCR and in situ hybridization in brain and spinal cord samples in 6 animals from this farm. Among tissues tested by quantitative RT-PCR, the highest viral loads were detected in brain stem and spinal cord...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146711/ethics-health-policy-and-zika-from-emergency-to-global-epidemic
#15
Euzebiusz Jamrozik, Michael J Selgelid
Zika virus was recognised in 2016 as an important vector-borne cause of congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome, during a major epidemic in Latin America, centred in Northeastern Brazil. The WHO and Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO), with partner agencies, initiated a coordinated global response including public health intervention and urgent scientific research, as well as ethical analysis as a vital element of policy design. In this paper, we summarise the major ethical issues raised during the Zika epidemic, highlighting the PAHO ethics guidance and the role of ethics in emergency responses, before turning to ethical issues that are yet to be resolved...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145452/behavioral-climatic-and-environmental-risk-factors-for-zika-and-chikungunya-virus-infections-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-2015-16
#16
Trevon L Fuller, Guilherme Calvet, Camila Genaro Estevam, Jussara Rafael Angelo, Gbenga J Abiodun, Umme-Aiman Halai, Bianca De Santis, Patricia Carvalho Sequeira, Eliane Machado Araujo, Simone Alves Sampaio, Marco Cesar Lima de Mendonça, Allison Fabri, Rita Maria Ribeiro, Ryan Harrigan, Thomas B Smith, Claudia Raja Gabaglia, Patrícia Brasil, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Karin Nielsen-Saines
The burden of arboviruses in the Americas is high and may result in long-term sequelae with infants disabled by Zika virus infection (ZIKV) and arthritis caused by infection with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). We aimed to identify environmental drivers of arbovirus epidemics to predict where the next epidemics will occur and prioritize municipalities for vector control and eventual vaccination. We screened sera and urine samples (n = 10,459) from residents of 48 municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro for CHIKV, dengue virus (DENV), and ZIKV by molecular PCR diagnostics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138300/high-zika-virus-seroprevalence-in-salvador-northeastern-brazil-limits-the-potential-for-further-outbreaks
#17
Eduardo Martins Netto, Andres Moreira-Soto, Celia Pedroso, Christoph Höser, Sebastian Funk, Adam J Kucharski, Alexandra Rockstroh, Beate M Kümmerer, Gilmara Souza Sampaio, Estela Luz, Sara Nunes Vaz, Juarez Pereira Dias, Fernanda Anjos Bastos, Renata Cabral, Thomas Kistemann, Sebastian Ulbert, Xavier de Lamballerie, Thomas Jaenisch, Oliver J Brady, Christian Drosten, Manoel Sarno, Carlos Brites, Jan Felix Drexler
During 2015 to 2016, Brazil reported more Zika virus (ZIKV) cases than any other country, yet population exposure remains unknown. Serological studies of ZIKV are hampered by cross-reactive immune responses against heterologous viruses. We conducted serosurveys for ZIKV, dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 633 individuals prospectively sampled during 2015 to 2016, including microcephaly and non-microcephaly pregnancies, HIV-infected patients, tuberculosis patients, and university staff in Salvador in northeastern Brazil using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and plaque reduction neutralization tests...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138130/check-and-report-ebola-care-hotline-the-user-perspective-of-an-innovative-tool-for-postarrival-monitoring-of-ebola-in-the-united-states
#18
Ilana Olin McCarthy, Abbey E Wojno, Heather A Joseph, Scott Teesdale
BACKGROUND: The response to the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic included an unprecedented effort from federal, state, and local public health authorities to monitor the health of travelers entering the United States from countries with Ebola outbreaks. The Check and Report Ebola (CARE) Hotline, a novel approach to monitoring, was designed to enable travelers to report their health status daily to an interactive voice recognition (IVR) system. The system was tested with 70 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) federal employees returning from deployments in outbreak countries...
November 14, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138016/the-challenges-of-detecting-and-responding-to-a-lassa-fever-outbreak-in-an-ebola-affected-setting
#19
E L Hamblion, P Raftery, A Wendland, E Dweh, G S Williams, R N C George, L Soro, V Katawera, P Clement, A N Gasasira, E Musa, T K Nagbe
OBJECTIVES: Lassa fever(LF), a priority emerging pathogen likely to cause major epidemics, is endemic in much of West Africa and difficult to distinguish from other viral haemorrhagic fevers including Ebola virus disease(EVD). Definitive diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation not widely available in affected settings. We report the public health action to contain a LF outbreak and challenges encountered in an EVD-affected setting. METHODS: In February 2016 a rapid response team was deployed in Liberia in response to a cluster of LF cases...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132312/genomic-analysis-of-endemic-clones-of-toxigenic-and-non-toxigenic-corynebacterium-diphtheriae-in-belarus-during-and-after-the-major-epidemic-in-1990s
#20
Steffen Grosse-Kock, Valentina Kolodkina, Edward C Schwalbe, Jochen Blom, Andreas Burkovski, Paul A Hoskisson, Sylvain Brisse, Darren Smith, Iain C Sutcliffe, Leonid Titov, Vartul Sangal
BACKGROUND: Diphtheria remains a major public health concern with multiple recent outbreaks around the world. Moreover, invasive non-toxigenic strains have emerged globally causing severe infections. A diphtheria epidemic in the former Soviet Union in the 1990s resulted in ~5000 deaths. In this study, we analysed the genome sequences of a collection of 93 C. diphtheriae strains collected during and after this outbreak (1996 - 2014) in a former Soviet State, Belarus to understand the evolutionary dynamics and virulence capacities of these strains...
November 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
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