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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642158/genetic-diversity-of-environmental-vibrio-cholerae-o1-strains-isolated-in-northern-vietnam
#1
Taichiro Takemura, Kazunori Murase, Fumito Maruyama, Tran Thi Luong, Atsushi Ota, Ichiro Nakagawa, Nguyen Dong Tu, Ngo Tu Cuong, Nguyen Thi Hang, Asako Tokizawa, Masatomo Morita, Makoto Ohnishi, Nguyen Binh Minh, Tetsu Yamashiro
Cholera epidemics have been recorded periodically in Vietnam during the seventh cholera pandemic. Since cholera is a water-borne disease, systematic monitoring of environmental waters for Vibrio cholerae presence is important for predicting and preventing cholera epidemics. We conducted monitoring, isolation, and genetic characterization of V. cholerae strains in Nam Dinh province of Northern Vietnam from Jul 2013 to Feb 2015. In this study, four V. cholerae O1 strains were detected and isolated from 110 analyzed water samples (3...
June 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641590/measles-elimination-and-immunisation-national-surveillance-trends-in-japan-2008-2015
#2
S Inaida, S Matsuno, F Kobune
Measles elimination relies on vaccination programmes. In Japan, a major outbreak started in 2007. In response, 5-year two-dose catch-up vaccination programme was initiated in April 2008 for children 13-16-years-old. In this study, we analysed the epidemic curves, incidence rates for each age group, virus genotype, vaccination coverage and ratio of measles gelatin particle agglutination (PA) antibody using surveillance data for 2008-2015. Monthly case counts markedly decreased as vaccination coverage increased...
June 23, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640895/the-interplay-of-climate-intervention-and-imported-cases-as-determinants-of-the-2014-dengue-outbreak-in-guangzhou
#3
Qu Cheng, Qinlong Jing, Robert C Spear, John M Marshall, Zhicong Yang, Peng Gong
Dengue is a fast spreading mosquito-borne disease that affects more than half of the population worldwide. An unprecedented outbreak happened in Guangzhou, China in 2014, which contributed 52 percent of all dengue cases that occurred in mainland China between 1990 and 2015. Our previous analysis, based on a deterministic model, concluded that the early timing of the first imported case that triggered local transmission and the excessive rainfall thereafter were the most important determinants of the large final epidemic size in 2014...
June 22, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640889/contrasting-academic-and-lay-press-print-coverage-of-the-2013-2016-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak
#4
Mark D Kieh, Elim M Cho, Ian A Myles
Under a traditional paradigm, only those with the expected background knowledge consume academic literature. The lay press, as well as government and non-government agencies, play a complementary role of extracting findings of high interest or importance and translating them for general viewing. The need for accurate reporting and public advising is paramount when attempting to tackle epidemic outbreaks through behavior change. Yet, public trust in media outlets is at a historic low. The Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) model for media reporting on public health emergencies was established in 2005 and has subsequently been used to analyze media reporting on outbreaks of influenza and measles as well as smoking habits and medication compliance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639699/an-evaluation-of-asymptomatic-dengue-infections-among-blood-donors-during-the-2014-dengue-outbreak-in-guangzhou-china
#5
Qiao Liao, Zhengang Shan, Min Wang, Jieting Huang, Ru Xu, Ke Huang, Xi Tang, Weiyun Zhang, Kenrad Nelson, Chengyao Li, Yongshui Fu, Xia Rong
In 2014, an outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) infection led to 45171clinical cases diagnosed in Guangdong province, southern China. However, the potential risk of blood donors asymptomatically infected with DENV has not been evaluated. In the current study we detected anti-DENV IgG antibody and RNA in volunteer Chinese blood donors. We found that anti-DENV IgG antibody was positively detected in 3.4% (51/1500) and two donors were detected as being DENV RNA positive out of 3000 blood samples. We concluded that the presence of potential DENV in blood donors might be potential risk for blood safety...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638845/detection-of-the-northeastern-african-rift-valley-fever-virus-lineage-during-the-2015-outbreak-in-mauritania
#6
Ndeye Sakha Bob, Hampâté Bâ, Gamou Fall, Elkhalil Ishagh, Mamadou Y Diallo, Abdourahmane Sow, Pape Mbacké Sembene, Ousmane Faye, Brahim El Kouri, Mohamed Lemine Sidi, Amadou Alpha Sall
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an acute viral anthropozoonosis that causes epizootics and epidemics among livestock population and humans. Multiple emergences and reemergences of the virus have occurred in Mauritania over the last decade. This article describes the outbreak that occurred in 2015 in Mauritania and reports the results of serological and molecular investigations of blood samples collected from suspected RVF patients. METHODS: An RVF outbreak was reported from 14 September to 26 November 2015 in Mauritania...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637861/epidemic-and-endemic-pathogen-dynamics-correspond-to-distinct-host-population-microbiomes-at-a-landscape-scale
#7
Andrea J Jani, Roland A Knapp, Cheryl J Briggs
Infectious diseases have serious impacts on human and wildlife populations, but the effects of a disease can vary, even among individuals or populations of the same host species. Identifying the reasons for this variation is key to understanding disease dynamics and mitigating infectious disease impacts, but disentangling cause and correlation during natural outbreaks is extremely challenging. This study aims to understand associations between symbiotic bacterial communities and an infectious disease, and examines multiple host populations before or after pathogen invasion to infer likely causal links...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637755/seasonal-h3n2-and-2009-pandemic-h1n1-influenza-a-viruses-reassort-efficiently-but-produce-attenuated-progeny
#8
Kara L Phipps, Nicolle Marshall, Hui Tao, Shamika Danzy, Nina Onuoha, John Steel, Anice C Lowen
Reassortment of gene segments between co-infecting influenza A viruses (IAV) facilitates viral diversification and has significant epidemiological impact on seasonal and pandemic influenza. Since 1977, human IAVs of H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes have co-circulated with relatively few documented cases of reassortment. We evaluated the potential for viruses of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) and seasonal H3N2 lineages to reassort under experimental conditions. Results of heterologous co-infections with pH1N1 and H3N2 viruses were compared to those obtained following co-infection with homologous, genetically tagged, pH1N1 viruses as a control...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636444/a-highly-infectious-disease-care-network-in-the-us-healthcare-system
#9
Aurora B Le, Paul D Biddinger, Philip W Smith, Jocelyn J Herstein, Deborah A Levy, Shawn G Gibbs, John J Lowe
During the 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, the United States responded by stratifying hospitals into 1 of 3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-designated categories-based on the hospital's ability to identify, isolate, assess, and provide care to patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD)-in an attempt to position the US healthcare system to safely isolate and care for potential patients. Now, with the Ebola epidemic quelled, it is crucial that we act on the lessons learned from the EVD response to broaden our national perspective on infectious disease mitigation and management, build on our newly enhanced healthcare capabilities to respond to infectious disease threats, develop a more cost-effective and sustainable model of infectious disease prevention, and continue to foster training so that the nation is not in a vulnerable position once more...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634747/evaluation-of-vaccination-strategies-for-sir-epidemics-on-random-networks-incorporating-household-structure
#10
Frank Ball, David Sirl
This paper is concerned with the analysis of vaccination strategies in a stochastic susceptible [Formula: see text] infected [Formula: see text] removed model for the spread of an epidemic amongst a population of individuals with a random network of social contacts that is also partitioned into households. Under various vaccine action models, we consider both household-based vaccination schemes, in which the way in which individuals are chosen for vaccination depends on the size of the households in which they reside, and acquaintance vaccination, which targets individuals of high degree in the social network...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634597/molecular-characterization-of-salmonella-from-human-and-animal-origins-in-uganda
#11
Atek Atwiine Kagirita, Andrew Baguma, Tonny Jimmy Owalla, Joel Bazira, Samuel Majalija
Sporadic Salmonella outbreaks with varying clinical presentations have been on the rise in various parts of Uganda. The sources of outbreaks and factors underlying the different clinical manifestation are curtailed by paucity of information on Salmonella genotypes and the associated virulence genes. This study reports molecular diversity of Salmonella enterica and their genetic virulence profiles among human and animal isolates. Characterization was done using Kauffman-White classification scheme and virulence genes analysis using multiplex PCR...
2017: International Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634193/design-improvements-for-personal-protective-equipment-used-in-ebola-and-other-epidemic-outbreaks
#12
Margaret Glancey, Patience Osei, William Alexander Patterson, Matthew Petney, Laura Scavo, Chandrakant Ruparelia, Soumyadipta Acharya, Youseph Yazdi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Global Health, Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632832/-a-hundred-years-since-the-beginning-of-the-great-war-trichinosis-outbreak-in-dresden-marine-in-chile-chronicle-of-an-announced-infection
#13
Italo Fernández, Alejandro Mihovilovich
In commemoration of one hundred years of the beginning of World War I, the occurrence of an outbreak of trichinosis in the crew of the SMS Dresden, a German ship that participated in that world conflagration, is re-viewed. In September 1915, while the sailors of SMS Dresden were forcibly detained on Isla Quiriquina, Bío Bío Region, Chile, 60 individuals became ill. The cause of the outbreak was the consumption of sausages made from pork infected with the parasite Trichinella spiralis. There was a fatal case...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631169/zika-virus-infection-in-vietnam-current-epidemic-strain-origin-spreading-risk-and-perspective
#14
REVIEW
Dinh-Toi Chu, Vo Truong Nhu Ngoc, Yang Tao
Zika virus infection and its associated microcephaly have being receiving global concern. This infection has spread widely since the first outbreak was recorded in Africa in 1952. Now, it has been reported in over 70 countries on five continents including Africa, North and South America, Asia, and Europe. Vietnam is one of the most recent countries which had cases of Zika virus infection at the end of 2016. This country has also reported the first case of a microcephaly-born baby which was probably linked to Zika virus infection...
June 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631053/characterization-of-an-orf-virus-isolate-from-an-outbreak-in-heilongjiang-province-china
#15
Yongzhong Yu, Qiang Tan, Wenbo Zhao, Xue Zhang, Jinzhu Ma, Zhijun Wu, Zhanbo Zhu, Yudong Cui
Contagious ecthyma, caused by orf virus (ORFV), is an epitheliotrophic contagious disease with zoonotic implications that mainly affects sheep, goats, wild ruminants, and humans. Recently, a novel ORFV strain, OV/HLJ/04, was successfully isolated from the skin and mucosal lesions of a goat with severe clinical sore mouth symptoms in Heilongjiang province of China. The OV/HLJ/04 isolate was characterized by electron microscopy, serological tests, and experimental reproduction of disease. The purified virions exhibited a typical ovoid shape when observed by electron microscopy...
June 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630032/what-are-people-tweeting-about-zika-an-exploratory-study-concerning-its-symptoms-treatment-transmission-and-prevention
#16
Michele Miller, Tanvi Banerjee, Roopteja Muppalla, William Romine, Amit Sheth
BACKGROUND: In order to harness what people are tweeting about Zika, there needs to be a computational framework that leverages machine learning techniques to recognize relevant Zika tweets and, further, categorize these into disease-specific categories to address specific societal concerns related to the prevention, transmission, symptoms, and treatment of Zika virus. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the relevancy of the tweets and what people were tweeting about the 4 disease characteristics of Zika: symptoms, transmission, prevention, and treatment...
June 19, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628629/understanding-msos-a-qualitative-study-examining-the-implementation-of-a-text-messaging-outbreak-alert-system-in-rural-kenya
#17
Mitsuru Toda, Ian Njeru, Dejan Zurovac, David Kareko, Shikanga O-Tipo, Matilu Mwau, Kouichi Morita
Outbreaks of epidemic diseases pose serious public health risks. To overcome the hurdles of sub-optimal disease surveillance reporting from the health facilities to relevant authorities, the Ministry of Health in Kenya piloted mSOS (mobile SMS-based disease outbreak alert system) in 2013-2014. In this paper, we report the results of the qualitative study, which examined factors that influence the performances of mSOS implementation. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 disease surveillance coordinators and 32 in-charges of rural health facilities that took part in the mSOS intervention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628619/south-african-ebola-diagnostic-response-in-sierra-leone-a-modular-high-biosafety-field-laboratory
#18
Janusz T Paweska, Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Gunther H Meier, Chantel le Roux, Ousman S Conteh, Alan Kemp, Cardia Fourie, Prabha Naidoo, Serisha Naicker, Phumza Ohaebosim, Nadia Storm, Orienka Hellferscee, Lisa K Ming Sun, Busisiwe Mogodi, Nishi Prabdial-Sing, Desiree du Plessis, Deidre Greyling, Shayne Loubser, Mark Goosen, Stewart D McCulloch, Terence P Scott, Alexandra Moerdyk, Wesley Dlamini, Kelfala Konneh, Idrissa L Kamara, Dauda Sowa, Samuel Sorie, Brima Kargbo, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: In August 2014, the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) in South Africa established a modular high-biosafety field Ebola diagnostic laboratory (SA FEDL) near Freetown, Sierra Leone in response to the rapidly increasing number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The SA FEDL operated in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, which remained a "hotspot" of the EVD epidemic for months. The FEDL was the only diagnostic capacity available to respond to the overwhelming demand for rapid EVD laboratory diagnosis for several weeks in the initial stages of the EVD crisis in the capital of Sierra Leone...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628447/environmental-factors-as-key-determinants-for-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-madrid-spain
#19
Nerea Carrasco-Antón, Francisco López-Medrano, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Eugenia Carrillo, Javier Moreno, Ana García-Reyne, Ana Pérez-Ayala, María Luisa Rodríguez-Ferrero, Carlos Lumbreras, Rafael San-Juan, Jorge Alvar, José María Aguado
During a visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in an area of Madrid, Spain, the incidence of disease among solid organ transplant recipients was 10.3% (7/68). Being a black person from sub-Saharan Africa, undergoing transplantation during the outbreak, and residing <1,000 m from the epidemic focus were risk factors for posttransplant visceral leishmaniasis.
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625842/dynamics-of-scientific-publications-on-the-mers-cov-outbreaks-in-saudi-arabia
#20
REVIEW
Ali Rabaan, Shamsah H Al-Ahmed, Ali M Bazzi, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging disease with a relatively high case fatality rate. Most cases have been reported from Saudi Arabia, and the disease epidemic potential is considered to be limited. However, human-human transmission has occurred, usually in the context of healthcare facility-associated outbreaks. The scientific and medical community depends on timely publication of epidemiological information on emerging diseases during outbreaks to appropriately target public health responses...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
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